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Scada Report

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  • Faculty of Engineering, Science and the Built Environment DISSERTATION REPORT Design & Implementing SCADA System Wireless Sensor to Control Fire Effect in RefineryAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 0
  • 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSFirst and foremost, my thank to my supervisor Dr Perry Xiao, who stood up with shoulder toshoulder to simplify all the problems that I encountered, and also his incontrovertibleguidance all the way to the end. Then I would like to thank my family, especially my wifefor her moral support and understanding during this difficult but productive time, whilst Ispent of my time to dedicate to the project. And my last thank goes to my friends, who werepresent for their assistance and correcting my English writing when I needed them in suchdifficult situations. To conclude my acknowledgement I would like to say I am grateful to allwho ever contribute to this work in any way that is possible morally or physically. I wouldalso like to apologize to all those people that I have unknowingly forgotten to mention her.I consider myself very lucky to be get help all those people and those times to working withmy master dissertation report and I would like to express our gratitude to all the people whohelped realising this challenging project on a short time scale.Our goal is to design interactive systems that are enjoyable to use, that do useful things andthat will save the lives of the people who working in Refineries. We want our interactivesystems to be accessible, usable and engaging. In order to achieve this we believe that thedesign of such systems should be human centred. That is, designers need to put people ratherthan technology at the centre of their design process.My concept looks somehow like an development area which is came after sensor and wirelesscommunications technologies, digital ecosystems are poised to connect and even fill existingand newly created applications connecting different environments thus giving rise to manypromising solutions to pressing problems. Imagine energy and communication webs usingsoftware applications enabling users to better regulateDesigning such as this device take time and money. We will be analyses the time and thefinancial to do this project. The balance between production and consumption of resources isachieved and maintained as a result of competition between the market and designing forgood and very active useful product.Research aims to understand and advance the interweaving of Design & ImplementingSCADA System Wireless Sensor to Control Fire Effect in Refinery.Users are the primary users of the system. We have chosen to have better understanding ofdifferent needs and to be able to compare their usage of the system, since they use the systemfor different usage at different purposes. Identify the range of the wireless and use repeater orput several more Fire Control sensor.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 1
  • Table of Contents 1. Acknowledgements ...........................................................................................................1 2. Abstract ..............................................................................................................................4 3. Introduction .......................................................................................................................5 4. Project Requirements .......................................................................................................6 4.1Hardware .................................................................................................................................... 6 Fire alarm Sensors ............................................................................................................................. 6 4.2Software ...................................................................................................................................... 6 5. Technical Issues.................................................................................................................7 Price looking in internet ..................................................................................................................... 8 6. Designing Topology...........................................................................................................8 6.1 Fire Alarm Sensor TGS-813 Explained ................................................................................ 9 WIRELESS ALARM ............................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 7. Integrate Hardware and Software ................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. 7.1TESTING RESULTS .................................................................................................................. 37 8. THE NEED FOR SECURITY IN PROCESS CONTROL .........................................13 8.1 THE NEED FOR SECURITY IN PROCESS CONTROL ................................................... 14 SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................................................... 14 8.2 Critical infrastructure .......................................................................................................... 15 8.3 Develop / explore market potential / strategies if applicable .............................................. 15 Figure 2 ( google homepage images) ................................................................................................ 16 9. Security Analyses for ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks ................................................17 10. Whats the difference between Wi-Fi and Zigbee .............................................................17 10.1 Wi-Fi or ZigBee Wireless ........................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. 10.2 The comparison of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and ZigBee ..................................................................... 19 11. Solution .............................................................................................................................28 11.1 SCADA Overview ............................................................................................................... 29 11.2 Security overview ................................................................................................................ 30 11.3 RTU Security ...................................................................................................................... 31 11.4 Server Security ................................................................................................................... 31 11.5 Network Security ................................................................................................................ 31 11.6 Network Access ................................................................................................................... 32 11.7 Network Segmentation ........................................................................................................ 32 11.8 External Access ................................................................................................................... 32 11.9 RF Security ......................................................................................................................... 33 11.10 The MODBUS Protocol ................................................................................................... 33 11.11 Securing MODBUS ......................................................................................................... 33 12. Wireless Networking .......................................................................................................34 12.1 Security Protocols ............................................................................................................... 35Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 2
  • 13. Conclusion ........................................................................................................................38 13.1 Future Work........................................................................................................................ 42 14. References and Bibliographies .........................................................................................43 15. Time Plan ..........................................................................................................................45 Table of FiguresAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 3
  • 2. ABSTRACTSCADA is a big topic in those days and SCADA System become more useful and veryelectronics end before and it used for many spectre and widely which the first is enablingtechnology of the ICT-driven and control. In this paper it would be discussed a design andsimulation Design & Implementing SCADA System Wireless Sensor to Control Fire Effectin Refinery and it would be set a model for devices and at the same time enables theirinteroperability and configurability. It would be solution which is based on the combinationof designing and feasibility of the market. It would demonstrate the possibility of gettinguseful product to achieve the need of the market.There is an understandable and strong need for a design hardware and software developmentthat lends itself to the design and construction of portable code systems. The current efforts tostandardise software give evidence to this need. The both Hardware and software solutionwhich could work together and get the best and possible solution it would be useful.Feasibility evaluation is an assessment of how to make the product which is useful for astated target audience or intended customer.It needed I comprehensive series of alarms that identify problems down to the card level. Herit would be used microcontroller and wireless detect.The better Human Machine interface the more users will like to use it, increasing theirsatisfaction with the work that you have done. In a Design & Implementing SCADA SystemWireless Sensor to Control Fire Effect in Refinery which has different hardware architecturesand supporting software systems ranging from compilers to operating systems,Wireless network fixed nodes must be there first, that is why it is the bases of any kind ofcommunication. In this project, it is based on a medium size company, which has threebranches in United Kingdom; this network uses both local area network and wide areanetwork to make it possible the communication between the three cities. The main office is inLondon, and the other two branches are based on Birmingham and Glasgow, the routingprotocols that is being used are Open short path first and Routing information protocol usingOPNET Modeller, and the aim of this model is to find out which of the routing protocols areperforming better, the parameters being used are End node-To-End node delay, throughputand traffic load, Link failure, traffic received, and traffic sent, the outcome of theseparameters, will be shown latter in this project.Research in this area is large a Design & Implementing SCADA System Wireless Sensorto Control Fire Effect in Refinery is going on and on to this topic, with recommendationsfor the proper design of Input/Output, menus, icons, forms, as well as data display on thescreens in which possibility analysis is a advantageous tool.There is future improvement both for Electronics industries and Refineries and it couldimprove refineries works live save.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 4
