700MHz spectrum

1,922 views
1,793 views

Published on

An idiots guide to 700MHz spectrum.

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,922
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
111
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

700MHz spectrum

  1. 1. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide Research Report The 700MHz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide September 2012 Morgan Mullooly © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  2. 2. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 2 Contents Slide no. Slide no. 5. Executive summary 21. Use of terrestrial TV is limited in some parts of MEA 6. Executive summary 22. MEA is at an early stage of the DSO, so is in a good position to take 7. Recommendations advantage of advances in DTT technology 8. Recommendations 23. Drivers for and inhibitors to the release of the 700MHz band in ITU Region 1 – Europe 9. Introduction 24. In Europe, more sub-1GHz mobile spectrum is needed, but releasing 10. Satisfying demand for spectrum is becoming increasingly difficult 700MHz is problematic 11. A key challenge for policy makers is to determine the most 25. More spectrum is needed in Europe because of the increasing demand socio-economically advantageous spectrum assignments for mobile data 12. Sub-1GHz spectrum like the 700MHz and 800MHz bands is particularly 26. Some countries in Europe have yet to issue licences for the 800MHz suitable for mobile communications band 13. Changes to international frequency allocations are made at the ITU’s 27. European regulators recognise the international importance of the World Radiocommunication Conferences 700MHz band, but are wary of problems with its release 14. At WRC-07, it was decided to create co-primary allocations between 28. In Europe, it has been suggested that convergence may help mobile and broadcasting at the top of the UHF band broadcasters to vacate the 700MHz band 15. At WRC-12, it was agreed to allocate 700MHz spectrum for mobile use 29. European broadcasting industry groups are opposed to the release of in Region 1, in order to align it with Regions 2 and 3 the 700MHz band 16. Drivers for and inhibitors to the release of the 700MHz band in ITU 30. The challenge of harmonisation Region 1 31. The challenge of harmonisation – The importance of 17. Drivers for and inhibitors to the release of the 700MHz band in ITU harmonisation Region 1 – The Middle East and Africa 32. Adopting harmonised standards enables operators to reap the benefits 18. Many factors drive the need for 700MHz spectrum to be made available of mobile technology effectively, and to offer better services to for mobile use in MEA subscribers 19. Some countries in MEA already use some of the 800MHz band for 33. Spectrum harmonisation is always a challenge cellular services 34. Harmonisation of the 700MHz band will be one of the most important 20. Mobile networks are important for the delivery of broadband services in agenda items under consideration at WRC-15 and is particularly fraught Africa and the Middle East 35. Several organisations will liaise with NRAs and other spectrum bodies in an attempt to achieve regional, and worldwide, harmonisation © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  3. 3. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 3 Contents Slide no. Slide no. 36. The challenge of harmonisation – ITU Region 1 51. South Korea has aligned 2×20MHz in the 700MHz band with the APT 37. Views on the 700MHz band are starting to form in some countries of 700MHz band plan, and further harmonisation may follow Western Europe 52. Japan’s 700MHz band plan is compatible with that of the APT 38. An allocation for aeronautical navigation services in the 700MHz and 53. China is contemplating the use of the TDD band plan, while uncertainty 800MHz bands poses problems in some countries in the east of Region surrounds Malaysia’s plans for the 700MHz band 1 54. Alternative uses for 700MHz spectrum 39. Europe will face many challenges if it aims to harmonise its 700MHz 55. Several other wireless industry stakeholders may influence plans for band plan with those of other regions future use of the 700MHz band 40. The UAE was the first country in Region 1 to publish its intended plan 56. The PMSE industry strongly advocates that the 700MHz band should be for the 700MHz band retained for DTT use 41. Russia is the only Region 1 country to have already awarded spectrum 57. An ITU mandate assigns more spectrum for PPDR in the 700MHz band, which could lead to incompatibilities with other 58. ‘White space’ refers to UHF spectrum not used for DTT at specific plans geographical locations 42. Africa is also discussing alternative plans for the 700MHz band 59. Japan has allocated 10MHz in the 700MHz band for ITS 43. The challenge of harmonisation – ITU Region 2 60. L-DTPS: local digital TV programming service 44. The USA’s 700MHz band plan is unlikely to be adopted widely 61. Beyond the 700MHz band elsewhere 62. Spectrum bands below 700MHz could be assigned for mobile use, but it 45. Only one of the USA’s closest neighbours has adopted its plan for the is highly unlikely 700MHz band 63. Incentive auctions could release some spectrum for mobile in the 46. In the Caribbean, the proposal to implement a non-standard 700MHz 600MHz band in the USA, while the UK is reviewing policy band plan has delayed the roll-out of LTE in some countries 64. About the author and Analysys Mason 47. It is not too late for ECTEL to discard its original 700MHz band plan 65. About the author 48. Elsewhere in ITU Region 2, digital migration has been slow and there is no clear indication which band plan will be adopted 66. About Analysys Mason 49. The challenge of harmonisation: ITU Region 3 67. Research from Analysys Mason 50. The APT’s paired 700MHz band plan has been accepted as 68. Consulting from Analysys Mason standardised by the 3GPP © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  4. 4. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 4 List of figures Figure 1: Wireless data traffic, worldwide, 2011–2017 Figure 21: The APT 700MHz band plan and the position of licences awarded Figure 2: Propagation characteristics of various 3GPP bands in Russia in the 700MHz band Figure 3: Notable assignments of spectrum by the ITU for mobile in Region Figure 22: Proposed 700MHz band plans for MEA and the APT 700MHz 1 band plan Figure 4: Drivers for release of 700MHz spectrum for mobile use in MEA Figure 23: The USA’s 700MHz band plan Figure 5: Digital dividends in Europe and MEA Figure 24: ECTEL’s 700MHz band plan and the US FCC 700MHz band plan Figure 6: Fixed broadband penetration as a percentage of households, Figure 25: Analogue switch-off targets for selected countries in Latin Africa, 2011 America Figure 7: Proportion of households that have a least one TV, Africa, July Figure 26: The APT’s 700MHz band plans 2012 Figure 27: The APT’s FDD 700MHz (3GPP Band 28) and South Korea’s Figure 8: ITU’s recommended timetable for DSO in MEA 700MHz band plans Figure 9: Drivers for