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Andrew Cheyne presentation at 2011 Access to Healthy Foods Summit

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Andrew Cheyne, CPhil, discusses new, non-traditional marketing strategies being employed by the food industry. Presented at the 2011 Access to Healthy Foods Summit in Seattle, WA.

Andrew Cheyne, CPhil, discusses new, non-traditional marketing strategies being employed by the food industry. Presented at the 2011 Access to Healthy Foods Summit in Seattle, WA.

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  • title slide | blue background
  • “the eyeballs have moved” – BK to the National Association of AdvertisersFood and beverage advertisters have cut spending everywhere except on digital mediaThe use of licensed character by CFBAI companies has doubled in TV advertising – Kunkel 2009
  • Not just overall usage but a new paradigm: children and adolescents are savvy media users
  • Not just overall usage but a new paradigm: children and adolescents are savvy media users
  • Vast number of devices used on an average daily basis7:38 total media use per day x 29% multitasking = 10:45 daily exposure. Kaiser Family Foundation 2010.
  • Young people from communities of color exemplify the most serious nexus of the food marketing and childhood obesity epidemic: Youth of color epitomize this environment, and its effects: They have the least access to foods [USDA ERS], consume the most media [KFF], are subject to targeted promotions for unhealthful foods, and are at highest risk of overweight and obesity [Ogden & Flegal]Hispanic preschoolers see 290 Spanish-language fast food TV ads each year.African American children and teens see at least 50% more fast food ads than their white peers. African American children see nearly twice as many calories as white children see in fast food TV ads every day. [all Rudd FF Facts]
  • What’s not here?
  • The most successful brand programs didn’t double sales overnight, but they changed your impression, changed your perspective, realigned you with the brand, over a multi-year period
  • Affective transfer process is especially potent for children 12 and under, who lack the mental sophistication to understand the persuasive intent of promotional contentUniversity of Michigan study: children as young as 3 are brand sensitive – so kids are increadibly aware of brand imagery, but don’t understand that these images seek to persuadeThe dominant focus of marketing to children and youth is on foods and beverages sharply out of balance with healthful diets.The Nag Factor: Forty percent of children ages 2-11 ask their parents to go to McDonald’s at least once a week, and 15% of preschoolers ask to go every day. 84% of parents report taking their child ages 2-11 to a fast food restaurant at least once in the past weekEmerging science on adolescents as well
  • It’s not simply that products are inceasingly targeted to children, but also that products themselves have shifted over time as new “normals” emerge. First is a 1950s ad39, 65, 108 grams of sugar. At Burger King, for example, a 42-ounce “King” drink is now the “large” option; the former “large” 32-ounce drink is now a “medium”; the former “medium” 21-ounce drink is now a “small”; and the former “small” 16-ounce drink is now the “value” option.
  • Mobile marketers offer advertisers an array of ways to target consumers based on where they are and what they’re doing at any moment. BrightKite, a startup with offices in California and Finland, promotes these targeting capabilities, among others:LOCATION & PLACE BASED TARGETING “We can target by precise geography—people in Tulsa, people within two miles of a KFC, people at Costco….” REAL-WORLD BEHAVIORAL TARGETING “Want to target people who buy [certain items] more than three times a week? We know who they are.”TIME OF DAY “We know where our members are and the time zone of their location. With this information, you can deliver messages that are time sensitive –the lunch rush, etc.”WEATHER “We know the location of our millions of users, and we also know the precise weather in each location. Example: Diet Coke wanted to target people when the afternoon temperature was over 75 degrees.”
  • The campaign was so successful there were multiple videos made celebrating it. What this doesn’t show is their claim that they “decided to stop talking to moms, and start talking directly with the people who eat Dorito’s: teenagers”
  • The campaign: TV commercials, user-generated videos, website …The site itself hosts:avatars of the 11 Disrespectoids; advergames based on the TV commercials; a series of 10 cartoon “webisodes” which extend the Disrespectoids’ stories; cartoons children can watch and rate; a choose-your-own-ending contest, where players can win $2,000 sports tickets; and a viral “warn a friend” feature that children can use to send links to the site through their social network with new games, cartoons, and characters to entice children to return to the site.
  • Food barely there, healthiest version shown, website used to market entertainment tie-ins, make brand visible, and get you in the store
  • Even though McDonald’s and Burger King show only healthy sides and beverages in child-targeted advertising, the restaurants automatically serve french fries with kids’ meals at least 86% of the time, and soft drinks at least 55% of the time. – Rudd FF FACTSSo while McDonalds and other marketers [BK] may adhere to the letter of the law, they still flout the spirit of the self-regulatory process.
  • When it comes to policy, I agree with David that health education efforts cannot work alone, which is why we emphasize an environmental, upstream approach of changing policies to prevent obesity at the population level.
  • Manager lived in the area and had 4 children of his own, so was sympathetic. Only 2 checkouts, weren’t always staffed.
  • The store owner has godchildren in the school system. Not all unhealthy foods have been eliminated, and some vendors have moved unhealthy foods back to their original display locations.
  • … Because when you think about it, do Snickers & M&Ms really need a push?
  • If you go to phlpnet.org, July 28th: Financing Healthier Corner Stores Community Food Security Coalition and the Healthy Corner Stores Network.
  • Thanks to CCPHA for this cartoon
  • First is a 1950s ad39, 65, 108 grams of sugar.
  • First is a 1950s ad39, 65, 108 grams of sugar.
  • Hotel 626 was to honor 2 flavors “brought back from the dead”The campaign was so successful there were multiple videos made celebrating it. What this doesn’t show is their claim that they “decided to stop talking to moms, and start talking directly with the people who eat Dorito’s: teenagers”
  • Transcript