  • 3. INTRODUCTIONIt would believe that the design of such systems should be human centred. It had seen severalarea before our goals to design interactive systems for example is there place would need andit is and it is the setup product in the market and it is. So it calculates at is useful things andthat will save the lives of the people who working in the Refineries. It wanted our interactivesystems to be accessible, usable and engaging. In order to achieve this it need to have the bestand fast technology in the market.Before it starts to have the new alarm system it would be looked any existing alarm collectionand presentation equipment it already have. It have upgraded alarm system if the system isold system and it is not have any communication with internet and Remote Terminal Unit andlook haw it could work to getter the existing alarm equipment and the new.My concept looks somehow like an development area which is came after sensor and firealarm communications technologies, digital ecosystems are poised to connect and even fillexisting and newly created applications connecting different environments thus giving rise tomany promising solutions to pressing problems. Area Imagine energy and communicationwebs using software applications enabling users to better regulateWe will be analyses the time and the financial to do this project. The balance betweenproduction and consumption of resources is achieved and maintained as a result ofcompetition between the market and designing for good and very active useful product andgood rate for Refineries.Research aims to understand and advance the interweaving of Design & ImplementingSCADA System Wireless Sensor to Control Fire Effect in Refinery remotely gettinginformation.Works are the primary users of the system. We have chosen to have better understanding ofdifferent needs and to be able to compare their usage of the system, since they use the systemfor different usage at different purposes. Identify the range of the wireless and use repeater orput several more Fire Control sensor.The entrepreneur could help and develop this project without problem and help to setup andmaintain next 5 years. – need to write a proposal report, and submit it before the deadline.A SCADA system includes a user interface called a Human Machine Interface (HMI). TheHMI of a SCADA system is where data is processed and presented to be viewed andmonitored by a human operator. This interface usually includes controls where the individualcan interface with the SCADA system.HMIs are an easy way to standardise the facilitation of monitoring multiple RTUs or PLCs(programmable logic controllers).Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 5
  • It would try to solve if that area employs working in remote areas that could not be reachedby telephone lines/cables/optical fibres etc. It would be specify how to deal with issues suchas bandwidth, scalability, and security. 4. PROJECT REQUIREMENTS 4.1 HardwareFire alarm with smoke detector, wireless transmitter circuit, RTU (Router or Switches),Server in save place in the Refineries, Human interface, embedded real time systemsassembler for embedded real time systems.Fire alarm Sensors - The most basic way to fire alarm sensor. This project will use 16F876Aand smoke detector to detect smoke and sound a buzzer when smoke detected. Circuitschematic is using very similar to a smoke detector. When these presents are exceeded, you get acontact closure alarm, which translates to a basic high or low fire alarm.More advanced fire alarm sensors output analogue values. Analogue monitoring allows you tomonitor shifting sensor levels at your remote sites. With the right SCADA system, you can use youranalogue readings to send alarms based on configurable wireless. Smoke detector wireless connectionwith build in remote control encoder and RF transmitter and operate with 9V battery. WirelessReceiver would be Routers or Switches and I would need computer, which are connected tothe internet so it can transfer to Human Computer Interface (HCI).Remote Terminal Units, or RTU’s, is the local control system used to collect the informationfrom the various sensors using fibre-optics, data cable or other hard wiring. In large regionalsystems, the information may be communicated through radio or wireless technology to theRTU, which is acting like a middle man in the transmission of information. It collects localinformation and sends it on to the central control station.The author end it could be server and HMI which are showing the fire alarm are ON or OFFof the room. SCADA is similar, on a smaller scale, to home monitoring systems. Informationis collected from the sensors located on each door, window, motion detectors and smokealarm. Wiring connects these sensors to a home-based control system. This local controlsystem sends the information on to a central control station where people are notified in theevent of a Fire station. 4.2 Software Levels: Applications, Device drivers, embedded real time systems Programming Languages: C, C++, Assembler, Visual Basic etc. Databases: MySQL and SQL Server, Microsoft Access Operating systems: Most Microsoft operating systems example 98/XP/windows 7 etc. and Linux platforms.SCADA system is a general term that encompasses several types of control systems,including supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, and other controlsystem configurations such as skid-mounted Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) oftenAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 6
  • found in the industrial sectors and critical infrastructures. Critical infrastructures are oftenhighly interconnected and mutually dependent systems. This system would save live forapproximately 70 per cent end the old fire alarm system in the Refineries. 5. TECHNICAL ISSUESSmoke detector is device where it uses a battery to operate and transfers the data via RFtransmitter and a remote control encoder inside the smoke detector. The interface betweenSmoke detector and RF transmitter would involve a Microcontroller, which is very importantto have this project. Analogue Digital Converter (ADC), which receive data from Smokedetector and converters to the Digital where microcontroller could send to the RF transmitter.In pig Refineries remotely monitor the room fire alarm of Refineries and fire station staffs. Ittries to detector fire for early time and before it could become big damage for the Refineries.It needed to demonstrate and get search and knowledge about the latest technologies in themarket, and need to specify what fire alarm detector you are going to use, how data should betransmitted with wireless to the Router or Switch wireless receiver, which are connected tothe internet and displayed. Please note that some of theIt needs Fire alarm sensors it can detector smoke in the area, which it monitored and the datacould send through internet with help PLC, RTU and routers. Data should be stored a serverswhich located in different places. The data could display in WWW.The Servers could install JDS , JAVA, MySQL, TOMECAT and Visual Studio which it helpto design and build in the web page and connect to the MySQL database which it save thedata for each patient.Sensors within the process monitor the Remote Terminal Units, or RTU’s, is the local controlsystem used to collect the information from the various sensors using fibre-optics, data cableor other hard wiring. In large regional systems, the information may be communicatedthrough radio or wireless technology to the RTU, which is acting like a middle man in thetransmission of information. It collects local information and sends it on to the central controlstation of input and output at each step of the way. Temperature, flow rate and valves are allmonitored by sensors. From a simple process, such as milk pasteurization, to a complexdistribution system covering an entire city, SCADA has the capability to monitor a fewsensors or millions of sensors.The monitoring can even be performed remotely from the operator’s home, resulting in fewercalls for alarm situations after hours. SCADA takes the complicated task of monitoringmillions of point of information and uses computer technology to present it in centralized,easy to understand ways.All the technology that is necessary for a device like this is already used in other gadgets, andin matter of software, there are many libraries with code for speech recognition and almost allthe features mentioned above, but yet, to the extent of my knowledge, there is no programlike this, designed for educational purposes.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 7
  • My concept looks good understanding designing SCADA and sensors.In matter of software, the device should be able to: Design a hardware device which is SCADA Fire alarm detector with RF transmitter Sensor. Detector can detect the smoke if there is Fire alarm in the Refineries. RF transmitter can send data in the router or through PLC. Price looking in internet Synology Disk Station DS212 NAS £214 server - Serial ATA-300 Gigabit EN GSM GPRS RTU -- £110 JDS , JAVA, MySQL, TOMECAT and free Visual Studio Fire alarm Sensors £20 Use a Fire Station staffs No paid Total £823.95Figure 5.1 is not exactly price 6. DESIGNING TOPOLOGYSmoke Detector Circuit - Schematic Diagram which the simple schematic diagram of asmoke detector presented here utilizes the gas sensor TGS 813 as the main detectingAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 8
  • component. The circuit is pretty easy to build and performs useful fire detection onceinstalled into a possible fire prone zone. They say there cannot be a smoke without a fire; thepresent concept of smoke alarms is based on this saying and exploits the fact that every firestarts with smoke before taking a foothold. Here the proposed circuit is intended to be used asa warning device against a possible fire hazard by detecting the involved smoke, whichfortunately tends to develop before the fire.Smoke detector is one of the common devices in a house security system. This project willdemonstrate how microcontroller will read the smoke detector and react when the smokedetector detects smoke. 6.1 Fire Alarm Sensor TGS-813 ExplainedWe all know that during combustion or burning of any substance smoke is involved. Thissmoke is generally a mixture of a number of gases like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide,carbon hydroxide, methane, propane, butane, isobutene, etc., to name a few. These emanatedue to the breaking of the chemical bonds of substances being consumed under the influenceof heat or fire.A gas sensor, as can be understood from the name itself, is a device which can detect or sensethe presence of any gaseous element in the atmosphere surrounding it.They find an important place in numerous applications, with the most common being in firealarm systems where they are configured as sensors to detect the presence of any smokecontent in the air due to a possible fire. Thus an alarm is raised before the fire is able spreadto drastic levels.In this article we will discuss the technical data of gas leakage sensor, and we will take theexample of the well-known Japanese made Figaro TGS-813 gas sensor and study itsspecifications.Basically TGS-813 is a sintered type of semiconductor primarily made up of tin dioxide(SnO2). When it comes in contact with any gaseous element, its internal resistanceimmediately drops.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 9
  • As the concentration of the gas rises, its resistance drops proportionately and can become aslow as 20 times to its normal value.As shown in the diagram, it consists of six terminals, two of which are connected to a heatercoil, while the other four contacts are wired across a gas sensing resistor.To initiate the sensor, a preheating of the heater coil is necessary. It may take approximatelythree to five minutes before the actual sensing of the gases can take place.Figure 6.1 Smoke detectorThe electrical parameters of the sensor are as follows:This causes the resistance of LDR to increase and the voltage at base of the transistor ispulled high due to which the COB (chip-on board) is completed. The sensitivity of the smokedetector depends on the distance between bulb and LDR as well as setting on presses VR1.Thus by placing the bulb and the LDR at appropriate distances, one may vary presses VR1 toget optimum sensitivity.Figure 6.2 Smoke detector Circuit.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 10
  • Interface PIC16F876A with Smoke detectorSmoke detector is a wireless device where it uses a 9V battery to operate and send the signalvia RF transmitter and a remote control encoder inside the smoke detector. The interfacebetween PIC16F876A and Smoke detector will involve a RF receiver to receive data fromSmoke detector and a remote control decoder PT2272 to decode the received data.Smoke detector connected to RF transmitter:Figure 6.2 Smoke Detector, RF transmitter with microcontroller and build in Siren.In this process, the integration of the hardware was implemented with the system that wascreated before it can be tested to find the weaknesses. The system works. First is to check thehardware connection and make sure it is properly set-up. After that is to test the hardware. Ifthe hardware is working, then it can be processed with the running of a Web basedtemperature Monitoring System. If there is a problem, the hardware setup must be checkedbecause it may not have been configured correctly.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 11
