Ancient history1000 BC; archaeological evidence of ancient Chinese and Babylonian civilizations using fingerprints to sign legal documents.1880; Dr. Henry Faulds suggesting the use of fingerprints for identification purposes.1892; scientist Sir Francis Galton laid out a classification method of fingerprints.
1892 - Juan Vucetich made the first criminal fingerprint identification. 1897; Sir Edward Henry proposed a modified classification system by using fingerprints.1901; First use of fingerprints in the USA by the New York City Service Commission.1908 – The first official fingerprint card was developed1980 – First computer data base of fingerprints was developed, known as the Automated Fingerprint Identification System, (AFIS).
• The skin on the palmer side of the finger tips contain dermatoglyphic patterns comprising the ridges and valleys• The interface between the epidermal and dermal layers of skin is an undulating layer made of multiple protrusion of the dermis into the epidermis known as dermal papillae, this papillae follow the shape of the surface dermatoglyphic patterns and represent an internal fingerprint in the same form of as the external pattern.
Humans are not the only ones with fingerprints! Someprimates, including gorillas and chimpanzees, and koalabears have their own unique prints. The Koala has fingerprints that are so similar to the humanfingerprint that it is almost impossible to tell them apartbecause of the pattern, shape and size of the ridges.
No two fingers with identical ridgecharacteristics , not even twinsRemains unchanged during anindividual’s lifetimeGeneral ridge patterns that permitsystematic classification.
why fingerprints are used for identification purposes?Ridge patterns and the details in small areas of friction ridges are unique and never repeated. Friction ridges develop on the fetus in their definitive form before birth and formed from 6th - 13th weeks of development.Ridges are persistent throughout life except for permanent scarring.Friction ridge patterns vary within limits which allow for classificationFingerprints have general characteristic ridge patterns that allow them to be systematically
Based on the Henry Classification SystemThe Arch The Arch pattern is made up of ridges lying one above the other in a general arching formation.
The Tented ArchThe tented arch pattern consists of at least one upthrustingridge, which tends to bisect superior ridges at rightangles, more or less.
The loop pattern consists of one or more free recurving ridgesand one delta.In order to distinguish between ulnar and radial loops you must:1) know from which hand the loop pattern comes from and;2) place your hand palm side down over top of the impressionand determine if the recurving ridges originate from the littlefinger side or the thumb side.If the ridges flow in from the little finger side this would be anulnar loop. If the ridges flow in from the thumb side this wouldbe a radial loop.
The Twinned LoopIn the twinned loop pattern, the recurving ridges present two loopformations, separate and apart. There are two points of delta. Theflows for the deltas originate from the same side of the pattern.
The WhorlThe whorl pattern consists of one or more free recurving ridges and two points ofdelta. When the line of the fingerprint disc is placed on the two points of delta, it willbisect at least one of the ridges belonging to the core group.
The Central Pocket LoopThe central pocket loop pattern consists of one or more free recurving ridges andtwo points of delta. When the line of the fingerprint disc is placed on the twopoints of delta, it will fail to bisect any of the ridges belonging to the core group
The Lateral Pocket LoopIn the lateral pocket loop pattern, the recurving ridges present two loopformations, separate and apart. There are two points of delta. The flows for thedeltas originate from the same side of the pattern.
The CompositeThe composite pattern is composed of two or moredifferent patterns, separate and apart exclusive of the arch
The AccidentalThe accidental pattern will contain two points of delta. One delta willbe related to a recurve and the other will be related to an upthrust.
Three basic types of finger prints distinguished by Galton
Percentages of the different types of fingerprints Arches: 5% Whorls: 35% Loops: 60%
Automated Fingerprint Identification System(AFIS)is a computerized system capable ofreading, classifying, matching, and storing fingerprints for criminaljustice agencies.which are used to find possible matches with fingerprints in thedatabase.
Latent PrintsLatent prints: Impressions left by frictionridge skin on a surface, such as a toolhandle, glass, door, etc.Prints may be collected by revealing themwith a dusting of black powder and thenlifted with a piece of clear tape.Some investigators use fluorescent powderand UV lights to help them find latent printson multi-colored or dark surfaces.Magnetic powder can also be used to reveallatent prints and works on shiny surfaces orplastic baggies or containers.Ninhydrin is a chemical that bonds with theamino acids in fingerprints and will producea blue or purple color. It works well onpaper or cardboard surfaces.
Affect of skin diseases on fingerprintsFingerprints with atopic eczema (different people).
Fingerprint with warts (verruca vulgaris).Fingerprints with psoriasis (different people).
AgeWhen a person gets older the friction ridges areget less visible.
Sex differences in minutiaeIn 2010 a Thai study revealedthat ridge irregulaties (e.g.ridge dots, short ridges, ridgespurs) are generally morecommon in the fingerprints ofmales (compared to females).Bifurcations are seen in allsubjects (all males & allfemales).
Police officer dusting fingerprints, at a crime scene
Police creating a record of an individual’s fingerprints
o Evaluation of Fingerprint Recognition Technologies – BioFinger, Public Final Report, version 1.1, 2004 Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik, p. 122.o Drahanský, M.: Fingerprint Recognition Technology – Liveness Detection, Image Quality and SkinDiseases, Habilitation thesis, FIT-BUT, 2009, p. 153.o Fingerprinting book, 2005, 2004, 2002, 1993 by David A. Katz.o B. G. Sherlock and D. M. Monro, A model for interpreting ngerprint topology, 7, Pattern Recognition 26 (1993), 1047-1055.
o International Journal of Bio-Science and Bio- Technology Vol. 2, No. 4, December, 2010, Fingerprint Recognition Influenced by Skin Diseases.o http://www.handresearch.com/news/fingerprints- world-map-whorls-loops-arches.htmo http://www.dkfz.de/tbi/projects/bmcv/images/iu_it246_ 04s_fingerprint1.jpgo http://www.crimesceneforensics.com/History_of_Fingerprints.h tmlo http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/fren4j0/public_html/fingerpri nt_patterns.htmo http://safety-identification-products.com/fingerprint- information.html