    • 1. Understanding Marketing &
      Its Relationship to Healthy Food Access
      Access to Healthy Foods Coalition
      Access to Healthy Foods Summit 2011
      Seattle, June 23 2011
      Andrew Cheyne, CPhil
    • 2. The problem
      Why companies market
      How marketing works
      Examples of contemporary marketing practices
      Opportunities to improve access to healthy foods through marketing
    • 3. The Problem:
      Ubiquitous Marketing
      • Food and beverage companies spend almost $2 billion marketing to youth annually -FTC 2008
      • 4. They mostly market unhealthy products:
      • 5. 68.5% of CFBAI-advertised products are USDA “Whoa” foods -Children Now 2009
      • 6. Overall, teens are seeing more food ads
      –Powell & Chaloupka 2011
    • 7. The Problem:
      Children as Media Consumers
      http://www.cleancutmedia.com/tv-shows/tv-medias-influence-on-child-development
    • 8. The Problem:
      Children as Media Consumers
      http://www.topnews.in/exposure-mass-media-affects-children-294987
    • 9. The Problem:
      Children as Media Consumers
      - Kaiser Family Foundation 2010
    • 10. The Problem:
      Unhealthy Environments
      http://usfoodpolicy.blogspot.com/2005/09/posters-for-mcdonalds-and-childhood.html
      http://www.communityhealthpriorities.org/conversation/comments/1520/
    • 11. Why Companies Market
      Ronald.com: McDonald’s Website Targeted to Preschoolers
    • 12. Why Companies Market
      The Pepsi Refresh Project
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xb9Kby9_NBQ
    • 13. Why Companies Market:
      It Works!
      • Food and beverage marketing targeted to children ages 12 and under leads them to request and consume high-calorie, low-nutrient products. Institute of Medicine, 2005
      http://agusia19.blogspot.com/2009/03/pester-power.html
    • 14. How Marketing Works
      The 4 P’s: Product
    • 15. The 4 P’s: Product
      A soda is a soda?
      http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/files/2010/10/soda1.jpg
      http://sugarstacks.com
    • 16. The 4 P’s: Price
      The Battle Over Taxing Soda,David Leonhardt, The New York Times, May 18, 2010
    • 17. The 4 P’s: Price
      http://http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/err100/err100.pdf/socimages/files/2010/10/soda1.jpg
    • 18. The 4 P’s: Place
       Location and place targeting
      Real-world behavioral targeting
      Time of day
      Weather
      - Brightkite.com
      http://au.news.yahoo.com/a/-/newshome/8704716/smartphone-stalking-dangers/4/
    • 19. The 4 P’s: Product -
      Dorito’s Hotel & Asylum 626
    • 20. How Marketing Works:
      Integrated Marketing Communications
      Capris Suns “Respect The Pouch” Campaign
    • 21. Current Marketing Practices
      McWorld.com, targeted to elementary aged children
    • 22. Current Marketing Practices
      http://www.treehugger.com/happy-meal-1-year.jpg
    • 23. What can be done?
      Moving policy “upstream”
    • 24. Improving Access to Healthy Foods:
      Healthy Sells
      Shasta County Wal-Mart Healthy Checkout
      "Kids Make a Stand” Sales were strong from the start and soon the Wal-Mart opened one more healthful checkout stand, along with refrigerated "cold boxes”
      offering 100 percent fruit juices,
      low-fat yogurt and fresh fruits and
      dips such as sliced apples and peanut butter.
       