  • PIC16F876AIn this project it have been used Microcontroller PIC16F876A which t is easy to program andit is powerful (200 nanosecond instruction execution). CMOS FLASH-based 8-bitmicrocontroller packs Microchips powerful PIC architecture into an 28-pin package and isupwards compatible with the PIC16C5X, PIC12CXXX and PIC16C7X devices.Feature of the device:• 256 bytes of EEPROM data memory• Self programming• ICD (In Circuit Debugging function)• 2 Comparators• 5 channels of 10-bit Analogue-to-Digital (A/D) converter• 2 capture/compare/PWM functions• The synchronous serial port can be configuredas either 3-wire Serial Peripheral Interface(SPI™) or the 2-wire Inter-Integrated Circuit(I²C™) bus• Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter(UART) Figure 6.3 the pin diagram for PIC16F876A.For more information about the PIC microcontroller, please refer to the datasheet.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 12
  • 7. THE NEED FOR SECURITY IN PROCESS CONTROLPCS is pervasive in manufacturing and infrastructure processes. Often, enormous potentialsafety impacts to the general populace are possible if PCS malfunctions; moderate to severeeconomic damage is also feasible. At a minimum, PCS unreliability will encourage publicdiscontent and unease.Security for PCS should be paramount given the potential consequences, and will only growin importance as newer PCS (with more acute vulnerabilities) are installed. Unfortunately,budgetary restrictions for utilities are often manifest in PCS administration, where fundingfor personnel and equipment are many times clearly inadequate. Another problem is naturalattrition through aging of key personnel in PCS administration and also in utility operations.Finally, corporate social pressures between PCS administrators and IT departments often leadto counterproductive suspicion and inefficient communication between fiefdoms. Often, thearcane nature of PCS implementations is considered the primary defence mechanism throughthe ―security through obscurity‖ argument. This chimerical theory unfortunately contributesto false confidence. Obscure systems are merely difficult to understand so that the malefactormust make a larger up-front investment to understand the system. Once the requisiteknowledge is attained, attack paths are clear and consequences fated.Another option involves the use of known encryption and authentication standards forTCP/IP, such as IPSec or SSL. These are well-defined and mature options that havenumerous implementations. They have been analyzed extensively and have been shown toprovide strong security. Linksys, Inc. provides an inexpensive Virtual Private Network(VPN) solution that encapsulates data and transmits it across an insecure TCP/IP network.There are many serial-to- Ethernet transceivers on the market that will convert an existingserial (EIA-232) data source into TCP/IP over Ethernet. The converted packets can then besecured with a VPN solution. The reverse operation at the other end of the data link willreturn the secure (encrypted and authenticated by the IPSec protocol) TCP/IP packets back tothe original serial signal.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 13
  • The remote monitoring generally focus on patients and their families, although some examinebenefits to providers, communities and the health care system. This paper focuses on thepatient/family unit and the responsible clinical providers.Core parameters addressed and evaluated in these patient/family include one or more of thefollowing: access, support, E-health outcomes, quality of care, social isolation and quality oflife. These parameters tend to be studied in the context of overall cost, cost effectiveness,health services utilization, acceptability and satisfaction.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Industrial control system (ICS) is a general term that encompasses several types of controlsystems, including supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributedcontrol systems (DCS), and other control system configurations such as skid-mountedProgrammable Logic Controllers (PLC) often found in the industrial sectors and criticalinfrastructures. ICS are typically used in industries such as electrical, water and wastewater,oil and natural gas, chemical, transportation, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, food andbeverage, and discrete manufacturing (e.g., automotive, aerospace, and durable goods.) Thesecontrol systems are critical to the operation of the U.S. critical infrastructures that are oftenhighly interconnected and mutually dependent systems. It is important to note thatapproximately 90 per cent of the nations critical infrastructures are privately owned andoperated. Federal agencies also operate many of the industrial processes mentioned above;other examples include air traffic control and materials handling (e.g., Postal Service mailhandling.) This section provides an overview of SCADA, DCS, and PLC systems, includingtypical architectures and components. 7.1 THE NEED FOR SECURITY IN PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMSPCS is pervasive in manufacturing and infrastructure processes. Often, enormous potentialsafety impacts to the general populace are possible if PCS malfunctions; moderate to severeeconomic damage is also feasible. At a minimum, PCS unreliability will encourage publicdiscontent and unease.Security for PCS should be paramount given the potential consequences, and will only growin importance as newer PCS (with more acute vulnerabilities) are installed. Unfortunately,budgetary restrictions for utilities are often manifest in PCS administration, where fundingfor personnel and equipment are many times clearly inadequate. Another problem is naturalattrition through aging of key personnel in PCS administration and also in utility operations.Finally, corporate social pressures between PCS administrators and IT departments often leadto counterproductive suspicion and inefficient communication between fiefdoms. Often, thearcane nature of PCS implementations is considered the primary defence mechanism throughthe ―security through obscurity‖ argument. This chimerical theory unfortunately contributesAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 14
  • to false confidence. Obscure systems are merely difficult to understand so that the malefactormust make a larger up-front investment to understand the system. Once the requisiteknowledge is attained, attack paths are clear and consequences fated. 7.2 Critical infrastructureElectric power is often credited with being the first infrastructure sector to deploy PCSextensively. Originally known as SCADA, the system was designed to allow irregularoperation of remote devices, and often used tone control as a protocol. Water sourcing,treatment, and distribution utilities later added remote sensing and control, as did fossil fuelrefining and distribution networks. Eventually, the original primitive technology was replacedwith modern digital/analog hybrid networks based on contemporary communicationprotocols and microprocessors.Currently, infrastructure utilities rely very heavily on their PCS systems in real-time, and theyhave been in use for so long that it is unclear how successful or efficient manual operationswould actually be. Furthermore, there are considerations concerning the uncertain results ofintrusion, as these scenarios have not been adequately enumerated. Each utility shouldaddress their PCS as a hypercritical system by using very tight security safeguards. The PCShas enormous value by reducing costs and improving performance through automation, andthis value must be reflected in the system’s security. 7.3 Develop / explore market potential / strategies if applicableThe Refinery Monitoring and Control System There are currently 35,000 sensors andactuators in use in the refinery to perform real-time monitoring of industrial operations suchas leakage detection, measurement of pressure in the pipes, fluid levels and of the overallenvironment. The monitoring of the environment in a refinery provides essential informationto ensure the good health of the refinery and its production processes. In the oil refinery threesubsystems exist for the monitoring and control of the plant: the indicator system, the controlsystem, and the emergency system, as shown in Figure 2.Refineries are in need and around 60% - 70% have old system which is was very old andneed to new system and very active in it was before.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 15
  • Figure 2 ( google homepage images)All the technology that is necessary for a device like this is already used in other gadgets, andin matter of software, there are many libraries with code for speech recognition and almost allthe features mentioned above, but yet, to the extent of my knowledge, there is no programlike this, designed for educational purposes.My concept looks somehow like an big project which is give me good understandingdesigning SCADA and sensors.In matter of software, the device should be able to: Design a hardware device which is control, SCADA WIRELESS SENSOR. Sensor can detect the fire with wirelessly. Sensor can give alarm and alarmed could heard.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 16
  • 8. SECURITY ANALYSIS FOR ZIGBEE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKSWireless sensor networking is a challenging and emerging technology that will soon becomean inevitable part of our modern society. Today wireless sensor networks are broadly used inindustrial and civilian application areas including environmental monitoring, surveillancetasks, healthcare applications, home automation, and traffic control.The challenges for research in this area are due to the unique features of wireless sensordevices such as low processing power and associated low energy. On top of this, wirelesssensor networks need secure communication as they operate in open fields or unprotectedenvironments and communicate on broadcasting technology. As a result, such systems haveto meet a multitude of quantitative constraints (e.g. timing, power consumption, memoryusage, communication bandwidth) as well as security requirements (e.g. authenticity,confidentiality, integrity).One of the main challenges arise in dealing with the security needs of such systems where itis less likely that absolute security guarantees can be sustained {because of the need tobalance security against energy consumption in wireless sensor network standards likeZigBee.This dissertation builds on existing methods and techniques in different areas and brings themtogether to create an efficient verification system. The overall ambition is to provide a widerange of powerful techniques for analyzing models with quantitative and qualitative securityinformation.We stated a new approach that first verifies low level security protocol s in a qualitativemanner and guarantees absolute security, and then takes these very _ed protocols as actionsof scenarios to be verified in a quantitative manner. Working on the emerging ZigBeewireless sensor networks, we used probabilistic verification that can return probabilisticresults with respect to the trade off between security and performance.In this sense, we have extended various existing ideas and also proposed new ideas toimprove verification. Especially in the problem of key update, we believe we havecontributed to the solution for not only wireless sensor networks but also many other types ofsystems that require key updates. Besides we produced automated tools that were intended todemonstrate what kind of tools can developed on different purposes and application domains. 9. WHATS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WI-FI AND ZIGBEE There are many different wireless protocols out there, but the ones that most people haveheard of are Wi-Fi and Bluetooth because these are used in devices that lots of us have,mobile phones and computers. There is a third alternative called ZigBee that is designed forcontrol and instrumentation. What are the differences?Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 17
