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  1. 1. Traumatic Injuries, Cracked Teeth and vertical root fractures (VRF) ABU-HUSSEIN MUHAMAD
  2. 2. Abbreviation guide       FX=fracture PN=pulp necrosis B4=before or prior to.. TX=treatment VPT=vital pulp therapy VIP=very important
  3. 3. Outline: I. Crown Fracture 2. Crown-root fractures 3. Vertical/Horizontal Root Fracture 4. Luxation 5. Avulsion 6. Resorption 7. Prevention
  4. 4. Fact   Most dental trauma occurs in 7_10 age range And most trauma occurs in the anterior region of the mouth, maxilla>mandible
  5. 5. 1. Crown FX without Pulp exposure NO PROBLEM, RELAX AND RESTORE
  6. 6. Complicated Crown FX with Pulp Exposure=VPT @80% IF w/in 24hrs Pulp Cap? Partial Pulpotomy@95% Full pulpotomy @75% OR: EXTIRPATION if root is fully formed
  7. 7. 2. Crown-Root Fracture sometimes fractures at an angle Angular Fracture: Is this restorable?
  8. 8. Remember,  In all trauma, the primary purpose of our treatment is to keep the pulp vital, if at all possible, ESPECIALLY if apex is open  WHY?
  9. 9. Pulpotomy – Immature Apex If Vital = “Apexogenesis”*
  10. 10. Apexogenesis vs Apexification Dealing with the immature root Apexogenesis (Vital Pulp) best to treat w pulpotomy. The idea is to allow the vital pulp to remain vital and complete the development of the root apex as well as thickening of the RC walls RCT maybe needed later BUT not if tooth remains symptomatic AND vital Apexification (Necrotic Pulp) Hoping to get closure of the apex (& there is NO wall thickening) to be able to later do a proper RC seal via obturation. CaOH + time is proper tx over 3-18mo RCT ALWAYS NEEDED HERE* and is less predictable due to thinner walls Object of either treatment is to allow for roofing over of apex and allow RCT to be done at a later date.
  11. 11. And now, Regeneration?  Revascularization of immature permanent teeth utilizing a mixture of antibiotics, creating a blood clot w/in the RCS which produces development of the tooth structure  Banchs F, Trope M “Revascularization of immature permanent teeth w PN & apical periodontitis…. JOE, 196; 2004
  12. 12. Vertical FX of Crown>Root @ 3% of all dental injuries Generally if crack extends to the pulpal floor (molar), the tooth will be lost Most commonly cracked tooth – Distal of Mandibular second molar – – May need to STAIN crown to see crack WHY? Look for “Drop-Off” Pocket at base of Crack site
  13. 13. Insert occlusal view of MMR/DMR fracture to supplement previous slide  Because, endo/perio lesion can mimic VRF radiogragraph
  14. 14. If untreated, a crack will widen into a split
  15. 15. 3. Vertical Root Fracture Look for ‘J’-Shaped apical lesion Look for Drop-off Pocket if . . . . VRF difficult to confirm radiographically –UNLESS separation of segments occurs
  16. 16. Transillumination Restoration Removal + Staining Other methods of discovering VERTICAL ROOT FRACTURE A surgical exploration is usually the only other way to confirm presence of VRF*
  17. 17. Horizontal Root Fracture Tends to be Readily apparent – especially after separation XS Mobility a good clue Is this salvageable? Prognosis is very poor
  18. 18. Root FX (Horizontal) What do you do here? Try to reposition and splint 2-4 wks, check for vitality q 30 days
  19. 19. 4. Luxation Injuries (MOST COMMON OF ALL DENTAL INJURIES) 30-44% text p630      Concussion Subluxation Extrusion Lateral Intrusive AVULSION WORST CASE SEQUELAE? PULP NECROSIS EXTERNAL/INTERNAL ROOT RESORPTION Possible tooth loss
  20. 20. Concussion Luxation Injury      Least severe of Luxation injuries No displacement of tooth nor excessive mobility Tooth tender to touch “Bruised PDL” No radiographic abnormalities VIP!!! Assess vitality in 4 wks
  21. 21. Subluxation Luxation Injury      Tooth tender to touch & slightly mobile (1+) but not displaced Possible hemorrhage from gingival crevice No radiographic abnormalities Damage to supporting structures? VIP!!! Assess vitality in 4 weeks
  22. 22. Extrusion Luxation Injury  Elongated mobile tooth      Cl. II mobility or greater Radiographs show increased apical periodontal space Manually reposition Reposition tooth + Flexible splint MANDATORY 7-10 days ? VIP!!! Assess vitality in 4 weeks
  23. 23. What is a flexible splint? -Allows physiologic movement of the teeth in order to minimize ankylosis -In the past, .028 gauge ortho wire bonded to tooth for 7-10 days unless alveolar FX had occurred. Then 4-8 wks OR: 4-6# fishing line bonded to teeth -Currently, titanium trauma splint (TTS) is recommended see p643, text
  24. 24. Semi-rigid or flexible splinting    Experimental studies in non-human primates have demonstrated that rigid splinting ,especially for prolonged periods, leads to ankylosis &/or external resorption. Maintaining a slight degree of tooth mobility appears to be beneficial to PDL healing Von Arx T, etal Splinting of Traumatized teeth with a new device:TTS; Dent Traumatol 2001;17:180-84
  25. 25. Titanium Trauma Splint Medaris AG, Basel Switzerland
  26. 26. TTS splint     Insert picture of same Splinting of traumatized teeth with a new device:TTS (Titanium Trauma Splint) Medartis AG, Basel, Switzerland Von arx T, etal Dent Traumatol, ’01;17:180-84
  27. 27. Lateral Luxation Injury        Displaced laterally & often locked in bone Not tender to touch, not mobile Alveolus fractured Percussion test: high metallic sound (ankylosis) Increased PDL space best seen on eccentric or occlusal radiographs Anesthetize & reposition + Flexible splint MANDATORY 4-8 weeks VIP!!! Assess vitality in 4 weeks
  28. 28. Intrusion Luxation Injury External root resorption likely    Most severe of luxations*** Tooth appears shorter: displaced into alveolar bone PDL destruction/alveolar crushing) Beware of ankylosis/resorption/  pulp necrosis is all but certain in mature teeth***  Not tender to touch, not mobile Percussion test: high metallic sound Radiographs not always conclusive     Slightly luxate with forceps or band and move orthodontically. Splinting is not usually necessary  Tooth with open apex may spontaneously re-erupt.
