Geography All 13 lay between Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean Divided into 3 regions: the New England Colonies, the Middle Colonies, and the Southern Colonies
The Three Regions New England Middle Colonies Southern Colonies
New England Colonies
The Big Picture… While Pilgrims are settling in Plymouth, Puritans were growing in England Puritans: group of English Protestants that felt the Church of England followed Roman Catholicism to closely Thrown into jail because of their beliefs Some Puritans decided to leave England to practice religion in peace
The Big Picture… Group of wealthy Puritans formed Massachusetts Bay Company King Charles I gave them a charter 1630: Set sail Settled in a part of New England, called Massachusetts Bay Now known as Massachusetts FOUNDED BY PURITANS LOOKING FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM
Puritans Vs. Pilgrims
John Winthrop Leader of the Puritans Successful lawyer Led Puritans to Massachusetts Bay First settlement named Boston Elected first governor by Puritan men
Geography of New England Hilly Rocky soil Made farming difficult Forests Supplied wood for building homes, fences, tools Rivers Provided fish, transportation Ocean Ports
Economy Made living from forest and sea Most lived in villages where everyone could work together as a community, not on farms
New England Culture PRODUCTS Subsistence Farming Timber and Ship Building Supplies (Rope, Masts, Tar) Dried Fish Rum and other Manufactured Trade Goods PEOPLE Puritans and Pilgrims who believed in working hard and following strict rules. Merchants, Manufacturers, and Lawyers.
“A City upon a hill” Wanted to be example for all the world Population grew from 700 to 20,000 in 10 yrs Males, “free man” signed a covenant Covenant: special promise or agreement Promised his family would live by the rules of the Puritan church Remember: Not freedom of religion, freedom to practice their religion
Puritans Believed success was a result of their belief of God and the Bible Believed in hard work Rich and poor worked regardless Built villages according to plan
Patriarchy Authoritarian male father figures controlled each household Patriarchal ministers controlled the church congregation and household patriarchs
Activities Banned by the Puritans: Horse Racing, cock-fighting and bear baiting Any gathering of people without permission Drunkenness and swearing Theatre-going, dancing and singing Games and sports on Sundays (including going for a walk) Gambling Many public houses were closed down.
New England Coin
Rhode Island Roger Williams founded the settlement of Providence in what is now Rhode Island First European colony in the Americas to allow freedom of religion
Anne Hutchinson Believed they should pray directly to God Also brought to trial and exiled Traveled South, founded Portsmouth in Rhode Island Becomes known as the “Sewer” because it is seen by the Puritans as a dumping ground for unbelievers and religious dissenters More liberal than any other colony!
Characteristics of New England Settlements Low mortality average life expectancy was 70 years of age. Many extended families. Average 6 children per family. Average age at marriage:
Women – 22 years old
Men – 27 years old.
Summary Questions 1. Why did the Puritans come to North America? 2. Where did they settle? 3. What was the geography of New England like? 4. How did most in New England earn money? 5. Why were Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson brought to trial?
The Middle Colonies
READ ALOUD The word was out. All over Europe, people were reading William Penn’s advertisements for a colony called Pennsylvania. Here was a place were “the Air is sweet and clear,” the ads said. Who was William Penn? Could his promise really be believed?
William Penn 1681 King Charles II granted land in Middle Colonies to William Penn A Quaker hoping to practice his religion in freedom Came to North America with about 100 others Named area Pennsylvania (Penn’s Woods) Settlement named Philadelphia (means “city of brotherly love” in Greek)
Quakers Called themselves the ‘Society of Friends’ Believed that in order to know God, they had only to listen to His voice in their heart No need for ministers “Be plain in clothes, furniture, and food”: Believed people should be treated fairly Against slavery, harsh treatment of N.A. Paid N.A.’s for land, causing peace between them that lasted many years
Many different people Jewish Scott – Irish Africans were not treated equally Many were enslaved German (Pennsylvania Dutch) Built the first Conestoga Wagons Brought a wide variety of skills and trades Blending of people of different cultures
Middle Colonies Culture PRODUCTS Called the Bread Basket Colonies Farmed Wheat, Oat, Barley and Rye. Made homespun products. Traded very little. PEOPLE People from: England, the Netherlands, France, Germany and others. Puritans, Quakers, Anglicans, Catholics, and Jews.
Summary questions Who founded the Pennsylvania Colony? What was the Geography of the area like? How were the Middle Colonies different from the New England Colonies? What were the beliefs of the Quakers? What effects did they have on Penn’s colony?
The Big Picture Roman Catholics were also treated badly because of their religion King Charles I of England, gave a charter to start a new colony for Catholics Colony was named Maryland
Maryland Controlled by proprietors Proprietors: men who owned all the land and money Founded as a place where Catholics could practice their religion
Southern Colonies Grew to Include… North Carolina South Carolina 1732: Georgia Wanted to protect Carolinas from Spanish
Georgia &General James Oglethorpe General James Oglethorpe: A wealthy English army general He Examined England's debtors and was shocked by numbers in prison Debtor: a person who owes money Claimed “England would grow rich with her poor abroad!”
Georgia Received a charter from King George II Named new colony Georgia, for King George II King George supported the plan for Georgia because it could protect the Carolinas from the Spanish and French
Geography Warm climate Rich farmland Clay along Appalachian foothills good for corn and tobacco Long growing season Lasts 7 months Grew rice and indigo on large farms Led to successful growing of cash crops Bays and rivers along the coast Helped to import and export goods
Southern ColoniesEnvironment & Culture ENVIRONMENT Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. Long growing season and fertile land. Warm for most of the year PRODUCTS Farmed Tobacco, Rice, Indigo, and Cotton. Trade “cash crops” farmed on Plantations. Purchase manufactured goods.
The creek Area already provides farming land for many Had already formed a confederacy to protect their lands First colony of Georgia, Savannah, was located next to Creek village Oglethorpe was given a large piece of land
Yamacraw Creek Native Americans meet with the Trustee of the colony of Georgia in England, July 1734
African Americans in Georgia Oglethorpe did not allow slavery Colonists pretend to “rent” A.A.’s from South Carolina 1750: Slavery is well established In 10 years 4x as much slavery 1760: 10,000 people living in Georgia, 4,000 were slaves
Summary questions 1. Why was Georgia founded? By whom? 2. Why was Maryland founded? 3. What was the role of A.A.’s in the South? 4. Why did King George support the plan for the colony of Georgia? 5. What was the main source of income for the people of the Southern colonies? Why?