  • Wi-Fi is a direct replacement for a wired Ethernet cable and is used in the same situations toavoid running wires everywhere. The benefit of Wi-Fi is that it can connect to an existingnetwork hub or router, which means that a PC doesn’t have to be left on to access a deviceusing Wi-Fi. Remote access products like IP cameras use Wi-Fi so they can be connected to arouter and accessed across the Internet. Wi-Fi is useful but not simple to implement unlessyou just want to connect a new device to your existing network.Bluetooth is generally used for point to point communication, although Bluetooth networkscan be established quite easily. Typical applications we are all familiar with allow datatransfer from mobile phones to PCs. Bluetooth wireless is the best solution for these point topoint links, as it has high data transfer rates and, with the right antenna, very long ranges ofup to 1KM in ideal circumstances.The commonest application we deal with is replacement of serial cables by using a serial toBluetooth converter on one end e.g. solar panel array, and a USB to Bluetooth adapter toconnect to a laptop or PC on the other end. These types of link are very easy to setup, oftenby just pressing a pairing button on the units to create a permanent Bluetooth link.Bluetooth can also be used to create small ad-hoc networks, often with one USB to Bluetoothconvertor as the master and up to 4 serial to Bluetooth adapters as slaves. Have a look at ourBluetooth Wireless Guide for more information.What about ZigBee wireless? This is a wireless protocol that also operates in the 2.4GHzband, like Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, but it operates at much lower data rates. The mainadvantages of ZigBee wireless are Low power consumption Very robust network Up to 65,645 nodes Very easy to add or remove nodes from the networkThis makes it ideal for control and monitoring applications, such as home automation orsmart metering. A Guide to ZigBee Wireless Networks covers ZigBee in more depth. Thisguide also has a full comparison between Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and ZigBee wireless solutions.1. Both are short-range wireless communications technology;2. Are using 2.4GHz frequency band;3. Are based on DSSS technology;Differences: 1. Transmission at different speeds. ZigBee transmission speed is not high (raw data rate250Kbps), but low power consumption, battery-powered general can use more than 3 months; Wi-Fi, is oftenAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 18
  • said that the wireless LAN, a large rate (11Mbps), power consumption is also large, the general external Power; 2. different applications. ZigBee for low rate, low-power situations, such as wireless sensor networks for industrial control, environmental monitoring, smart home control and other fields. Wi-Fi, is generally used to cover a certain range (such as a building) wireless network technology (about 100 meters range). Zigbee generally needs an always-on coordinator node. Wi-Fi generally needs a wireless router. Wi-Fi is widely used for wireless Internet access. LinkSprite developed a mesh-network Wi-Fi street lighting control system that doesnt need a Wi-Fi router. 3. ZigBee market status as an emerging technology, from 2004 released the first version of the standard has been in the midst of rapid development and promotion of them; now because of cost, reliability reasons, no large-scale promotion; Wi-Fi, Technology very mature, the application has a lot. In general, the larger the difference between the two, positioning is different between those competitions is not great. But technically the two have most in common; mutual interference between the two is quite large, especially for the ZigBee Wi-Fi interference. 9.1 The comparison of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and ZigBeeIn this month, I’d like to introduce the comparison of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and ZigBee.Wi-Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance that may be used with certified products thatbelong to a class of wireless local area network (WLAN) devices based on the IEEE 802.11standards.Wi-Fi allows local area networks (LANs) to be deployed without wires for client devices,typically reducing the costs of network deployment and expansion. Spaces where cablescannot be run, such as outdoor areas and historical buildings, can host wireless LANs.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 19
  • Wireless network adapters are now built into most laptops. The price of chipsets for Wi-Ficontinues to drop, making it an economical networking option included in even more devices.Wi-Fi has become widespread in corporate infrastructures.Different competitive brands of access points and client network interfaces are inter-operableat a basic level of service. Products designated as ―Wi-Fi Certified‖ by the Wi-Fi Alliance arebackwards compatible. Wi-Fi is a global set of standards. Unlike mobile phones, any standardWi-Fi device will work anywhere in the world.A typical wireless router using 802.11b or 802.11g with a stock antenna might have a rangeof 32 m (120 ft) indoors and 95 m (300 ft) outdoors. Due to reach requirements for wirelessLAN applications, power consumption is fairly high compared to some other standards.Because of the very limited practical range of Wi-Fi, mobile use is essentially confined tosuch applications as inventory taking machines in warehouses or retail spaces, barcodereading devices at check-out stands or receiving / shipping stations.ZigBee is a low-cost, low-power, wireless mesh networking proprietary standard. The lowcost allows the technology to be widely deployed in wireless control and monitoringapplications, the low power-usage allows longer life with smaller batteries, and the meshnetworking provides high reliability and larger range.ZigBee operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands; 868 MHz inEurope, 915 MHz in the USA and Australia, and 2.4 GHz in most jurisdictions worldwide.The technology is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs such asBluetooth.Because ZigBee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 15 msec or less, the latencycan be very low and devices can be very responsive — particularly compared to Bluetoothwake-up delays, which are typically around three seconds. Because ZigBees can sleep mostof the time, average power consumption can be very low, resulting in long battery life.ZigBee protocols are intended for use in embedded applications requiring low data rates andlow power consumption. ZigBee’s current focus is to define a general-purpose, inexpensive,self-organizing mesh network that can be used for industrial control, embedded sensing,medical data collection, smoke and intruder warning, building automation, home automation,etc. The resulting network will use very small amounts of power – individual devices musthave a battery life of at least two years to pass ZigBee certification.The ZigBee work in 2.4GHz band, this is free band and multi of networks have a high power, highdata rate and high frequency work in this band. This networks have adversely effect on the ZigBee;interference problem. In this paper we studied the mutual interference effect between ZigBee and Wi-Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 20
  • Fi devices. In the future we can proposed scheme comes to reduce from one of the major problemsfacing the ZigBee; interference.4. The key characteristics of Wi-Fi and Zigbee. ZigBee Wi-FiRange 10-100 meters 50-100 metersNetworking Topology Ad-hoc, peer to peer, star, or Point to hub meshOperating Frequency 868 MHz (Europe) 2.4 and 5 GHz 900-928 MHz (NA), 2.4 GHz (worldwide)Complexity (Device and Low Highapplication impact)Power Consumption Very low (low power is a High(Battery option and life) design goal)Security 128 AES plus application layer securityTypical Applications Industrial control and Wireless LAN connectivity, monitoring, sensor networks, broadband Internet access building automation, home control and automation, toys, gamesThis entry was posted on Thursday, February 25th, 2010 at 5:06 am and is filed underBluetooth. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You canleave a response or trackback from your own site.Security Issues with Wi-Fi and ZigBeeThere is hardly a consumer product today that does not have one or more wireless interfaces.Cell phones typically add Wi-Fi radios. In home thermostats, ―smart appliances,‖ and powermeters using ZigBee® are starting to enable power monitoring and regulation via the SmartGrid, while ZigBee RF4CE-powered remote controls make life even easier for ―couchpotatoes.‖Each of these protocols has security issues that, if not recognized and addressed at the designstage, can have serious repercussions. This article will examine the security issues with thesewidely used wireless protocols. It will take a chip- and protocol-oriented approach and avoidissues like computer security or problems relating to different network topologies, each ofAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 21
  • which deserves a separate article, if not a book.Wi-FiWith over a billion Wi-Fi chipsets shipping each year, the Wi-Fi Alliance’s claim that ―Wi-Fi iseverywhere‖ is hardly an exaggeration. While Wi-Fi is by far the most widely used wirelessnetworking protocol, it has gone through numerous iterations in an attempt to resolve itssecurity problems, which are now arguably behind it – with one caveat.WEPWhen the original IEEE 802.11 standard was ratified in September 1997, it relied on thewireless equivalency protocol (WEP) for security. In the shared-key authentication version ofWEP, the client sends an authentication request to the access point, which replies with a plaintext challenge; the client then encrypts the challenge using a WEP key and sends it back. If thereturned key matches, access is granted.WEP uses the RC4 stream cipher, the same one used in secure socket layers (SSL) to protectInternet traffic. Initially 64-bit WEP used a 40-bit key (later 104 bits) that was concatenatedwith the 24-bit initialization vector (IV) to form the RC4 key. Unfortunately the IV key wastransmitted as plain text and used repeatedly, making it fairly straightforward for aneavesdropper to recover the key. When the FBI was able to crack WEP encryption within threeminutes, the search for a better mousetrap began.WPAWhile the IEEE was working on IEEE 802.11i, in April 2003 the Wi-Fi Alliance rolled out Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) based on a subset of that pending standard. For encryption, WPAused the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), which generated a new 128-bit key for eachpacket, thereby plugging the major security hole in WEP.To verify the integrity of packets, WPA uses much stronger message authentication codes thanthe cyclical redundancy checks (CRC) used by WEP. WPA relies on IEEE 802.1X, whichdefines an authentication mechanism for 802.11 networks. For enterprise users, WPA uses theExtensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) – specifically EAP-TLS, which provides transportlayer security; for residential and consumer users, WPA uses a pre-shared key (PSK) system.While WPA is far more secure than WEP from passive attacks, its PSK implementation can befairly easily cracked by a brute force attack if you have a weak password.WPA was always intended as an interim solution until IEEE 802.11i was ratified. WPA is farmore robust than WEP but not nearly as strong as WPA2, which replaced it.WPA2The Wi-Fi Alliance rolled out WPA2 based on IEEE 802.11i after it was ratified in June 2004.IEEE 802.11i added two new handshake protocols to the original 802.11 specification in orderto enable robust security network associations (RSNAs).For encryption, WPA2 utilizes the Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining MessageAuthentication Code Protocol (CCMP), which does AES encryption using a 128-bit key and a128-bit block size. CCMP replaced TKIP, which had proved vulnerable to a variety of attacks.Without getting into the details of AES encryption, suffice it to say it has been the MountAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 22
  • Everest of code crackers since the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) firstintroduced it in 2001. It took ten years before the first successful key recovery attack on AES-128, which required 2 operations. Bottom line: Wi-Fi with WPA2 is quite secure. 126.1Table 1 summarizes the major differences between WEP, WPA, and WPA2. TexasInstruments’ ―Introduction to Wi-Fi Technology‖ product training module (PTM) provides a goodoverview of the technology, including security protocols. WEP WPA WPA2 Encryption Manual key TKIP based on RC4 Counter Mode with assignment shared stream cipher Cipher Block keys using Rivest Chaining Message cipher 4 (RC4) Authentication Code stream) cipher Protocol (CCMP) with 128 bit AES block cipher Data Integrity Linear hash function Cryptographic hash function Key Management No Yes Replay detection No Yes Table 1: Her is Comparison table of WEP, WPA, and WPA2 (Courtesy Wi-Fi Alliance).There is still one weak spot in Wi-Fi security: Wi-Fi Protected Setup. For the average non-geekuser, setting up a Wi-Fi network can be a daunting task. In 2007, the Wi-Fi Alliance introducedWi-Fi Protected Setup, which greatly simplifies the procedure. Now instead of having tomanually enter PSKs and SSIDs, users can simply enter a PIN code or even push a button onthe router while the access point is nearby, quickly pairing the two devices. But the usual trade-off for increased simplicity is decreased complexity, which in this case resulted in reducedsecurity. Wi-Fi Protected Setup has some well-documented design flaws that leave it open toequally well-documented brute force attacks. The bottom line is if your router features Wi-FiProtected Setup and youre a geek – turn it off. SSIDs just aren’t that intimidating. If you’redesigning an embedded device that uses Wi-Fi, don’t enable this feature.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 23
