1. THE VERB TO BEThe verb TO BE in affirmative sentences.The verb to be in present simple has three forms: am, are and is.I ____ amHe/She/It ____ isWe/You/they ____ areIn informal English (colloquial and familiar), these forms appear in a contract form.Examples:Regular form Contracted formI am a pupil I’m a pupilYou are a teacher You’re a teacherWe are here We’re hereSUBJECT + TO BE+ REST OF SENTENCEThe verb TO BE in negative sentencesNegative sentences are formed by adding not after the verb to be. The contract formmay be done in two ways: a. contracting subject+ to be b. contracting to be+ notExamplesRegular form Contracted formThe cake is not ready The cake’s not The cake isn’t readyI am not sick I’m not sick.
SUBJECT + TO BE+ NOT+ REST OF THE SENTENCEThe verb TO BE in subject Wh-questions.There are questions in which the interrogative particle (Wh-questions are sentences thatstart with a question, for example: Who, What, etc.) is the subject of a sentence. Who isused with people and what with things. In this kind of questions verb usually goes insingular.Examples:John is at home ___ Who is at home?The pencil is in the case ___ What is in the case?WH-WORD+ TO BE+ REST OF THE SENTENCEThe verb TO BE in interrogative questions.When we make sentences with the verb to be the structure of the sentence changes:Subject and verb to be change their position.ExamplesShe is happy __ Is she happy?They are sad __ Are they sad?TO BE+ SUBJECT+ REST OF THE SENTENCE 2.THE VERB HAVE GOTThe present simple of the verb have got in affirmative has two forms: have and has.ExamplesI have got a brother.You have got a red shirt.She has got a garden.
The verb have got in negative, is formed by adding the particle not after the verb haveor has. It normally appears in a contract form:ExamplesYou haven’t got a dog.Grandma hasn’t got a big house.Andrew hasn’t got a car.When we make interrogative sentences with the verb have got, the structure of thesentence changes: First you put have or has, second you put the subject and third youput not. Therefore is not possible to make the contract form.ExamplesHave we got food?Has he got a car?Has she got a cat?If you want to answer with short answers in affirmative, use only the subject+ have orhas.ExamplesYes, I have.Yes, he has.Yes, we have.If you want to answer with short answers in negative, you must contract the verbhave/has in the negative form.ExamplesNo, I haven’t.No, she hasn’t.No, They haven’t.
3.THERE IS/THERE ARE.There is, is translated into “hay”, but indicates that there is only one thing. Therefore itis followed by countable nouns in singular (you can to place before an article ornumeral: The house, one apple…) or uncountable nouns ( you can’t place before anyarticle or numeral: She likes rice.)ExamplesThere is a new student.There is cereals for breakfast.To form the negative form, you only have to add not to the verb. It ‘s more frequent towrite the contract form.Here, with uncountable nouns you have to add any:There isn’t any milk in the fridge.In the interrogative form, the order is changed and you write first the verb is. If thenoun is uncountable you must put any:Is there a candle on the table?Is there any cold milk in the fridge?There are, mean also “hay” but it is followed by plural nouns.Example: There are apples and bananas in the fridge.In the affirmative form, it is usually placed before some:There are some books on the table.The negative form is form adding not to the verb, as you have seen in there is.Remember that you must always use any:There aren’t any flowers in the forest.In the interrogative form, the order is changed and you put first the verb are:Are there any trees in this park?