@kaimrc_edu1
Literature Reviews        4th Research Summer School                   12 June 2012          Taghreed Justinia Msc PhD    ...
In this session… Definition and understanding of a literature review Important steps in literature review writing Criti...
Literature Search The best way to find high quality information is to  carry out a literature search on one or more datab...
What is a research literature                review? It is a systematic, explicit and reproducible method  for identifyin...
Steps in          literature review writing   Selecting the research questions   Selecting the sources   Choosing searc...
Selecting the research      questions          7
Research questions influence               search results       High =       lots of       articles                Broad  ...
Possible research questionsBroad question:   What is the prevalence of bacterial meningitis?Narrow question:   What costs ...
Selecting Sources        10
Literature review data sources   Online public bibliographic databases   Commercial bibliographic databases   Specializ...
Bibliographic Databases Medicine    MEDLINE (PubMed or Ovid), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO Multidisciplinary    ...
Websites Associations, Organizations & Government      World Health Organization (WHO)      Health Canada      Canadia...
“Grey Literature” Dissertations & Theses SCOPUS (conference proceedings) Web search engines (i.e. Google Scholar)      ...
Citation List Searching databases will result in a list of citations,  which include the information needed to locate the...
Critically AppraisingJournals & Articles          16
Be Critical Once you have obtained the papers most relevant to  your question you should consider a number of things  bef...
Publication Bias Negative results don’t (often) get published – If you  want to carry out a detailed or systematic review...
Authorship Are the authors based at a well-established Centre of  Excellence? Are there any issues of sponsorship or com...
Journal Ranking &               Impact Factors Impact Factor is:    A measure of the frequency with which the "average  ...
Abstract Quality Read the paper carefully; don’t rely on only the abstract Many abstracts in peer reviewed journals have...
Critically Appraising      Websites          22
Be critical, be selective The peer review system for journal articles provides a  degree of quality control. However, an...
What to consider Content    consider intended audience, purpose of site, accuracy    are the sources of information pro...
Don’t forget! Your subject librarian can always help you. Don’t waste  that valuable resource. Make an point to meet you...
Useful References Fink, A. (2005). Conducting Research Literature Reviews. London:  Sage. Greenhalgh, T. (2006). How to ...
Useful Sites NHS Solutions for Public Health  http://www.sph.nhs.uk/what-we-do/public-health-workforce/resources CADTH. ...
Questions?    28
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RSS 2012 Literature Reviews

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Part Two talk By Dr Taghreed Justaniah, this years director of the research summer school