  • Figure 1: Three generations of Wi-Fi share the air.In 2004, the Wi-Fi Alliance officially deprecated WEP, and since 2006, WPA2 has beenmandatory in order to receive official certification. So it was with considerable surprise when Iturned on my 2.4 GHz packet sniffer and discovered that some of my neighbors were still usingthe older technology (see Figure 1). While three of us are using WPA2 (RSNA-CCMP),2WIRE464 is using WPA (WPA-TKIP) and two others are relying on WEP. If you’reconcerned about Wi-Fi security, start by checking out your existing equipment. New embeddeddesigns will certainly use the newer protocols.Wi-Fi SolutionsThe simplest way to resolve problems is to avoid them in the first place; when adding Wi-Fi toyour embedded design, choosing to go with a module ensures that security issues are covered.Digi-Key stocks quite a number of Wi-Fi modules, including the RabbitCore RCM5400W from DigiInternational, a C-programmable Wi-Fi core module; a Wi-Fi adaptor board from Future Designs;plus an assortment of modules from Multi-Tech Systems, RFM, and Sagrad.If you choose to develop your own Wi-Fi designs, several manufacturers make evaluationand/or development kits to assist in that effort. CSR PLC makes the Radio Pro™ reference design kitfor developing Wi-Fi-based Internet applications. RFM’s WSN802GDK-A development kitincludes a router and a board based on its WSN802G transceiver module designed for 802.11gsensor networks. Texas Instruments’ CC3000FRAMEMK is a full turnkey Wi-Fi evaluation anddemonstration tool for MSP430™ FRAM MCUs and TIs Simplelink™ Wi-Fi. FreescaleSemiconductor’s TWR-WI-FI-G1011MI kit enables you to design 802.11b-based applications usingtheir Kinetis® Tower development system. Finally, Digi International’s Wi-ME S integration kit letsyou evaluate their Digi Connect Wi-ME modules for your intended design.ZigBeeAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 24
  • Some of the spikes on the panoramic display in Figure 1 are from nearby ZigBee devices.ZigBee – like Bluetooth, 6LoWPAN, WirelessHART, and a number of others – is based onIEEE 802.15.4, which defines the PHY and MAC layers for low cost, low power, low data ratewireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs). ZigBee typically operates in low-power mesh orstar sensor networks, providing a maximum data rate of 250 kbps.The IEEE 802.15.4-2003 specification defines not one, but several different PHYs dependingon the modulation type and operating frequency. Three of the PHYs support DSSS in the868/915 MHz bands using either OBPSK or QPSK, the latter being used in the 2.4 GHz ISMband. ZigBee uses the two PHY layers that operate in the 868/915 MHz and 2.4 GHz bands.ZigBee occupies 16 non-overlapping channels in the 2.4 GHz band (worldwide) and tenchannels on the 915 MHz band in the U.S.The IEEE 802.15.4-2003 MAC sub-layer controls access to the radio channel using a CSMA-CA mechanism. Its responsibilities may also include transmitting beacon frames,synchronization, and providing a reliable transmission mechanism.ZigBee implements most security procedures (see Figure 4) at the network (NWK) andapplication support sub-layer (APS). These services include methods for key establishment, keytransport, frame protection, and device management. The security suite is AES-CCM, a 128-bitsymmetric key block cipher algorithm, making ZigBee basically as secure as Wi-Fi – if you setit up correctly. There are several suites of ZigBee security services with ascending securitylevels: No security Confidentiality: AES-CTR Authentication: AES-CBC-MAC with 32-, 64-, or 128-bit MAC Confidentiality and Authentication: AES-CCM with 32-, 64-, or 128-bit MACAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 25
  • Figure 4: Security in the ZigBee Stack (Courtesy ZigBee Alliance).The available security services depend on the security suite. There are also some recommendedimplementation options: Use a key sequence counter Use the ―Protected-ACK‖ frame type Use a Trust Reference Value (TRV) Use Flash memory to store nonce statesZigBee RF4CEZigBee RF4CE is an even lower power, simplified version of the ZigBee architecture (seeFigure 5) designed to replace IR-based remote controls in consumer electronics. Operating inthe 2.4 GHz band, RF4CE only hops over three channels instead of ZigBee’s 16; and itsimplifies the pairing mechanisms while still utilizing an AES-128 CCM security scheme.While it is possible, it is unlikely that anyone will be able to hack into your RF4CE-connectedembedded device. However, if you are considering using RF4CE for a mission criticalapplication, think twice before using such a simple protocol.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 26
  • Figure 5: ZigBee RF4CE architecture (Courtesy ZigBee Alliance).ZigBee SolutionsThe increasing popularity of ZigBee in embedded applications is apparent from the largenumber of evaluation and/or development boards available from Ember, DigiInternational/MaxStream, LS Research, CEL, NXP Semiconductors, and STMicroelectronics.If you’re looking for a ZigBee RF front-end – integrating a PA and LNA – Skyworks, RFMD, TexasInstruments, and CEL have it covered. If you would rather design from scratch, as of this writingDigi-Key stocks 211 ZigBee transceivers from which to choose.If you’re still not convinced that ZigBee makes sense for your application, check out the RFMZigBee product training module, which addresses the question ―Why ZigBee?‖ in some detail.Summing UpEmbedded designs are increasingly wireless, often sporting several different RF interfaces.While this makes them more capable it also opens up potential security holes that must beunderstood during the planning phase and addressed at the design stage. By understanding thepotential risks and designing around them, security drops out of the equation and the choicebetween Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and ZigBee comes back to features, functions, and price—which isas it should be.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 27
  • 10. SOLUTIONModern public infrastructure systems use Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition(SCADA) systems for daily operation. This includes water treatment systems; electric powertransmission, distribution, and generation; petroleum storage and refineries; and other publicinfrastructure systems. The SCADA system provides monitoring, data analysis, and controlof the equipment used to manage most public infrastructure systems. The SCADA network iscomprised of various communication devices. Routers, switches, wireless equipment, serialconnections, proprietary hardware monitors, and various computers are used. This projectwill examine common SCADA control network implementations to determine possibleweaknesses and solutions.SCADA SystemsSCADA systems are used to control dispersed assets where centralized data acquisition is asimportant as control [3] [4]. These systems are used in distribution systems such as water distributionand wastewater collection systems, oil and natural gas pipelines, electrical utility transmission anddistribution systems, and rail and other public transportation systems. SCADA systems integrate dataacquisition systems with data transmission systems and HMI software to provide a centralizedmonitoring and control system for numerous process inputs and outputs. SCADA systems aredesigned to collect field information, transfer it to a central computer facility, and display theinformation to the operator graphically or textually, thereby allowing the operator to monitor orcontrol an entire system from a central location in real time. Based on the sophistication and setup ofthe individual system, control of any individual system, operation, or task can be automatic, or it canbe performed by operator commands.SCADA systems consist of both hardware and software. Typical hardware includes an MTU placed ata control centre, communications equipment (e.g., radio, telephone line, cable, or satellite), and one ormore geographically distributed field sites consisting of either an RTU or a PLC, which controlsactuators and/or monitors sensors. The MTU stores and processes the information from RTU inputsand outputs, while the RTU or PLC controls the local process. The communications hardware allowsthe transfer of information and data back and forth between the MTU and the RTUs or PLCs. Thesoftware is programmed to tell the system what and when to monitor, what parameter ranges areacceptable, and what response to initiate when parameters change outside acceptable values. An IED,such as a protective relay, may communicate directly to the SCADA Server, or a local RTU may pollthe IEDs to collect the data and pass it to the SCADA Server. IEDs provide a direct interface tocontrol and monitor equipment and sensors. IEDs may be directly polled and controlled by theSCADA Server and in most cases have local programming that allows for the IED to act withoutdirect instructions from the SCADA control centre. SCADA systems are usually designed to be fault-tolerant systems with significant redundancy built into the system architecture.Figure 13.1 shows the components and general configuration of a SCADA system. The control centrehouses a SCADA Server (MTU) and the communications routers. Other control centre componentsinclude the HMI, engineering workstations, and the data historian, which are all connected by a LAN.The control centre collects and logs information gathered by the field sites, displays information to theHMI, and may generate actions based upon detected events. The control centre is also responsible forcentralized alarming, trend analyses, and reporting. The field site performs local control of actuatorsand monitors sensors. Field sites are often equipped with a remote access capability to allow fieldoperators to perform remote diagnostics and repairs usually over a separate dial up modem or WANconnection. Standard and proprietary communication protocols running over serial communicationsAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 28
  • are used to transport information between the control centre and field sites using telemetry techniquessuch as telephone line, cable, fibre, and radio frequency such as broadcast, microwave and satellite.MTU-RTU communication architectures vary among implementations. The various architecturesused, including point-to-point, series, series-star, and multi-drop [5], are shown in Figure 2-3. Point-to-point is functionally the simplest type; however, it is expensive because of the individual channelsneeded for each connection. In a series configuration, the number of channels used is reduced;however, channel sharing has an impact on the efficiency and complexity of SCADA operations.Similarly, the series-star and multi-drop configurations’ use of one channel per device results indecreased efficiency and increased system complexity.Figure 10.1 General Layout for SCADA System 10.1 SCADA OverviewSCADA systems are used in industrial and civil engineering applications to control andmonitor distributed systems from a central location. SCADA solutions are implementedin a wide variety of industries including Electric power generation, transmission, anddistribution, Environmental Control Systems, Traffic Signals, Water management systems,and Manufacturing systems. Hardware solutions utilize switches, pumps, and other devicesthat are controlled by Remote Telemetry Units (RTU). Sever units then monitor the hardwareand collect values, as well as provide control features that allow the operator remotelymanage the physical equipment. The server unit runs a management package that typicallyruns on top of a Unix variant, although many vendors are beginning to provide MicrosoftWindows support. A Human-machine interface allows the operator to view the state of theplant equipment. Dumb terminals or PC’s usually host this interface. Alarms are used to alertthe operator that intervention is required to keep things running smoothly. A wide variety ofnetworking equipment is then used to connect all of these components together. Wirelesstechnology is popular for its ability to span long distances with minimal equipment. Fibergives greater reliability but incurs far more expense. Serial technologies utilize dedicatedcopper wiring or Telco POTS lines. Common protocols include Modbus and DNP3.Although originally designed to run on low-bandwidth proprietary networks, many protocolshave included extensions to operate over TCP/IP. Figure 1 shows a simple SCADA networkimplementation. The system involves a Server unit that controls a serial based traffic signalAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 29