release of 700MHz spectrum for mobile use in Europe Figure 28: The APT’s FDD 700MHz (3GPP Band 28) and Japan’s 700MHz band plans Figure 10: Wireless data traffic, Europe, 2011–2017 Figure 29: Summary of non-telecoms stakeholders in discussions about the Figure 11: Status of analogue switch-off in European countries, September 700MHz band 2012 Figure 30: Potential applications of UHF white space Figure 12: Status of the DTT platform in European countries, September 2012 Figure 31: Japan’s 700MHz band plan Figure 13: BBC iPlayer requests by device type, UK, December 2010 and Figure 32: The correlation between device size and spectrum band December 2011 Figure 14: Cost/benefit analysis of harmonisation of a digital dividend sub-band for mobile communication services in the EU Figure 15: The challenges and benefits of harmonisation Figure 16: Truncated list of bands harmonised by the 3GPP for LTE Figure 17: World regions and associated spectrum management organisations Figure 18: ITU RR No. 5.312 aeronautical navigation band for some countries in the east of ITU Region 1 Figure 19: Digital dividend band plans in Asia–Pacific, Europe, and Canada and the USA © Analysys Mason Limited 2012 Figure 20: Proposed 700MHz band plans, the UAE and the UK
  5. 5. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 5 Executive summary Recommendations Introduction Drivers for and inhibitors to the release of the 700MHz band in ITU Region 1 The challenge of harmonisation Alternative uses for 700MHz spectrum Beyond the 700MHz band About the author and Analysys Mason © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  6. 6. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 6 Executive summary  The 700MHz band refers to a range of frequencies between 700MHz and 800MHz. This spectrum was used worldwide for broadcasting TV, but has now been allocated to mobile services in ITU Region 2 (the Americas) and ITU Region 3 (Asia–Pacific). It is one of the most commercially interesting bands being made available to mobile network operators (MNOs). Already, in countries such as Japan and the USA, subscribers are enjoying the additional coverage and capacity made possible by this spectrum.  The impending reallocation of the 700MHz band to mobile services, on a co-primary basis with broadcasting, in ITU Region 1 creates an opportunity for multi-regional harmonisation of the use of the 700MHz band for LTE, for which there is a potentially large addressable market, with associated economies of scale.  The Asia–Pacific Telecommunity’s (APT’s) 700MHz band plan (or 3GPP Band 28) has been well received in ITU Region 3 and has been adopted, or is planned to be adopted, by several countries in Asia–Pacific. Countries in the Middle East and Africa (MEA) that have not aligned with the European 800MHz band plan (which overlaps with the APT 700MHz band plan), may align their 700MHz band plans with the 3GPP Band 28. Similarly, it is likely that countries in the Caribbean and Latin America (CALA) will align with the APT 700MHz plan.  In Europe, where the 700MHz band has not yet been allocated to mobile services, broadcasting industry groups are opposed to any reallocation of the band. However, it has been suggested that the process of removing broadcasters from the 700MHz band will become easier as consumers increasingly view video content on a wider range of devices using a greater variety of services, and the importance of traditional linear TV diminishes.  Several wireless industry stakeholders may influence plans for use of the 700MHz band. These include stakeholders for programme making and special events (PMSE), public protection and disaster relief (PPDR), machine-to-machine (M2M) services and other communications in white space, intelligent transport systems (ITS), and local-digital TV programming services (L-DTPS).  Spectrum bands below 700MHz could be assigned for mobile use, but this is unlikely. It becomes increasingly difficult to use frequencies below 700MHz for mobile services because of the need for larger antennas to account for greater levels of RF noise. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  7. 7. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 7 Executive summary Recommendations Introduction Drivers for and inhibitors to the release of the 700MHz band in ITU Region 1 The challenge of harmonisation Alternative uses for 700MHz spectrum Beyond the 700MHz band About the author and Analysys Mason © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  8. 8. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 8 Recommendations  National regulatory authorities (NRAs) must embrace harmonisation. Good spectrum management involves releasing more spectrum, but of a kind that allows a country or region to benefit from economies of scale, interoperability, international roaming and interference reduction. Regulators will have to work together to ensure that their plans will not conflict with those of their neighbours.  Regulators should consult on their band plan intentions as soon as possible. This will allow the wireless and broadcast industries to plan their spectrum policies accordingly.  Regulators should engage with wireless industry stakeholders on the future of the 700MHz band. The group that is lobbying for the 700MHz band to be allocated to mobile is particularly strong, but other stakeholders have interests in the band. Regulators should engage with all stakeholders before making a decision on allocation of the band.  Digital terrestrial TV (DTT) broadcasters should begin feasibility studies on technology upgrades that allow new services to be accommodated in less spectrum. The broadcasting community must examine technological innovations, such as DVB-T2 and single-frequency networks (SFNs), and be prepared to implement them. Such techniques may increase spectrum efficiency and enable DTT platforms to provide more high-definition (HD) services, which would make DTT services more attractive to consumers.  DTT broadcasters, regulators and policy makers should critically assess the role of public service broadcasting and the terrestrial broadcasting platform. Terrestrial transmission continues to be the primary platform for TV distribution in many countries, but other options are available. Cable, satellite, IPTV and mobile TV platforms could all conceivably support HD digital TV.  Device vendors should consider the implications of adopting particular band plans. In the USA, two non-interoperable classes of device use the lower 700MHz band. This was an unanticipated development, and raises concerns about the development of a vibrant device ecosystem. Regulators, supported by MNOs, must be proactive in assessing this risk or they may create a situation in which it is difficult for operators to obtain mobile broadband devices. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  9. 9. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 9 Executive summary Recommendations Introduction Drivers for and inhibitors to the release of the 700MHz band in ITU Region 1 The challenge of harmonisation Alternative uses for 700MHz spectrum Beyond the 700MHz band About the author and Analysys Mason © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  10. 10. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 10 Satisfying demand for spectrum is becoming increasingly difficult Figure 1: Wireless data traffic, worldwide, 2011–2017 [Source: Analysys  Global demand for mobile data is growing rapidly. Analysys Mason, 2012] Mason forecasts that the volume of mobile data traffic carried over a cellular network will grow at a CAGR of 40.8% 4000 worldwide from 2011 to 2016 (excluding Wi-Fi offload traffic).1 Demand for more mobile data generates demand for 3500 more spectrum with which to deliver greater capacity and drive faster throughput. However, satisfying spectrum demand is becoming increasingly difficult. 3000  In order for more spectrum to be made available for mobile broadband use: 2500 − licensees may be required to use spectrum more efficiently so that some can be released, which may 2000 present a problem, if it causes devices to need modification 1500 − spectrum may be re-allocated from one use to another, which may be time consuming and be resisted by the m B P T h n o e p a c ) ( r t f i 1000 incumbent spectrum user.  The number of stakeholders seeking more radio spectrum 500 makes it increasingly complex either to reassign spectrum (to allow a different communication application to be used in a band) or to refarm it (to allow the use of an alternative 0 transmission or modulation standard in a band). 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 1 See Analysys Mason’s Wireless network traffic worldwide: forecasts and analysis 2012– 2017. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  11. 11. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 11 A key challenge for policy makers is to determine the most socio-economically advantageous spectrum assignments  Spectrum planners are faced with competing demands from users for a multitude of purposes, including: − mobile voice and broadband − public protection and disaster relief − broadcast TV − machine-to-machine (M2M) − programme making and special events − radio astronomy − military and defence − radar and aeronautical.  The role of the spectrum policy makers is to try to accommodate these conflicting demands. One key input in this process is to assess how socio-economically advantageous each of the competing uses is. This is no easy task. For example, assigning more spectrum to MNOs may have the greatest macro-economic impact, but this must be weighed against the more-intangible social value of allocating spectrum to the public sector or to public service broadcasting. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  12. 12. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 12 Sub-1GHz spectrum like the 700MHz and 800MHz bands is particularly suitable for mobile communications Figure 2: Propagation characteristics of various 3GPP bands [Source:  Sub-1GHz spectrum is particularly valuable because it Analysys Mason, 2012] propagates further and penetrates buildings better than higher frequencies. It is, therefore, ideal for deploying wide-area mobile coverage relatively quickly, including for 800MHz in-building use. 5.6km2  Mobile operators also have access to bands above 1GHz, including 1800MHz, 2100MHz, 2300MHz and 2600MHz. 900MHz These are suitable for delivering very high data speeds in 4.8km2 areas where capacity is particularly constrained. 1800MHz 1.7km2 2100MHz 1km2 2600MHz 0.6km2 © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  13. 13. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 13 Changes to international frequency allocations are made at the ITU’s World Radiocommunication Conferences Figure 3: Notable assignments of spectrum by the ITU for mobile in Region 1 [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] WARC-791 WARC-921 WRC-00 WRC-07 WRC-15 900MHz 1800MHz 2600MHz 800MHz 700MHz 2100MHz IMT-2000 IMT-2000 GSM IMT-2000 IMT-2000 IMT-Advanced IMT-Advanced  The aim of the World Radiocommunication Conferences (WRC) is to make decisions regarding allocation of radio-frequency spectrum, which are documented in an international frequency allocation table and in associated WRC resolutions. The challenge is to identify how much spectrum is needed for various wireless services, to identify candidate bands and to examine if and how different services can share these.  At the end of each WRC, an agenda is set for the next conference, providing a roadmap for the development of wireless communications in the next four or five years.  Figure 3 shows some of the main decisions relevant to mobile frequency allocation in ITU Region 1 taken by past WRCs, beginning with the GSM allocation in 1979, which was arguably the catalyst for the global mobile revolution that began in the early 1990s. 1 WARC = World Administrative Radio Conference, renamed as the World Radiocommunication Conference in 1993. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  14. 14. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 14 At WRC-07, it was decided to create co-primary allocations between mobile and broadcasting at the top of the UHF band  WRC-07 decided to allocate the 700MHz and 800MHz bands on a regional level to mobile communications, for use by IMT-2000 and IMT-Advanced systems, as follows: − 790–862MHz (the 800MHz band) in ITU Region 1 (Africa, Europe and the Middle East) − 698–806MHz (the 700MHz band) in ITU Regions 2 and 3.  The discrepancy in bandwidth allocation between the regions was the result of established uses of the UHF band. − The Geneva agreement of 2006 (GE06) for countries in ITU Region 1 planned the transition to digital TV broadcasting in VHF spectrum (174–230MHz) and UHF spectrum (originally 470–862MHz). By WRC-07, implementation of DTT was well underway in many European countries, which intended 790–862MHz to be their ‘digital dividend’. − In other regions, 2G cellular systems already used spectrum in a different part of the 800MHz band (for example, CDMA850) and so additional spectrum was identified in the 698–790MHz band for future use. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  15. 15. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 15 At WRC-12, it was agreed to allocate 700MHz spectrum for mobile use in Region 1, in order to align it with Regions 2 and 3  WRC-12 agreed a provisional resolution to co-allocate spectrum between mobile and broadcasting in the 694–790MHz band (the 700MHz band) in ITU Region 1, to be ratified at WRC-15. This resolution was unusual because the allocation of this band was not on the agenda and came about as a result of lobbying by delegates from MEA, who stressed the importance of the 700MHz band for deployment of wireless broadband services in their regions; it is expected that this extra spectrum can help to bridge the gap between emerging and developed markets in terms of wireless broadband availability.  