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RSS 2012 Literature Reviews

  1. 1. @kaimrc_edu1
  2. 2. Literature Reviews 4th Research Summer School 12 June 2012 Taghreed Justinia Msc PhD Asst. Professor, Department of Health InformaticsAsst. Director, Information & Communication Technology KSAU-HS, NGHA Tel. +966 2 6240000 ext 26217 / 26210 Email: JustiniaT@ngha.med.sa
  3. 3. In this session… Definition and understanding of a literature review Important steps in literature review writing Critical appraisal of journals, articles and websites 3
  4. 4. Literature Search The best way to find high quality information is to carry out a literature search on one or more databases and to download, copy or request relevant current publications on the topic/s of interest. 4
  5. 5. What is a research literature review? It is a systematic, explicit and reproducible method for identifying, evaluating, and synthesizing the existing body of completed and recorded work produced by researchers, scholars, and practitioners. Fink, A. (2005). Conducting Research Literature Reviews. London: Sage. 5
  6. 6. Steps in literature review writing Selecting the research questions Selecting the sources Choosing search terms Conducting the search Applying practical screening criteria Critically appraising the literature  Journals & Articles  Websites 6
  7. 7. Selecting the research questions 7
  8. 8. Research questions influence search results High = lots of articles Broad QuestionsRetrieval(# of searchresults) Narrow Questions Low = very few articles Low = mostly High = directly irrelevant articles Relevancy relevant articles 8
  9. 9. Possible research questionsBroad question: What is the prevalence of bacterial meningitis?Narrow question: What costs are associated with hospitalization for bacterial meningitis?Very narrow question: What strategies have been utilized in Saudi Arabia to reduce length of stay for patients with bacterial meningitis? 9
  10. 10. Selecting Sources 10
  11. 11. Literature review data sources Online public bibliographic databases Commercial bibliographic databases Specialized bibliographic databases Manual or “hand searches” of references lists “Grey literature” Web reports Expert opinions 11
  12. 12. Bibliographic Databases Medicine  MEDLINE (PubMed or Ovid), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO Multidisciplinary  Scopus  Web of Science Nursing and Allied Health  CINAHL 12
  13. 13. Websites Associations, Organizations & Government  World Health Organization (WHO)  Health Canada  Canadian Medical Association  UK National Health Service (NHS) 13
  14. 14. “Grey Literature” Dissertations & Theses SCOPUS (conference proceedings) Web search engines (i.e. Google Scholar) 14
  15. 15. Citation List Searching databases will result in a list of citations, which include the information needed to locate the articles in print journals and other sources 15
  16. 16. Critically AppraisingJournals & Articles 16
  17. 17. Be Critical Once you have obtained the papers most relevant to your question you should consider a number of things before using the results. This applies even when the publications are from peer reviewed journals. 17
  18. 18. Publication Bias Negative results don’t (often) get published – If you want to carry out a detailed or systematic review of a subject area, you might consider trying to get hold of unpublished studies. Reviewers may be biased against unconventional versus conventional techniques (eg orthodox drug versus alternative therapy). 18
  19. 19. Authorship Are the authors based at a well-established Centre of Excellence? Are there any issues of sponsorship or competing interests? 19
  20. 20. Journal Ranking & Impact Factors Impact Factor is:  A measure of the frequency with which the "average article" in a journal has been cited in a particular year or period The impact factor of a journal is linked to its popularity and accessibility Journals with higher impact factors in a subject area are generally more highly regarded 20
  21. 21. Abstract Quality Read the paper carefully; don’t rely on only the abstract Many abstracts in peer reviewed journals have errors Three common types of inaccuracies are:  data inconsistent in abstract and body of the paper, tables, and figures  data or information in the abstract do not appear elsewhere  conclusions in the abstract not substantiated in the paper itself 21
  22. 22. Critically Appraising Websites 22
  23. 23. Be critical, be selective The peer review system for journal articles provides a degree of quality control. However, anybody can put anything on the web (you have to do your own critical appraisal). 23
  24. 24. What to consider Content  consider intended audience, purpose of site, accuracy  are the sources of information provided? Source; Consider  author(s)  is it current and up to date?  depth/breadth of coverage  bias – are there any conflicts of interest Structure; Consider  graphics, presentation, ease of use, clarity 24
  25. 25. Don’t forget! Your subject librarian can always help you. Don’t waste that valuable resource. Make an point to meet your medical/university librarian to assist and advise you on your literature searches and literature reviews. 25
  26. 26. Useful References Fink, A. (2005). Conducting Research Literature Reviews. London: Sage. Greenhalgh, T. (2006). How to read a paper (3rd ed.). London: BMJ Publishing Group. Sackett, D., Straus, S., & Richardson, W. (2000). Evidence-based medicine (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Wilson, P. (2002). How to find the good and avoid the bad or ugly. A short guide to tools for rating quality of health information on the internet. BMJ, 324, 598-602. 26
  27. 27. Useful Sites NHS Solutions for Public Health http://www.sph.nhs.uk/what-we-do/public-health-workforce/resources CADTH. Grey Matters: a practical search tool for evidence-based medicine - http://cadth.ca/en/resources/grey-matters Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and Interventions - http://www.cochrane-handbook.org/ IOM (Institute of Medicine). Finding what works in health care: standards for systematic reviews - http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2011/Finding-What-Works-in-Health-Care-Stan 27
  28. 28. Questions? 28

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