  • system, as well as a water treatment plant and several stream flow monitors connected usingwireless technology in the 2.4 GHz range. Two monitoring stations provide user control ofthe system. 10.2 Security overviewDue to the nature of what they control, SCADA networks are part of our nation’s criticalinfrastructure and require protection from a variety of threats. When initially designed,SCADA equipment was designed for maximal functionality. As a result many security riskswere exposed to maximize the communication efficiency. This makes many SCADAnetworks potentially vulnerable to attack. These attacks could result in disruption of service,manipulation of data, or unauthorized control of the connected equipment. The United StatesDepartment of Energy states that: ―Action is required by all organizations, government orcommercial, to secure their SCADA networks as part of the effort to adequately protect thenation’s critical infrastructure.‖ (U.S. Dept. Of Energy, 2002) This paper will address severalpotential vulnerabilities of SCADA systems and possible solutions. The report will be brokendown into 5 parts: RTU’s, Server security, Protocol Analysis, Network infrastructuresecurity, as well as miscellaneous topics.Figure 10.2 Single Firewall using in SCADABecause of the stringent requirements of SCADA systems with regard to timing, availability,and data processing, firewall rules have to be tailored for the various protocols and networkservices. The Industrial Automation Open Networking Association (IAONA) developedprotocol guidelines for network services that accommodate the unique SCADA systemAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 30
  • characteristics. These guidelines for communications with SCADA systems are summarizedin Table 3-6. The services provided by the protocols are summarized in Tables 3-3 and 3-5.Protocols supporting real-time data acquisition and control in manufacturing and processcontrol applications began as proprietary solutions offered by control equipmentmanufacturers. These protocols and associated communication buses met the needs of usersand were widely applied. The next steps in the evolution of SCADA protocols were thedevelopment of open-standard protocols and the adoption of Ethernet and Internettechnologies. With these changes, particularly the use of the Internet architectural elementsand connections to transmit and receive data involving SCADA systems, security issues arenow of concern. Proper use of the SCADA protocols coupled with network security devicessuch as firewalls can provide SCADA users with secure, efficient, and cost-effectivecommunication means. 10.3 RTU SecurityThe RTU, or Remote Telemetry Unit is a device which interfaces objects in the physicalworld to a SCADA system. An example of this is attaching an RTU to a water pump toallow monitoring and control of the pump. Serial and Ethernet interfaces are common onthese units, as well as null-modem management interfaces. Physical security must first beevaluated. Secure facilities must be acquired which limits access to authorized personnelonly. Secondly, the RTU configuration must be analyzed. Management interfaces should bedisabled or utilize the strongest authentication. Firmware should be upgraded to the lateststable release. All unused features should be disabled. 10.4 Server SecurityThe Server unit is vulnerable to several types of attack. Unauthorized access may be obtainedusing a network or modem based attack, or by visiting the physical location. Another risk isan attack that damages the server and makes it inoperable. Security must first be obtainedthrough restricting access to authorized users only. Physically locate the server in a safelocation that restricts access to authorized users only. Proper access controls should beimplemented to verify the identity of the user. If passwords are used they should be changedfrequently. Biometric devices are also helpful. The operating system must also be hardened.Any unnecessary software and services should be removed. Apply all stable patches to thesystem. Communication protocols must be configured for maximal security. Protocol securityis covered in greater depth in the section labeled ―Protocol Security.‖ 10.5 Network SecurityThe network infrastructure is the most visible piece of the SCADA system, which makes it anobvious location for attack. As security provider Riptech points out, there is a commonmisconception that SCADA networks use strong access controls. In reality most SCADAsystems utilize hardware from many different manufactures which require the integration ofdifferent communication standards. (Riptech Inc, 2001) The result is often usually a veryfunctional system, but due to the increased complexity security concerns are often ignored. Asecond misconception is the belief that the SCADA system resides on a separate standalonenetwork. Most SCADA systems were originally built on separate standalone networks, butwere eventually bridged as a result ofAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 31
  • changes in information management practices. The need for real-time data became desirableon the corporate network. Corporate decision makers wanted the critical data from theiroperations systems. Many of these connections are implemented without a full understandingof the security risks. In addition to these misconceptions certain network mediums presenttheir own set of security risks. Sniffing, Denial of Service (DOS) and spoofing attacks are allserious threats. There are several steps that can be taken to minimize the threat and impact ofsuch vulnerabilities and attacks. 10.6 Network AccessAll network connection points must be identified. This includes Ethernet ports, WirelessLinks, and Serial connections. All unused and unnecessary ports need to be disabled. Thenetwork architecture should be segmented in such a way to provide access control betweendifferent segments. Data warehousing and server network segments should be especially wellsecured. 10.7 Network SegmentationIn spite of the best security practices there still exists a possibility that an attacker may gainunauthorized access. Network IDS systems provide an additional layer of monitoring to alertyou to the presence of unauthorized access. An IDS system is basically a network vacuumthat contains advanced data analysis tools to examine network traffic and identify likelyattacks. Network IDS systems should be established on both the internal network, as wellas the connecting external networks to monitor for incidents. 10.8 External AccessIn certain instances external access to the SCADA network may be necessary. Vendors mayneed access, or connections to the corporate network may be necessary. Every one of theseconnections presents a serious threat. It is extremely important that all external access pointsbe identified. Determine what specific access is needed. Identify the methods used to connect.All access points should implement proper security measures. Firewalls and IDS monitorsshould be used. Firewall rules should be as specific as possible, allowing only the bareminimum access to the SCADA network. Make sure to implement outbound filtering as wellto prevent internal SCADA hosts from accessing hosts on the external networks. Anycommunication that is happening between the SCADA network and other networks shouldutilize secure protocols. Plaintext protocols present the greatest threat and should be secured.One technique of securing plaintext communication is to wrap the communication inside aVPN tunnel. A VPN creates a virtual route between two networks where all data that istransmitted is encrypted. Desirable VPN products utilize IPSEC and SSL encryption. Avoidproducts using PPTP as it has been shown defective. Access controls should also beimplemented to restrict access to specific IP address ranges to minimize the likelihood that apotential attacker would even discover the service as is shown inAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 32
  • 10.9 RF SecurityWireless communications devices are popular for SCADA networks due to the long distancesbetween monitoring stations. A typical architecture involves point-to-point links operating ateither 900 MHz or 2.4 GHz. Newer systems are adopting the 802.11 standards while legacyutilize proprietary data link level protocols. The security of 802.11 is an entire subject toitself and this paper will not attempt to cover it. The focus of this section is to identify thecommon wireless threats to the RF transmission. Wireless communication presents a hugesecurity and stability problem. The broadcast nature of the data allows it to be recorded andanalyzed at a later date. At this point 128 bit encryption provides adequate protection fromthis attack. The control features of SCADA networks require that adequate bandwidth beavailable to transmit data to the RTU. This is hard to guarantee when using wirelesstechnologies. Each frequency has a limited amount of bandwidth so competing devices maytake bandwidth. A hostile attack is also possible using an RF generation device. Bytransmitting random RF noise it is possible to flood the available frequency space and blockthe SCADA control traffic. This attack is easily tracked with the proper directional antennas,but the temporary loss of control could prevent corrective action at the RTU and cause anaccident. Several actions can be taken to reduce the risk of this attack, but it is physicallyimpossible to prevent it when using the public airspace for transmission. Highly directionalantennas will reduce the amount of interfering RF signal. Acquiring licenses for limited usecommercial frequencies will reduce interference, but the potential for signal jamming stillexists. Wireless does not provide the service guarantee needed for mission critical controlsystems. It is however a good method for monitoring and control of non-essential RTU’swhere the loss of communication is unlikely to cause an incident. 10.10 The MODBUS ProtocolThe MODBUS protocol is currently one of the most popular protocols for use with SCADAsystems. It is an application layer messaging protocol that provides client/servercommunication between devices connected through different types of busses or networks. Ithas been an industry standard for device automation using serial communication since 1979.Today the protocol has been adapted to function over TCP/IP, where it uses TCP port 502.Figure 3 shows the basic protocol structure for both serial and TCP/IP communication.MODBUS is a request/reply protocol. The packet is broken down into an application dataunit (ADU) which contains a simple protocol data unit (PDU). The PDU contains a one bytefunction code and the data field. The data field contains additional information that the serveruses to take the defined action. 10.11 Securing MODBUSWhen MODBUS was developed in the 70’s it provided adequate security for the currentthreats being faced. Most communication was taking place on isolated serial networks usingprivate lines. Attacks required a very specific knowledge of which lines were being use, andgenerally required physical access. With the TCP implementation the security rules havechanged. Interconnected networks span the globe allowing creative attackers to potentiallyexploit the system from anywhere around the globe. The clear-text nature of the protocolmakes it especially vulnerable. Monitoring data can be gathered with ease, and passwordsmay be gleaned from the transmission. In order to protect this protocol we must wrap it insidean encryption medium. An IPSEC VPN connection should be used to encapsulate the trafficAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 33