  29. 29. Treatment of intrusion luxation  Closed apex needs ortho. or surgical repositioning and probable RCT in 1-3 weeks In all LUXATION and especially INTRUSION injuries, the apical neurovascular bundle and attachment apparatus will be affected to some degree>>>loss of vitality & internal/external resorption
  30. 30. 5. Avulsion     Tooth is knocked completely out of mouth Viability of the PDL must be preserved for success Extra-oral dry time is CRITICAL 3060”*** Must be replaced in socket ASAP (15-20”) (text p641) in order to..   Prevent ankylosis Prevent external root resorption To replant or not? should be “decent tooth”: No point in replanting THIS one
  31. 31. Replant?    TX is aimed at minimizing the inflammation from the two main consequences of avulsion, namely; attachment damage and pulpal infection that inevitably results The SINGLE most VIP factor in achieving a favorable outcome is the SPEED at which a clean tooth is properly replanted Keeping the attached PDL moist is VIP!!*
  32. 32. Replantation guidelines HOW FAST IS FAST? 5”, 30” 60”, TAKE YOUR PICK, it depends on whose book you read!     If tooth is out of the mouth less than 15-20”, replant according to guidelines If tooth was out and placed in cold milk or other physiological solution w/in 15-20” & available for replantation w/in 30”, replant and follow guidelines If tooth is out > 60” and not stored, there is usually one outcome: resorption and probable loss If the pt is pre adolescent, the tooth may become infraoccluded (ankylosed) as he/she grows older
  33. 33. To replant or not (cont)    If the root of the avulsed tooth is not completely formed, the prognosis for survival and revascularization is possible if not left out>60” If root is incompletely formed and replantation is rapid, vitality may be maintained but is not predictable Kenny DH etal; Medicolegal aspects of replanting permanent teeth. J Can Dent Assoc 71:245-48, 2005
  34. 34. First Aid Instructions      Handle by crown only Pick off debris with tweezers Replant tooth if possible _________________________________ If not, transport in appropriate medium: “Save-a-tooth” (Hank’s Balanced Salt solution)  OR “Via Span” (if available)  OR milk if above not available   OR place in vestibule (saliva) & Report to dental office ASAP
  35. 35. Once in Dental office:  Take films to make sure there is no alveolar FX & that adjacent teeth are OK “Save-a-tooth” (Hank’s Balanced Salt solution)  OR “Via Span”, milk, saline  Gently clean socket  Replant and check occlusion  Splint  RX antibiotics 
  36. 36. Avulsion Injury What NOT to do!  Do Not Handle by root  Scrub root  Allow tooth to dry  Submerge the tooth in water (tap water is hypotonic> and will cause cell rupture)  AAE has a Flow Chart Outlining Current Treatment Management Protocols of both Luxation and Avulsion cases ..www.
  37. 37. If over 60” “dry time”      Remove remnants ofPDL by soaking in acid for 1” Soak in Stannous Fl for 5” No harm done to go ahead and complete endo ASAP Splint Pray
  38. 38. Immature Tooth: Open Apex, revascularization is possible if out less than 30-60”      Replant as above EXCEPT different Soak tooth in Doxycycline (1mg/20cc saline)<replantation for 5” text,p642 Monitor pulp vitality closely (q 30 d or until root development is confirmed) Vital Open apex will NOT necessarily require RCT UNLESS pulp becomes necrotic. What if it does? Do we do apexogenesis then?
  39. 39. Case History  16 yr., African-American male presents with avulsed teeth and deep puncture wound or lip # 7 and # 8 intact  30 minutes post assault (60 minutes=critical)    Patient is lucid, responsive, with no apparent neurological impairment Medical history non-contributory
  40. 40. Ankylosis  A problem following trauma and long term rigid splinting  Tooth is solidly fixed and has a high metallic ring when percussing. Does not erupt with other teeth  May lead to massive external resorption & loss of tooth  Internal= appearance of “aneurysm” w/in canal.
  41. 41. Complications with Replanted avulsed teeth & Possibly with Rigid Long-Term Splinting  Ankylosis (Replacement Resorption)
  42. 42. 7. Plug for Prevention     Mouth guards*** Many of the injuries we discussed could be prevented through the aggressive promotion and use of mouth guards. Every child should wear one for most active play. Every adult involved in sports should wear one.  Become Involved in your Community! Begin the Service if not available in your area.
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