      http://www.californiaconvergence.org/gallery/story/wal-mart-shasta-county
    • 25. Improving Access to Healthy Foods:
      Healthy Sells
      South Los Angeles Los Compadres
      Corner Store Makeover Project
       
      http://www.marketmakeovers.org/mmtv/before/heac-anecdotes/los-compadres-before-pix
      http://www.marketmakeovers.org/mmtv/after/heac-anecdotes/los-compadres-after-pix
    • 26. Improving Access to Healthy Foods:
      Promote Healthy Foods
       
      General Mills’ Cascadian Farms:
      Using Farmville to Promote Blueberries
    • 27. Improving Access to Healthy Foods:
      Stop Marketing Unhealthy Foods
      Center for Science in the Public Interest Recognizes Mars as having the best self-regulation:
      No Marketing to Kids
      http://www.mars.com/global/global-brands.aspx
      http://cspinet.org/new/pdf/marketingreportcard.pdf
    • 28. Improving Access to Healthy Foods:
      Support Current Policy Efforts
      • The Interagency Working Group has proposed voluntary nutrition and media industry standards on marketing to children
      • 29. Sign the Food Marketing Working Group letter, contact:
      • 30. Bethany Hanna Pokress at bpokress@cspinet.org
      • 31. Deadline is Monday July 11th
      • 32. Submit comments to the IWG:
      https://ftcpublic.commentworks.com/ftc/foodmarketedtochildreniwg
    • 33. More resources available at
      http://www.phlpnet.org/phlp/webinar-archive
      www.bmsg.org/
      www.digitalads.org
    • 34.
    • 35.
    • 36. The 4 P’s: Price
      http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/industry/SodaTaxNEJMApr09.pdf
    • 37. The 4 P’s: Price
      Andreyeva et al, AJPH, 2010
    • 38. How Marketing Works:
      Dorito’s Hotel & Asylum 626
    • 39. Policy Actions: Product
      • Ban products that are health or safety threats outright: e.g., ban on soda in schools.
      • 40. Regulate a product directly, including what, when, where and how products are sold.
      • 41. Impose product standards: e.g., foods sold as a complete “meal” must not exceed predetermined limits for calories, fat, salt, etc.
      • 42. Impose product labeling requirements: e.g., require chain restaurants to provide nutrition info on menus.
    • Policy Actions: Place
      • Map the location of marketing in a community.
      • 43. Ask grocers to designate “Candy-Free Check Out Aisles.”
      • 44. Pass a sidewalk encroachment ordinance.
      • 45. Use CUP process to put moratorium on new fast food outlets.
      • 46. Require candy and/or snack foods to be sold only from behind store counters.
    • Policy Actions: Promotion
      • Ask retailers not to display any in-store promotions that use cartoon characters to promote unhealthy foods.
      • 47. Ban giveaways of toys or other promotional items with unhealthy foods.
      • 48. Pass a local resolution against marketing to kids.
      • 49. Support federal restrictions on food advertising during kids’ TV, use of cartoon characters for unhealthy products. (Sen. Harkin)
    • Policy Actions: Promotion
      • Make certain snack foods and/or sodas more expensive by taxing them.
      • 50. Levy regulatory fees (an additional business license fee) on retailers who sell sweetened beverages, or on restaurants.
      In either case, the money raised can support public health promotion programs.