  • whenever it is traveling across a vulnerable medium. Some examples of vulnerable mediumsinclude non-SCADA and wireless networks. 11. WIRELESS NETWORKINGThe ZigBee work in 2.4GHz band, this is free band and multi of networks have a high power, highdata rate and high frequency work in this band. This networks have adversely effect on the ZigBee;interference problem. In this paper we studied the mutual interference effect between ZigBee and Wi-Fi devices. In the future we can proposed scheme comes to reduce from one of the major problemsfacing the ZigBee; interference.Wireless networking refers to a broad topic that in essence associated with communicationnetworks that use electromagnetic waves such as radio waves as carrier and thus providesgreater flexibility and convenience compared to wired networks.A common classification of the wireless networks is done by the range or the area that iscovered by the wireless network. Instead of going through details, we will locate the positionof ZigBee in wireless networking area using a top-down approach.Wireless Wide Area Networks provide communication links across metropolitan, regional, ornational boundaries by using technologies such as Universal Mobile TelecommunicationsSystem, General Packet Radio Service, and 3G to carry voice and data traffic.Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks are a type of wireless network that connects severalWireless Local Area Networks. A good example for such networks is speci_ed by the iMAXstandard which is built on the IEEE 802.16 standard and preserves connection in a wholecity.Wireless Local Area Networks enable users to establish connection in a local area setting(e.g. inside a building) and provide connection to wider networks such as internet. These typeof networks are widely used on a worldwide scale, and Wi-Fi is a well-known technologycertification that belongs to WLANs which is based on IEEE 802.11 standard.Finally, Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) connect network devices within personalarea, which is a low cost and short range type of connection. Bluetooth and ZigBee are bothexamples of WPANs, based on the same Medium Access Control (MAC) layer family i.e.IEEE 802.15 standard.ZigBee is at the same time a wireless sensor network (WSN) standard, in terms of aclassification based on the type of the devices that form the network. A WSN is a networkthat is formed by a large number of sensor devices. A sensor device is equipped with at leastone sensor that detects physical occurrences such as light, heat, motion, or sound.WSNs are used in many different application areas including automation, monitoring,security, entertainment, and asset tracking. Many of these applications require large numberof sensor devices hence to limit the costs WSN devices have severe resource constraints.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 34
  • These constraints are mainly in terms of computation, memory, and energy. Therefore,security is difficult to achieve, and many well-known methods and approaches becomeinfeasible.At this point we would like to mention the relation between WSN and CPS. A CPS isgenerally composed by a set of networked agents, including sensors, actuators, controlprocessing units, and communication devices [CAS08]. In Fig. 1.2 a sample CPS is sketchedwhere corresponds to an actuator corresponds to a sensor, as corresponds to a device withboth actuator and sensor, and c being a controller.While some forms of CPS are already in use, the widespread growth of wireless embeddedsensors and actuators is stimulating several new applications in areas such as medicaldevices, autonomous vehicles, and smart structures and increasing the role of existing onessuch as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems.WSN is one of the key technologies that enable the concept of CPS. Besides, commonapplications of CPS typically fall under WSNs and autonomous systems. 11.1 Security ProtocolsA security protocol is a protocol that is used for performing security functions and generallyincorporates cryptographic algorithms. The security protocols are widely used for securingthe data communication in application level. Those protocols are commonly used for dataconfidentiality, data integrity, security key establishment, security key exchange, entityauthentication, message authentication, non-repudiation, etc.Security protocols generally make use of cryptography, so that a virtual secure channel canbe established to provide secure communication over insecure media. Cryptography requirescryptographic keys to be established and distributed among the sides of the communication,and such a sequence of message exchanges for key establishment and distribution is a goodexample of a security protocol.As we mentioned, security protocols are usually executed in insecure media where malicioususers or software can be present. The adversaries are capable of performing many differenttypes of attacks, making it complex to design sound security protocols. Even cryptographycannot save the protocol in most of the situations, which is one of the reasons of securityprotocols being so error prone. Security protocols are desired to maintain certain securityproperties. If these security properties cannot be preserved, certain flaws are likely to takeplace. Those flaws will cause serious attacks in the real implementations. Therefore, bothdesign and verification of the protocols are very important.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 35
  • 12. WORLD WIDE WEB ARE USEFULAt Web based Temperature Monitoring System, all the data are saved into the database. Theuser must ensure that the temperatures are saving in the database before proceeding to thenext step. If everything runs smoothly, run the TomCat Web Server, and access the currenttemperature using the web page. The system is considered successful if there is no errordetected during the testing. Because the hardware device was not built with expensivematerials, so it can only be used in a limited geographical area. It can only be used for indoortemperature monitoring and limited only for one room because there is only one sensorattached to the sensor board. Other limitation is if the electricity is cut off it will shut downthe entire operating system. It can have one with working with betters and wirelessly couldconnect to the mobile or satellite.Figure 12.1 Flow chart for WWW.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 36
  • 12.1 TESTING RESULTSTesting phase is used to evaluate the system’s function whether it meets the intended functionality. The systemwas successfully implemented and developed. However, to ensure that the system will perform correctly, thetemperature sensor device and monitoring system need to be tested. Two method of testing was carried out tomake sure the hardware and software is functioning according to the objectives.Figure 3. Figure 12.2.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 37
  • 13. CONCLUSIONThe quality of the proposed Refineries process is one of the few ways a client can judge thequality of the end result while still in the design stage. A proposal with save a lives. Improve Project is good and useful. Cost Justifying if it orders more. Reliability for system in the internet. Increase live save for patients. Increase Project in all UK.Finally, it is important that a user interface be visually pleasing. It is possible for a userinterface to be intuitive, easy to monitor, and efficient and still not be terribly nice to look at.While aesthetics do not directly impact the effectiveness of a user interface, families for thepatient’s will be happierSCADA networks are diverse systems. The integration of legacy hardware with newtechnologies leads to a vast array of technologies and protocols being used. The integration ofthe technologies is typically oriented towards functionality with little thought for security. Onthe other hand SCADA networks are used to monitor and control many mission-criticalsystems used for power generation, water management, transportation system control, andother industrial applications. A security breach of these mission-critical services could havedevastating effects. In some instances lives could be lost and financial losses could beimmense. The security of these systems is critical for the operation of our society. Security ofthese services should have high priority. The security of the system is dependent on theindividual security of each component. Breaches can happen on all levels. RTU units most beproperly configured to limit exposure and physical plant security must be implemented tolimit access. Server security consists of hardening the underlying operating system andeliminating all unnecessary services. Network security is a diverse topic. Disconnect allunnecessary connections. Segment the network into logical groupings and use AccessControls to restrict unwanted traffic. Monitor your network and be aware of what is enter andleaving. Intrusion Detection packages should be used to automate this monitoring. Eliminateall plain-text communication traversing the corporate network but wrapping it inside anencryption layer with VPN technology. To summarize, implement proper physically security,properly configure all devices to permit only necessary communication, and use monitoringtools to verify security policy is being followed and warn of attacks.2.4 Glossary of TermsIDS: An intrusion detection system (IDS) inspects all inbound and outbound network activityand identifies suspicious patterns that may indicate a network or system attack from someoneattempting to break into or compromise a system. IPSEC: Short for IP Security, a set ofprotocols developed by the IETF to support secure exchange of packets at the IP layer. IPsechas been deployed widely to implement Virtual Private Networks (VPN). SSL: Short forsecure Sockets Layer, a protocol developed by Netscape for transmitting private documentsAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 38
  • via the Internet. SSL works by using a private key to encrypt data thats transferred over theSSL connection. PPTP: Short for Point-to-Point Tunnelling Protocol, a new technology forcreating Virtual Private Networks (VPN) , developed jointly by Microsoft Corporation, U.S.Robotics, and several remote access vendor companies, known collectively as the PPTPForum. VPN: Short for Virtual Private Network, a network that is constructed by usingpublic wires to connect nodes. DOS: Short for Denial-Of-Service attack, a type of attackon a network that is designed to bring the network to its knees by flooding it with uselesstraffic.Modbus: An open, serial communications protocol based on the master/slave architecture.Modbus is a protocol that provides the internal standard that Modicon controllers use forparsing messages. Commonly used for SCADA communication.DNP3: A protocol for transmission of data from point A to point B using serialcommunications.SCADA: Acronym for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, a computer system forgathering and analysing real time data.RTU: Short for remote Telemetry Unit. In SCADA systems, an RTU is a device installed at aremote location that collects data, codes the data into a format that is transmittable andtransmits the data back to a central station, or master.POTS: Short for Plain Old Telephone Service, which refers to the standard telephone servicethat most homes use.In this paper we presented the simulations students performed in the framework of a designproject. Getting acquainted with OPNET Modeller required a good deal of time and effortfrom the students. A lot of creative problem solving was needed, but the results are quitesatisfactory. Students gained a lot of insights into networking by using OPNET Modeller.We believe that simulation has an important role here, since it allows students to examineproblems with much less work and of much larger scope than are possible with experimentson real hardware. Simulation can give more understanding in real world reproduce all thedetails of the real world and they can be easily instrumented. In addition, simulation ofdozens or hundreds of nodes are easy on limited hardware, many more than is affordable ifphysical hardware was required.We have been very happy with our use of the OPNET simulator. Our experiences show thatstudents benefit from the OPENT simulation laboratory in many ways. The open design ofthe labs encourages active learning. In addition, students gain the knowledge of modellingand simulation technique for performance evaluation of networking systems.To get better performance when designing a network, the Frame Relay is useful. Thedistribution of the services between multiple servers versus services handled by one serverimpacts the CPU utilization depending on the kind of services supported. If there is a balancebetween frequently used services and less frequently used services, it does not make sense todeploy more than one server to support different services.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 39