WRC-15 will specify the technical and regulatory conditions, channelling and other arrangements, including regional and global harmonisation, for the 700MHz band, as mandated by the following Agenda Items set at WRC-12. − Agenda Item 1.1: ‘To consider additional spectrum allocations to the mobile service on a primary basis and identification of additional frequency bands for International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT) and related regulatory provisions, to facilitate the development of terrestrial mobile broadband applications …’ This means that the ITU will consider reallocation of a number of bands to mobile at WRC-15. − Agenda Item 1.2: “To examine the results of ITU-R studies… on the use of the frequency band 694–790 MHz by the mobile, except aeronautical mobile, service in Region 1 and take the appropriate measures …”.  In preparation for WRC-15, studies began in July 2012 on the use by mobile of the spectrum in the 698–862MHz range (spanning established 700MHz and 800MHz bands) by the ITU-R in a Joint Task Group (JTG 4-5-6-7). The group’s remit is to draft ITU-R recommendations and reports about the technical viability of allocating the 700MHz band to mobile and broadcast on a co-primary basis.  Spectrum in the 700MHz band could be made available by regulators in the MEA before 2015, but it is not expected to be available in Europe until around 2022–2023 because of the complexity of moving DTT from this band. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  16. 16. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 16 Executive summary Recommendations Introduction Drivers for and inhibitors to the release of the 700MHz band in ITU Region 1 The challenge of harmonisation Alternative uses for 700MHz spectrum Beyond the 700MHz band About the author and Analysys Mason © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  17. 17. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 17 Drivers for and inhibitors to the release of the 700MHz band in ITU Region 1 The Middle East and Africa Europe © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  18. 18. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 18 Many factors drive the need for 700MHz spectrum to be made available for mobile use in MEA Figure 4: Drivers for release of 700MHz spectrum for mobile use in MEA [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] 1. Insufficient sub-1GHz spectrum 1. Insufficient sub-1GHz spectrum Several countries in MEA use 850MHz for cellular services and so cannot make the Several countries in MEA use 850MHz for cellular services and so cannot make the 800MHz band available as it is configured in Europe. 800MHz band available as it is configured in Europe. 2. Development policy perspective 2. Development policy perspective There is a recognisable need Mobile broadband is of great importance to developments in both regions. Mobile broadband is of great importance to developments in both regions. to release sub-1GHz spectrum in MEA 3. Limited use of terrestrial TV 3. Limited use of terrestrial TV Terrestrial broadcasting is of relatively little importance, compared with other TV platforms, Terrestrial broadcasting is of relatively little importance, compared with other TV platforms, in several countries in the region, while in others it is used, but provides in several countries in the region, while in others it is used, but provides only a few channels. only a few channels. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  19. 19. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 19 Some countries in MEA already use some of the 800MHz band for cellular services Figure 5: Digital dividends in Europe and MEA [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] 790MHz 862MHz 800MHz band digital dividend TV broadcasting band 2×30MHz Downlink 30MHz Uplink 30MHz Digital TV broadcasting band dividend CDMA850 16MHz 790MHz 806MHz  A chief reason for interest in 700MHz spectrum is that many countries in MEA are unable to make the 800MHz band available because they use the 850MHz band for CDMA/LTE850.  Many regulators in MEA have licensed spectrum above 806MHz and operators have deployed CDMA networks in the 806– 890MHz band, which they are likely to refarm in order to use LTE.  Furthermore, in countries in the region that are using the 800MHz spectrum for broadcasting, the digital switchover (DSO) has not happened because of political and regulatory inertia, as well as the lack of a large terrestrial TV market to pay for the switchover. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  20. 20. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 20 Mobile networks are important for the delivery of broadband services in Africa and the Middle East Figure 6: Fixed broadband penetration as a percentage of households,  Mobile services are extremely important for the Africa, 2011 [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] socio-economic development of Africa because the penetration of fixed broadband is very low.  Vast land masses, sparsely distributed populations, difficult terrain, low consumer purchasing power, political issues and various other factors have hindered the development of a fixed infrastructure in Africa.  In the Middle East, demand for mobile data services is growing and more spectrum is needed to accommodate this demand.  In other parts of the world, a wireless broadband ecosystem, comprising content, applications, service models and device categories, has begun to develop in the 700MHz band, and this could be exploited in MEA. 15–50% 10–15%  A vibrant wireless broadband industry can in itself be a huge 5–10% driver for economic growth and job creation. 0–5% No data © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  21. 21. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 21 Use of terrestrial TV is limited in some parts of MEA  In Africa, terrestrial TV broadcasting does not have the same Figure 7: Proportion of households that have a least one TV, Africa, July level of take-up, or number of channels, as it does in Europe. 2012 [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012]  In several countries in the Middle East, fibre networks are well established, providing digital TV, as well as broadband services.  A large proportion of countries in MEA have fewer than three free-to-air analogue terrestrial TV channels.  Countries in MEA started planning DSO much later than those in Europe and consequently are well positioned to use newer technologies, such as DVB-T2, which offer better spectral efficiency.  In Europe, in contrast, most countries planned DSO some years ago and hence use DVB-T with multi-frequency networks (MFNs). Substantial planning would be needed to migrate to the more-recent technology option of DVB-T2 with single-frequency networks (SFNs). © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  22. 22. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 22 MEA is at an early stage of the DSO, so is in a good position to take advantage of advances in DTT technology Figure 8: ITU’s recommended timetable for DSO in MEA [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] Start of informal frequency Start of informal frequency Finalisation of national DSO Finalisation of national DSO Target start of the analogue switch-off Target start of the analogue switch-off co-ordination activities co-ordination activities and digital dividend allocation plans and digital dividend allocation plans in the region in the region Adoption of a common Adoption of a common Initial digital terrestrial transmission Initial digital terrestrial transmission Target completion of analogue switch-off Target completion of analogue switch-off digital TV standard digital TV standard target for the region target for the region in the region in the region 3Q 2012 4Q 2012 1Q 2013 2Q 2013 3Q 2013 3Q 2014 3Q 2015  The African Telecommunications Union (ATU) has developed a roadmap for digital migration, covering frequency co-ordination, adoption of standards and transition timelines, which complies with the ITU’s 2015 deadline for analogue switch-off (ASO). Only nine of 54 countries have launched DTT (Algeria, Gabon, Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, Tunisia and Uganda).  Many countries in MEA are only now starting to plan a DSO, and this late planning may be turned to their advantage. African countries are now well placed to take advantage of advances in the DTT standards by using DVB-T2, which achieves better capacity (and use of SFNs) than its predecessor, DVB-T, which is widely used in Europe. Alternatively, countries with poor terrestrial transmission infrastructure could consider adopting satellite as their free-to-air solution. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  23. 23. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 23 Drivers for and inhibitors to the release of the 700MHz band in ITU Region 1 The Middle East and Africa Europe © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  24. 24. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 24 In Europe, more sub-1GHz mobile spectrum is needed, but releasing 700MHz is problematic Figure 9: Drivers for release of 700MHz spectrum for mobile use in Europe [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] In Europe, the recognised need for more sub-1GHz spectrum is coupled with the complexity of implementation © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  25. 25. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 25 More spectrum is needed in Europe because of the increasing demand for mobile data  In Europe, MNOs have made strong calls for more spectrum Figure 10: Wireless data traffic, Europe, 2011–2017 [Source: Analysys in response to the demand for mobile data. Mason, 2012]  Estimates suggest that wireless data traffic will continue to 700 grow steadily in the region during the next five years, although usage is beginning to level off in some countries. 1 600  Despite the increasing use by operators of Wi-Fi to offload traffic, more licensed spectrum is expected to be required.  The release of the 700MHz band for Europe is recognised in 500 the objectives of the European Union’s (EU’s) Radio Spectrum Policy Programme (RSPP), which was adopted by the European Parliament in February 2012 and which draws 400 very heavily on the EU’s Digital Agenda targets.  A target has been set to identify 1200MHz of spectrum that 300 can be allocated for mobile communication. Around 800MHz is currently available, leaving around 400MHz of additional m B P T h n o e p a c ) ( r 200 t f i spectrum to be found; the release of over 60MHz in the 700MHz band would go some way to achieving this target.  Sub-1GHz spectrum is excellent in terms of mobile 100 coverage, but European MNOs face capacity challenges and for them, use of supra-1GHz spectrum may be a more appropriate solution. 0 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 1 See Analysys Mason’s Wireless network traffic worldwide: forecasts and analysis 2012– 2017. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  26. 26. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 26 Some countries in Europe have yet to issue licences for the 800MHz band  European regulators recognise the importance and potential Figure 11: Status of analogue switch-off in European countries, September of the 700MHz band, in terms of the global economies of 2012 [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] scale that may be realised by its use, but are wary of the difficulties that will be encountered in freeing it up.  Furthermore, discussions about release of more sub-1GHz spectrum in the 700MHz band in Europe may seem premature, given the fact that some countries have yet to issue licences for use of the 800MHz band.  The ITU’s recommended deadline for ASO in the UHF band is 17 June 2015 for all ITU regions. In Europe, a target date of January 2013 has been set for ASO.  Implementation dates for ASO vary widely across Europe. In some countries, DTT has been in use for almost 15 years (the UK was the first country to launch DVB-T, in 1997).  However, some countries are in a period of simulcast of analogue and digital, which has been extended for much longer than was initially expected. As a result, the 800MHz band has not yet been vacated sufficiently to allow the spectrum to be awarded to mobile operators in some countries. ASO achieved ASO not yet achieved © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  27. 27. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 27 European regulators recognise the international importance of the 700MHz band, but are wary of problems with its release Figure 12: Status of the DTT platform in European countries,  Countries using DVB-T and MFNs need to consider how September 2012 [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] networks might be migrated to DVB-T2 and SFNs, which offer significant spectrum efficiency benefits, as well as capacity for DTT platforms to deliver all-HD content. However, replanning the 700MHz band poses several challenges, including the following. − DTT is still used as public service broadcasting platform in many parts of Europe, even though cable, satellite and online and IP-based platforms also distribute commercial broadcasting content to many homes. In France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and the UK, where DTT is the primary TV distribution platform, freeing up more broadcasting spectrum poses particular challenges. − Long-term licences have been awarded to broadcasters operating in the 470–790MHz band and specific obligations are in place, such as those of household coverage for public service broadcasting (for example, coverage of more than 98.5% of the population in the UK). − Complex frequency co-ordination is needed in the planning of radio spectrum to avoid cross-border interference. Multi-country co-ordination arrangements are in place to avoid interference in border areas in Europe, DTT is main distribution platform where spectrum availability for DTT is particularly DTT is second distribution platform DTT is third or fourth distribution platform constrained. Any changes to band plans must be carefully co-ordinated with neighbouring countries. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  28. 28. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 28 In Europe, it has been suggested that convergence may help broadcasters to vacate the 700MHz band  Policy makers must take a long-term view of the direction of Figure 13: BBC iPlayer requests by device type, UK, December 2010 and the broadcasting industry, and of how people will access TV December 2011 [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] content in the future. Some industry observers suggest that the 700MHz band may not be awarded in Europe until as 200 late as 2023. Policy makers need to consider if broadcast will 180 still be an important medium at that time. 160  Despite its importance in many countries in Europe, DTT already appears antiquated to some TV viewers – 140 particularly younger ones. Consumers now use a variety of 120 devices to consume TV content in a non-linear manner. For example, users in the UK are employing an increasingly wide 100 variety of devices to access the BBC’s iPlayer TV catch-up 80 service (see Figure 13). m 60 R n o u q e s ) ( t l i  The European Commission believes that convergence can play a role in re-distributing UHF spectrum in Europe, 40 cognisant of increased use of smartphones and tablet PCs 20 for video streaming. Alternative means of distribution of TV content include: 0 Dec-10 Dec-11 − moving to better compression (DVB-T2/T3) − satellite Computers Virgin Media cable VoD − cable Games consoles Mobile devices − IPTV Tablets IPTV devices − mobile TV. Other devices © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  29. 29. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 29 European broadcasting industry groups are opposed to the release of the 700MHz band  All of the major European broadcasting industry groups are opposed to the release of the 700MHz band, which could make it difficult to gain practical co-operation from broadcasters in reallocation of the band.  The European Broadcast Union has stated, “The frequency band 470–790MHz should be retained for the delivery of broadcasting services (both linear and non linear)… This would provide certainty to broadcasters and the industry alike, and encourage further standardisation work and investments”. 1  The Digital Terrestrial Television Action Group (DigiTAG) has stated, “Any further reduction in spectrum availability must mean less programme services or reduced quality… It becomes even more necessary for terrestrial broadcasters to highlight the importance of the DTT platform as the mass-audience, frequency-efficient, distribution medium”. 2  Broadcast Networks Europe has stated, “These [DTT] services, which consumers have come to depend on, are delivered using the UHF radio spectrum, including the 700MHz band. This band is crucial not only to the sustained delivery of audio-visual content to European consumers but also to any future platform developments e.g. 3D TV”. 3  The Association of Commercial Television in Europe has stated, “With regards to the 700 MHz band, commercial broadcasters warn that it is far too early to consider further spectrum reallocation as several European Member States have yet to put in place the necessary measures for the 800MHz band and use the spectrum which is already available to its full capacity”. 4 1 EBU Technical Committee (Geneva, Switzerland, 2012), Spectrum Requirements for Broadcasting Services in preparation for WRC-15. Available at http://tech.ebu.ch/docs/r/r136.pdf. 2 DigiTAG (Geneva, Switzerland, 2012), WRC-12: allocating terrestrial frequencies to mobile services. Available at http://www.digitag.org/WebLetters/2012/External-Feb2012.html. 3 Broadcast Networks Europe (Brussels, Belgium, 2012), Setting the record straight on the WRC-12 and Terrestrial Broadcasting in the context of the European Radio Spectrum Policy Program. Available at http://www.broadcast-networks.eu/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/2012-03-12-BNE-Policy-Paper-on-WRC12-and-the-RSPP-F.pdf. 4 Association of Commercial Television in Europe (Brussels, Belgium, 2012), Digital & New Media. Available at http://www.acte.be/EPUB/easnet.dll/execreq/page? eas:dat_im=025B45&eas:template_im=025AE9. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  30. 30. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 30 Executive summary Recommendations Introduction Drivers for and inhibitors to the release of the 700MHz band in ITU Region 1 The challenge of harmonisation Alternative uses for 700MHz spectrum Beyond the 700MHz band About the author and Analysys Mason © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  31. 31. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 31 The challenge of harmonisation The importance of harmonisation ITU Region 1 ITU Region 2 ITU Region 3 © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  32. 32. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 32 Adopting harmonised standards enables operators to reap the benefits of mobile technology effectively, and to offer better services to subscribers  The success of mobile communications has relied to a large Figure 14: Cost/benefit analysis of harmonisation of a digital dividend extent on harmonisation of spectrum band plans – the sub-band for mobile communication services in the EU [Source: Analysys Mason for the European Commission, 2012] arrangement of spectrum bands into harmonised paired or unpaired channels. Implementation of non-harmonised, or 60 non-standard, band plans can create issues: − difficulties in regional roaming: non-harmonisation can 46 negatively affect how attractive a country is to multi- national companies and tourists EUR billion 40 − border co-ordination issues: some spectrum may become unusable in border areas − lack of vendor support and interoperability: 20 non-harmonisation can lead to increased costs of network equipment (including spare parts and maintenance expertise) and cause issues with the availability of compatible handsets. 0  Studies by Analysys Mason and others have shown the available in new Wireless broadband member states DTT frequency of the sub-band replanning More certainty for manufacturers Benefits – costs scale economies of No sterilisation Improved value of harmonisation (and the cost of fragmentation). For example, Figure 14 shows that the benefits of harmonising the 800MHz digital dividend band across the European Union far outweigh the costs that would be incurred for the necessary replanning of DTT frequencies. In total, we estimated that the endeavour was worth about EUR46 billion to the European economy. Benefits Costs Total © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  33. 33. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 33 Spectrum harmonisation is always a challenge Figure 15: The challenges and benefits of harmonisation [Source: Analysys  Ensuring spectrum harmonisation and co-ordination of Mason, 2012] frequency use between countries and regions is one of the key objectives of spectrum policy makers. Only the largest self-supporting economies, such as China, Japan and the USA, can act alone on spectrum policy. For most other countries, spectrum harmonisation, although difficult, is necessary.  