INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUES Oyindamola B. YUSUF Biostatistician KAIMRC-WR
Lecture Outline• Introduction• Selecting your Respondent• The interview setting• How to start the interview• Asking the questions• Tips• Exiting• Role Plays
Introduction• Definition• Types of interviews• Importance of training• Collecting Valid and reliable data• Preparations• Record keeping• Noting errors• Experience
What is an Interview• An art of eliciting information – Develops with practice• A good interview elicits accurate information
Types of Interviews• Face to face• Telephone• Mail• Internet
Face to Face interview• In a face-to-face survey, an interviewer is physically present to ask the survey questions and to assist the respondent in answering them.
Telephone Interview• Interview conducted over the telephone
Importance of training• Consistency• Standardization• Project peculiarities• Accuracy of information
Preparation• Decide where to go (have a time table and route guide to determine your daily movement)• Supervisors should have a time table/movement plan to be explained and shared with interviewers
• List required materials Adequate number of appropriate questionnaires Stationeries (at least 2 of each, e.g. biros, pens etc) An identification card or letter of introduction
• Determine the best time for the interview: household interviews would be preferable in early evening during the week or daytime on a weekend• Have a clear understanding of the purpose and objectives of the study and the questions to be answered
Travel• Plan to leave on time• Be mindful of local peculiarities to guide your movement and timing, but, never be LATE• Decide time and place of departure• Ensure you have enough funds for the day’s activities• Have a little extra just incase!
Locating the selected household/respondent• Follow the sampling procedures• Supervisors should have a list of areas to visit• At each area, identify a landmark (e.g. a mosque/big building)• Toss a coin, if it shows a head, proceed in the right direction, if it shows a tail, proceed in the left direction
• Enter every consecutive house house Vs Household• Remember the inclusion criteria ( note the type of questionnaire)• Identify the eligible respondent
THE INTERVIEW SETTING• A place where the interview is conducted• Characteristics of a good setting – Quiet – Avoid distractions
Characteristics of a good setting• Request that radio/television/mobile phone be switched off• Insist on privacy right from the beginning of the interview• Third party is not welcome at any time• Interviewer to locate a suitable venue for the interview
AREA• Be aware of the area, assess the situation and observe the people• Stay alert and tuned to your surroundings• Do not day dream• Know where you are going and work with confidence
• Talk to children, they can be helpful passing along information about who you are• If anyone asks who you are, briefly tell them who you are and what you are doing. They may pass the word along• Park your car in a convenient, but open area. Move it as necessary as you work
Multiunit buildings• Carry a flashlight- apartment building hallways can be dark even during daytime. Often light bulbs are burned out or broken• Make small noise, such as a low whistle or rattle your keys as you walk in the hallway or up a staircase. You do not want to startle or surprise anyone who might be hanging around• Go right to the selected apartment and do your business
• Mind your business• Don’t look/appear interested in what people are doing in the hallway• Do not stare• You should acknowledge them with a nod, smile, or brief eye contact, but go directly to the apartment- that’s your task• Be aware, but do not concentrate on any other things going on in the apartment building• If you appear too interested, people will think, “what do you want, what are you looking at?”
• Determine whether it is safe to enter the apartment to conduct the interview• If you are unsure, do the interview at the door
Entry meeting• Arrive at household on time with personal ID card, questionnaire and relevant materials• Introductions• Explain purpose of visits• Give overview of survey (be knowledgeable about research process) – Do not read out your cover letter• Solicit for support and begin the interview
How to start• Briefly describe why the study is being done and identify the sponsors. – This is impressive and lends credibility to the study.• Justify why the respondent should complete the questionnaire. – The justification must be something that will benefit the respondent.
• Describe your "confidentiality/anonymity”• Give the name and phone number of someone they can call with questions.•
Conducting the interview• Establish Rapport• Use a positive approach• Use the instrument• Do not prejudge the respondent• Ensure that questionnaires are administered by interviewers and not by respondents (self administered)• Take notes• Do not react to unusual responses
How to establish Rapport• Maintain a friendly tone• Make a good first impression.• Always have a positive approach.• Stress confidentiality of responses when necessary.• Answer any questions from the respondent frankly.
TIPS TO CONDUCT A GOOD INTERVIEW• Be courteous to your subject.• Always take time to ask for an explanation about things you dont understand.• Don’t be afraid of uncomfortable silences and pauses.• Never suggest answers to the respondent
• Let the interview take its natural course.• Appear confident – Look the person in the eye when asking questions.• Always listen carefully to the answers. Each answer could lead to more questions or include an answer to a question you haven’t asked yet. Dont ask a question that has already been answered. Your subject will know you werent listening and be insulted.
• Dont read through your questions one right after another like you cant wait to be finished.• Conduct your interview like a conversation. One question should lead naturally into another. If you are LISTENING to the answers this will come naturally!
More Tips• Asking Closed ended questions – Review• Asking open ended questions – Review
Exiting• Check questionnaire for completeness• Ask respondent if he/she has any questions• Remember to say thank you !
Role plays• Use draft questionnaire on smoking
• I wish you all the best in the research process• THANK YOU