  • An ever increasing number of highly reliable and high availability systems are beingdeployed that need 100% up time; that is, the user must never experience a situation wheredata cannot be accessed. While no system component can ever be guaranteed to work 100%of the time, the goal of a System Management solution is to mitigate and control failures atsystem level. The ideal situation is that enough data has been logged to allow the systemcontroller to determine that a fault is about to happen. Detection before a failure occursallows the controller to take action and prevent the failure from causing any downtimeTo achieve these design goals, a typical System Management solution has three interactiveparts: a microcontroller or similar device for communicating with remote systems, aprogrammable logic device that offers flexibility and live-at-power-up attributes, and somediscrete analogue components for monitoring temperature, voltage and current. Microsemi’sSmartFusion devices integrate a microprocessor subsystem, a non-volatile FPGA fabric andprogrammable analogue components into one monolithic device. SmartFusion cSoCs meet allof the requirements for a System Management solution, from power sequencing totemperature monitoring to in-system reprogramming. The available System Managementreference design and GUI help you put your own System Management design together.As data centres and web hosting sites proliferate, the need for physical security at the facilityis every bit as great as the need for cyber security of networks. Intruders who falsify theiridentity or intentions can cause enormous damage, from physically disabling criticalequipment to launching a software attack at an unsecured keyboard. Even the ordinarymistakes of well-intentioned staff pose a significant daily threat to operations, and can beminimized by restricting access to only the most essential personnel.Technologies are in place, and getting less expensive, to implement broad range solutionsbased on the identification principles you have, what you know and who you are.By combining an assessment of risk tolerance with an analysis of access requirements andavailable technologies, an effective security system can be designed to provide a realisticbalance of protection and cost.In summation, it is easy to observe that SCADA technology holds a lot of promise for thefuture. The economic and performance advantages of this type of system are definitelyattractive. However, since the vulnerabilities of current implementations are in proportion tothe advantages, it is essential that measures be taken to mitigate the risk to current systemsand to ensure that future systems are designed with sound policies and design. We in Indiastand a lot to gain from such systems, and having the foreknowledge of the possible risks cantake adequate measures to ensure our continued safety and prosperity. In the words of MasterSun Tzu from ―The Art of War‖:Those who are first on the battlefield, and await the opponents are at ease; those who are last,and head into battle are worn out.In this report we have presented a design and simulation environment for Design &Implementing SCADA System Wireless Sensor to Control Fire Effect in Refinery. Otherintelligent functions possibly can be easily added. The developed architecture simplifiesadding intelligence to logical nodes as an extra layer extending the capabilities of substationautomation devices and not interfering with their safety-critical functions. Future work willbe dedicated to the implementation of Design & Implementing SCADA System WirelessSensor to Control Fire Effect in Refinery.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 40
  • The quality of the proposed feasibility process is one of the few ways a client can judge thequality of the end result while still in the proposal stage. A proposal without feasibilityengineering milestones (or with poorly defined or misguided methodology) will result in apoor site most of the time. Improve Product Sales Cost Justifying feasibility Readable manuals with different Languages. Reduce Development Costs and Time Increase Productivity Increase Project and Product SuccessFinally, it is important that a user interface be aesthetically pleasing. It is possible for a userinterface to be intuitive, easy to monitor, and efficient and still not be terribly nice to look at.While aesthetics do not directly impact the effectiveness of a user interface, users will behappier and therefore more productive if they are presented with an attractive user interface.As power system evolves, more and more real time informaition is needed to support theadvanced services and functions in order to make the power system more stable and reliable.The new challenges bring the new requirements to the power system communicationinfrastructure. This thesis has addressed the proposal of an IP based SCADA system formonitoring and control the Iraqi power generation stations plant. It also adressed theconfiguratio of most elements of the proposed system and simulates the proposed networkusing the network simulator program (Boson Network simulator). During the building andachievements of some system elements, a number of conclusions have been considered basedon the practical and simulation results obtained, the most important ones: 1. The implemented system was cost save solution coppered with other approaches to build such a system. The central MTU machine needs relatively very low resources to achieve its task. The use of the standard available low cost resources to build up a WEB server with window server environment is a very simple and cost save solution and high functional and reliable solution. 2. The use of RTU560 systems a very compatible and reliable solution since the RTU accepts the interfacing with the SCADA network by either the Ethernet or serial data interface module which increase the system compatibility. The RTU560 system works as a WEB server so it can be accessed using the internet explorer as an automation software which integrates the overall system operation since the proposed automation software for the overall system is the internet explorer which is the standard WEB software. 3. The use of the internet protocol enables the interfacing of the system to the internet and increase the system operability and compatibility with internet based systems and remote operation techniques using the VPN technology. 4. The particular characteristics of the fibre optic network such as low attenuation, high bandwidth, small physical cross section, electromagnetic interface immunity, and security, makes it the most suitable transmission medium for the Iraqi power generation stations automation, control, protection and monitoring functions. Moreover already installed optical fibre infrastructure in Iraq saves the cost behind installing other communication media. Further it supports new services an functions that drive increased bandwidth and time latency requirements.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 41
  • 5. The value added services proposed to be added to the default system services increases the system operability and performance analysis. 6. The system (MTU, RTU, HMI and the communication network( is easy to e use and setup. The knowledge base needed by the system administrators and operators is very common in the IT field. There are many large companies that provide courses and certifications which cover most of knowledge required to setup and use the implemented system. 7. The configured system elements had been tested and they worked successfully. 8. The simulated network had been tested and it work successfully according to the planed operation. 13.1 Future WorkA feedback control system that provides an optimum performance without any necessaryadjustments is rare indeed. Usually one finds it necessary to compromise among the manyconflicting and demanding specifications and to adjust the system parameters to provide asuitable and acceptable performance when it is not possible to obtain all the desired optimumspecifications.It is often possible to adjust the system parameters in order to provide the desired systemresponse. However, it is often not possible to simply adjust a system parameter and thusobtain the desired performance. Rather, the scheme or plan of the system must be re-examined, and a new design or plan must be obtained which results in a suitable system.Thus, the design of a control system is concerned with the arrangement, or the plan, of thesystem structure and the selection of suitable components and parameters. For example, ifone desires a set of performance measures to be less than some specified values, one oftenencounters a conflicting set of requirements. If these two performance requirements cannotbe relaxed, the system must be altered in some way. The alteration or adjustment of a controlsystem, in order to make up for deficiencies and inadequacies and provide a suitableperformance, is called compensation.To develop the proposed system and to achieve a higher level of usability and effectiveness,the following suggestions are given: 1. The proposed system for Iraqi power generation stations can be implemented using the installed optical fibre infrastructure by placing a WEB server at three far distance regions; one at the centre and the others at the north and south regions respectively. 2. Increase the system security by assigning privilege levels to the operators (i.e. to give the ordinary operator read rights, while giving the professional skilled operators full privilege for monitoring and control operations).Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 42
  • 14. REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIESOffice of Energy Assurance, U.S. Department of Energy. (2002). 21 Steps to ImproveCyber Security of SCADA Networks. Retrieved March 1, 2005 from the WorldWide Web: http://www.ea.doe.gov/pdfs/21stepsbooklet.pdfRiptech Inc. (Jan, 2001). Understanding SCADA System Security Vulnerabilities.Retrieved March 1, 2005 from the World Wide Web:http://www.iwar.org.uk/cip/resources/utilities/SCADAWhitepaperfinal1.pdfJohn Donovan, Low-Power Design for Convergence Promotions LLC 2012The State of Wi-Fi Security, Wi-Fi Alliance.ZigBee Specifications, ZigBee Alliance.ZigBee Security, ZigBee Alliance Presentation.IEEE 802.11i-2004, IEEE.Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: The CCM Mode for Authentication and ConfidentialityLee Chao, ―Networking Systems design and development‖, CRC press, 2010.James F. Kurose and Keith W. Ross, ―Computer Networking, A top-down approach:International version‖, 5th edition, Pearson Higher Education, 2010.K D Stewart III, A Adams, ―Designing and Supporting Computer Networks‖, Cisco Press,2008.Ph.D. Lewis, Wayne ―Lan Switching and Wireless‖ second edition 2009.Forouzan, Behrouz A. ―Data Communicaions and Networking‖ Fourth EditionCorringan, Partick H. And Guy Aisling ―Building Local Area Networking 1989“Citect Used on FDA Validated Process to Monitor Reactor ProfilesRanbaxy Labs”K. Subramaniam, Managing Director, Masibus Process Instruments Pvt. Ltd. “VSCADA” © - Voltas Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition,http://www.voltasacnr.com/default.htmlImplementation details based on:“An Architectural Framework for Describing Supervisory Control and DataAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 43
  • Acquisition (SCADA) Systems”Michael P. Ward, US Naval Postgraduate School, September 2004“Cyber-Attacks by Al Qaeda Feared”Barton Gellman, Washington Post, June 27, 2002; Page A01Vulnerability analysis based on: “Common Vulnerabilities in Critical InfrastructureControl Systems” Stamp, Dillinger, Young, DePoy, Sandia National Laboratories, May2003. “SCADA vs. the hackers” Alan S. Brown, American Society of Mechanical Engineers,http://www.memagazine.org/backissues/dec02/features/SCADAvs/Security recommendations based on: “SCADA Systems Security” Michael A. Young,SANS Institute, February 2004http://www.answers.com/topic/control-system#ixzz1jKnfHq3oAnderson, J. R., Matessa, M., & Lebiere, C. (1997). ACT-R: A theory of higher levelcognition and its relation to visual attention. Human Computer Interaction, 12(4), 439-462.Behaviour & Information Technology, vol. 13, nos. 1-2, January-April 1994. [Special issuedevoted to usability laboratories]Card, S.K., Moran, T.P., and Newell, A. 1983. The psychology of human-computerinteraction. Hillsdale,NJ: Erlbaum Associates.Karat, C. (1990). Cost-benefit analysis of usability engineering techniques. Proceedings ofthe Human Factors Society. Orlando. Fl.Nielsen, J. (3 April, 2010) Alertbox. ―F-Shaped Pattern for Reading Web Content.‖<http://www.useit.com/alertbox/reading_pattern.html>.[31 Dec, 2011]Nayak L, Priest L, Stuart-Hamilton I, et al. Web site design attributes for retrieving healthinformation by older adults: an application of architectural criteria. Universal Access in theInformation Society 2006;5:Nielsen, J. (2001). Did Poor Usability Kill E-Commerce? Alertbox 19th Augusthttp://www.useit.com/ alertbox/20010819.html 170–9.Penzo, M. (3 April, 2010) UXMatters. ―Introduction to Eye-tracking: Seeing Through YourUsers’ Eyes.‖ <http://www.uxmatters.com/MT/archives/000040.php>.[31March, 2010]Zaphiris, P., Kurniawan, S.: Usability and Accessibility of Aging/Health-Related Web sites.HCI International, New Orleands, LA, USA, 2001.Abubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 44
  • 15. TIME PLANHours 1 – 10 per week 11 – 20 per week 21 – 30 per week Over 30 per weekFebruaryMarchAprilAugustSeptemberOctoberAbubakar H. NurStudent number: 3031355 Page 45