It is not sufficient simply to release more spectrum, since it must be the right kind for a given service or technology, must Economies of allow a wide supply of network equipment and devices and Slow scale must allow a country or region to maximise the socio- economic benefits of spectrum use, such as: economies of scale, interoperability, international roaming and interference Insensitive to Interoperability reduction. planning  The biggest challenges of harmonisation are that it can be a peculiarities of slow process and that it is insensitive to the specific needs of individual different countries. countries Roaming  However, these challenges must be confronted, as the greatest negative consequences of non-harmonisation affect consumers that are most sensitive to price. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  34. 34. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 34 Harmonisation of the 700MHz band will be one of the most important agenda items under consideration at WRC-15 and is particularly fraught  There is an opportunity for multi-regional harmonisation of Figure 16: Truncated list of bands harmonised by the 3GPP for LTE [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] use of the 700MHz band for LTE, for which potentially there is a large addressable market, with associated economies of Band Uplink Downlink Duplex mode scale. With current radio-frequency technology, the number 1 1920–1980MHz 2110–2170MHz FDD of bands that any device can accommodate is limited and there are already more than 30 LTE bands designated by the 2 1850–1910MHz 1930–1990MHz FDD 3GPP. This creates an environment in which research and 3 1710–1785MHz 1805–1880MHz FDD development effort becomes focused on certain bands. Bands that are harmonised across many countries and 4 1710–1755MHz 2110–2155MHz FDD regions will get strong vendor support and benefit the most 5 824–849MHz 869–894MHz FDD from economies of scale. 6 830–840MHz 875–885MHz FDD  The sub-regions of ITU Region 1 (that is, Europe, and the Middle East and Africa) could devise 700MHz band plans 7 2500–2570MHz 2620–2690MHz FDD that are incompatible with those used elsewhere in the world, 8 880–915MHz 925–960MHz FDD which would create a niche environment in which countries that employ it become isolated, lose vendor support and are 9 1749.9–1784.9MHz 1844.9–1879.9MHz FDD cut off from mainstream investment. The following 10 1710–1770MHz 2110–2170MHz FDD organisations will put forward proposals before WRC-15 for different band plans in Region 1: the ATU, the Arab 11 1427.9–1452.9MHz 1475.9–1500.9Mhz FDD Spectrum Management Group (ASMG) and the European 13 777–787MHz 746–756MHz FDD Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT). … … … …  Alternative and incompatible band plans are already in place 43 3600–3800MHz 3600–3800MHz TDD in ITU Region 2 (Canada and the USA) and ITU Region 3 (Asia–Pacific). © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  35. 35. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 35 Several organisations will liaise with NRAs and other spectrum bodies in an attempt to achieve regional, and worldwide, harmonisation Figure 17: World regions and associated spectrum management organisations [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] CEPT ASMG APT CITEL ATU Key ITU Region 1 ITU Region 2 ITU Region 3 © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  36. 36. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 36 The challenge of harmonisation The importance of harmonisation ITU Region 1 ITU Region 2 ITU Region 3 © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  37. 37. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 37 Views on the 700MHz band are starting to form in some countries of Western Europe  In 2011, Finland reached a much-sought-after agreement with the Russian authorities to use spectrum in the 800MHz band, a band that had previously been used by Russian military aviation. The Finnish authorities strongly believe in the value of freeing up spectrum for mobile use. The country is keen to clear DTT from the 700MHz spectrum.  In France, the operator SFR has been one of the European operators active in the push for the reallocation of the 700MHz band. The Chief Frequency Officer of SFR has recently stated that he would like to see the whole DTT band cleared.  In the UK, the regulator, Ofcom, has issued a consultation on future use of the 700MHz band. The consultation proposes that the 700MHz band be released for mobile use in the UK from around 2018, subject to the necessary replanning of DTT services. It is also proposed that spectrum in the 600MHz range – originally part of the UK’s ‘digital dividend’ created from the switch-off of analogue TV services – might be made available for DTT use, rather than being auctioned. This would provide replacement spectrum for DTT, if the 700MHz band is used for mobile services. However, this would require significant replanning of DTT frequencies, not just in the UK, but across Europe. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  38. 38. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 38 An allocation for aeronautical navigation services in the 700MHz and 800MHz bands poses problems in some countries in the east of Region 1 Figure 18: ITU RR No. 5.312 aeronautical navigation band for some countries in the east of ITU Region 1 [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] UHF DTT band 700MHz band 800MHz band 228MHz 92MHz 72MHz 470MHz 698 790 862MHz UHF DTT band ITU RR No. 5.312 aeronautical radio navigation band 175MHz 217MHz 470MHz 645 862 MHz  ITU Radio Regulation No. 5.312 designates an additional allocation for aeronautical radio navigation service on a primary basis in 645–862MHz in the following countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, the Russian Federation, Slovakia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. However, this allocation is protected only until June 2015.  Furthermore, the European Common Frequency Allocation Table (ECA), contained in the ERC Report 25, allocates the frequency band 862–960MHz to primary mobile service with a secondary allocation to aeronautical radio navigation in the sub-band 890–942MHz (although this band has been used for GSM/UMTS in the majority of European countries for some time now).  The CEPT has urged CEPT Administrations to take all practical steps to clear the band 645–960MHz of assignments for aeronautical radio navigation services and this is beginning to happen. Russia has already awarded licences in the 800MHz band (July 2012), and the following countries have announced plans to auction 800MHz licences: Romania (the fourth quarter of 2012), Slovakia (2012), and Poland (2015). © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  39. 39. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 39 Europe will face many challenges if it aims to harmonise its 700MHz band plan with those of other regions Figure 19: Digital dividend band plans in Asia–Pacific, Europe, and Canada and the USA [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] 698MHz 790MHz 806MHz 862MHz 800MHz band Europe (Region 1) Downlink Uplink 791 821 832 862 Possible ‘lost spectrum’ caused by overlap 700MHz band Uplink Downlink Asia–Pacific (Region 3) 703 748 758 803 Uplink Downlink Downlink Uplink USA and Canada (Region 2) 698 716 746 758 776 788 © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  40. 40. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 40 The UAE was the first country in Region 1 to publish its intended plan for the 700MHz band Figure 20: Proposed 700MHz band plans, the UAE and the UK [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] LTE FDD uplink Gap LTE FDD downlink 30MHz 25MHz 30MHz 694MHz 703 733 758 788 790MHz DTT LTE800 2×30MHz  Regulatory authorities in ITU Region 1 are beginning to consider how to resolve the issue of the overlap between the APT 700MHz band plan and the European 800MHz plan.  The regulator in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA), is the first in Region 1 to put forward its intended 700MHz band plan. The TRA announced in a consultation document published in May 2012 that it intends to use both the 700MHz and 800MHz bands for mobile in the UAE. It intends to use the 2×30MHz frequency plan shown in Figure 20, which it developed unilaterally, and which is a modified version of the APT’s band plan.  The band plan’s close alignment with that of the APT is an important benefit for equipment manufacturers; in particular, the duplex gap, though slightly larger in the UAE’s plan, overlaps with that in the APT plan, and maintains the same 55MHz duplex spacing.  The TRA is working with broadcasters to clear the 700MHz band and make it available for mobile by WRC-15 or before. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  41. 41. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 41 Russia is the only Region 1 country to have already awarded spectrum in the 700MHz band, which could lead to incompatibilities with other plans Figure 21: The APT 700MHz band plan and the position of licences awarded in Russia in the 700MHz band [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] 10MHz FDD uplink duplex FDD downlink 45MHz 45MHz gap 698MHz 703 748 758 803 806 FDD uplink FDD downlink 30MHz 30MHz 720MHz 750 761 791  On 8 September 2011, Russia’s General Radio Frequency Centre (GRFC) published a consultation document that indicated which spectrum would be used for LTE services and the timeline for a spectrum auction. The auction conditions included provisions that the winners of licences in the790–862MHz (800MHz) band should also be awarded spectrum in the 2500–2690MHz band and the 720–750MHz or 761–791MHz (700MHz) band, in accordance with the relative size of the lots awarded to each operator in the 800MHz band.  The GRFC had earmarked this spectrum for wireless communication about six months before the band was suggested for mobile use in Region 1 at WRC-12. The significance of this is that the band is not harmonised with the ITU Region 3 700MHz band plan – the uplink allotments overlap and the duplex gap is 1MHz larger in the Russian scheme.  As a result, Russian operators may not be able to take immediate advantage of the economies of scale afforded by harmonisation of that particular band. Furthermore, CEPT may recommend a band plan for Europe that does not align with the spectrum lots allocated in Russia. The band plan in the Middle East and Africa will most likely align with the band plans pursued in Europe or Asia, so Russian operators will have difficulty sourcing devices for the band. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  42. 42. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 42 Africa is also discussing alternative plans for the 700MHz band Figure 22: Proposed 700MHz band plans for MEA and the APT 700MHz band plan [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] DTT LTE800 FDD downlink 30MHz 791MHz LTE FDD uplink Gap LTE FDD downlink 30MHz 25MHz 30MHz 694MHz 703 733 758 788 790MHz PPDR PPDR LTE FDD uplink Gap LTE FDD downlink uplink? 30MHz 15MHz downlink? 30MHz 10MHz 10MHz 693MHz 703 733 748 758 788MHz Proposed 5MHz LTE FDD uplink 5MHz 5MHz FDD uplink LTE FDD downlink 45MHz 45MHz 45MHz 698MHz 703 748 753 758 803MHz PPDR PPDR uplink LTE FDD uplink Gap LTE FDD downlink 10MHz 45MHz 10MHz 45MHz downlink 10MHz 693MHz 703 748 758 803 813MHz LTE FDD uplink Gap LTE FDD downlink 45MHz 10MHz 45MHz 698MHz 703 748 758 803 806MHz © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  43. 43. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 43 The challenge of harmonisation The importance of harmonisation ITU Region 1 ITU Region 2 ITU Region 3 © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  44. 44. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 44 The USA’s 700MHz band plan is unlikely to be adopted widely elsewhere Figure 23: The USA’s 700MHz band plan [Source: Analysys Mason, 2012] 698MHz Unpaired 806MHz BB NB BB NB A B C D E A B C C 10 MHz 6MHz C 10 MHz 6MHz 6MHz 6MHz 6MHz 6MHz 6MHz 6MHz 11MHz uplink 11MHz uplink 6MHz 6MHz downlink downlink uplink uplink uplink downlink downlink downlink downlink Public downlink Public Public safety Public safety safety safety The upper 700MHz band The lower 700MHz band 1MHz guard bands, auctioned for commercial use  In the USA, terrestrial TV broadcasting had switched fully from analogue to digital transmission by February 2009, and licences in the 700MHz band were auctioned in January 2008.  The US 700MHz band is formed from two sub-bands: the upper and lower. Each sub-band has its own plan. Unfortunately, two non-interoperable classes of device have emerged that operate in the lower 700MHz band. This development was unexpected, and raises concerns about the generation of a vibrant device ecosystem. To date, this lack of interoperability has made it difficult for operators to obtain mobile broadband devices.  The US band plan follows a 6MHz channelisation scheme intended to ensure compatibility with the previous use of the band for broadcasting. However, LTE is based on a bandwidth of 5MHz, so channels of 6MHz present a challenge in terms of optimising spectrum efficiency. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012
  45. 45. Hz spectrum band: market drivers and harmonisation challenges worldwide 45 Only one of the USA’s closest neighbours has adopted its plan for the 700MHz band Canada Mexico  In the past, because of its proximity to the US market, Canada has often adopted spectrum allocations and band plans harmonised with those of the USA.  Industry Canada proposed a number of band plan options, many of which were modified versions of the US band plan, but using 5MHz or 10MHz channels, rather than the US’s 6MHz channels. It has finally concluded that harmonisation with the US band plan should be broadly adopted, but chose to make slight adjustments in the upper 700MHz band. © Analysys Mason Limited 2012

×