Planning concept oiudb


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Planning concept oiudb

  1. 1. PLANNING Oromia Industry and Urban Development Bureau“You got to be careful if you dont know where youre going, because you might not get there.” - Yogi Berra 1
  2. 2. LayoutDefinition of planningObjectives of planningPlanning ApproachPlanning Process2005 plan content and Formats 2
  3. 3. What is planning Development Planning is a deliberate attempt on the part of the state to make the best use of the country’s resource s with objective of maximizing the economic welfare of it’s citizens under a given political and institutional set up. In the wider sense planning refers to the preparation of scheme for every economic activities. Lewis Lorwin, has defined planning is a scheme of economic organization in which individual and separate plants, enterprises and industries are treated as co-ordinate units of one single system for the purpose of utilizing all available resources to achieve maximum satisfaction of the people’s needs with in a given time. 3
  4. 4. ….Cont In general, “planning is a continuous process w/c involves decisions, or choices, about alternative way s of using available resources, with the aim of achieving certain goal at some times in the future” (conyers and Hills, 1984 Planning process is effective when partners in the planning process are clear about their functions and perform those in a non- competing, non-overlapping and mutually supportive manner. Planning in a democratic State is a social process in which, in some part, every citizen should have the opportunity to participate. 4
  5. 5. Objectives of PlanningEconomic growthSelf-relianceReducing the unemploymentReducing the inequality in income/ equitable distribution of wealth. /Elimination of povertyMaintain the economic stabilityModernizationOptimum utilization of the resourcesGrowth with social justice and equityFaster and more inclusive growth 5
  6. 6. Why We Need Planning1. Where is the Organization Now?2. If no changes are made, where will the organization be in 1year? 2 years? 5 years? 10 years?3. If the answers are not acceptable, what specific action should management undertake? What are the risks and payoffs involved? 6
  7. 7. Approach of planning Centralized approach/Top-Down: Top-Down Information: Policies, priorities, targets, guidelines, budgetary information, Technical Information, Co-ordination directives, Review of monitoring and evaluation, suggestions for replanning. Decentralized approach/Bottom-up: Bottom-up Information: Data and Information on local needs and preferences, Area priorities, Area targets, Problems and constraints. 7
  8. 8. Planning Process Environm ental ScanningMonitoring Strategy and FormulatEvaluation ion Implemen tation 8
  9. 9. ……itti fufa1. Environmental Scanning (external and Internal)/SWOT/ Strengths – identifying existing organisational strengths Weaknesses – identifying existing organisational weaknesses Opportunities – what market opportunities might there be for the organisation to exploit? Threats – where might the threats to the future success come from? 9
  10. 10. PESTPolitical: local, national and internationalpolitical developments – how will they affectthe organisation and in what way/s?Economic: what are the main economicissues – both nationally and internationally– that might affect the organisation?Social: what are the developing socialtrends that may impact on how theorganisation operates and what will theymean for future planning?Technological: changing technology canimpact on competitive advantage veryquickly! 10
  11. 11. Strategic Formulation/Planning First Stage of Strategic Planning Futures Thinking- Thinking about what the business might need to do 10–20 years ahead Strategic Intents – Thinking about key strategic themes that will inform decision making Taking time to think and reflect may be more important than many businesses allow time for! Copyright: Intuitives, 11
  12. 12. Priority SettingProgram priorities need to beestablished with an understanding ofthe resources that are available tohelp achieve the required outcomesand impact. Resources may be local, statewide,national or even international. Theavailability of resources or lack ofresources may be a major factor inselecting program priorities. 12
  13. 13. …contPriority setting involves consideration of the followingVision, and valuesInstitutional mandatesResource availabilityLocal perspectives and dynamicsWhat other people and agencies are doingResearch and knowledge basePriority setting leads to the identification of intended outcomes 13
  14. 14. Setting Priorities(Coveys Model) QI - Important and Urgent QII - Important but Not Urgent QIII - Not Important but Urgent QIV - Not Important and Not UrgentThe ABC Method (Franklin’s Model) It ranks tasks into three categories: A = vital B = important C = nice 14
  15. 15. The Logframe Approach ANALYSIS PHASEIdentify Stakeholders Stakeholder Analysis –Identifying & characterising major stakeholders, target groups & beneficiaries, defining whose problems will be addressed by a future interventionIdentify /Deduct Analyse Problem Analysis –Identifying key problems, constraints and opportunities; determining cause and effect relationshipsSelect the option Strategy Analysis –Identifying different strategies to achieve objectives; selecting the most appropriate strategies; determining the major objectives (Overall Objective and Project Purpose) 15
  16. 16. Planning PhaseDefine the project logic – Log frame –defining the project structure, testing its internal logic, formulating objectives in measurable terms, defining means and costsSpecifying and operational zing – Activity scheduling –determining the sequence and dependency of activities, estimating their duration, setting milestones and assigning responsibility – Resource scheduling –from the activity schedule, developing input schedules and a budget 16
  17. 17. What are Indicators?Objective verifiable indicators (OVI) arespecific and objectively verifiablemeasures of changes or of results as aconsequence of project activities.They provide the basis for performancemeasurementThey are useful to convey to others whatthe project tries to achieve (transparency 17
  18. 18. What are Sources of Verification They describe where and in what form to find the information on achievement of objectives. – Questions to be clarified:Do appropriate external sources exist? – Are they specific enough? – Are they reliable and accessible? – Are the costs for obtaining information reasonable? – Should other sources be created? Try to use existing sources as much as possible 18
  19. 19. AssumptionsExternal factors that are important for thesuccess of the projectDefine the systems environment andsustainability issuesSummaries factors which the projectcannot or chooses not controlAre factors which the project does notaddress but should monitor. 19
  20. 20. Column 1 Indicators Verification AssumptionsObjectivesGoal: Measures of the longer Sources of data ImportantThe higher order impact to term outcomes that the needed to verify factors forwhich the project project contributed to. status of Goal sustainingcontributes level indicators objectives inThe Greater Why the long termPurpose: Measures of the Sources of dataThe specific and immediate immediate outcomes or needed to verifyoutcome of the project effects of the delivery of status PurposeThe Why? the outputs. Level indicatorsOutputs: Measures of the delivery Sources of dataThe deliverables of the of the Outputs needed to verifyproject or the terms of status of Outputreference Level IndicatorsThe What?Activities: These measures are Sources of dataThe main activities that often milestones and are needed to verifymust be undertaken to often presented in more status of thedeliver the outputs detail in the project work Activity LevelThe How? plan. Indicators 20
  21. 21. BudgetingIs the most comprehensive financialstatement indicating an estimate ofrevenue and expenditure /usually forone yr/It indicates how the government plansto use public resources to meet it’spolicy objectivesA budget is not just a statement offigures but an exprsssion ofgovernment spending priorities 21
  22. 22. Implementation“Well done is better than well said.” - Benjamin Franklin 22
  23. 23. Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring is checking and watching something over a period of time in order to see how it develops, so that you can make necessary change It’s a continuous function that uses the systematic collection of data on specified indicators to provide mgmt and the main stakeholders of an ongoing development intervention with indications of the extent of progress and achievement of objectives and progress in the use allocate funds/ WB, A Hand book for Practitioners, 2004 23
  24. 24. …….cont Evaluation is a systematic assessment of whether the stated aims and objectives of an intervention have been met. An evaluation allows questions about the effectiveness, efficiency and acceptability/ to clients and to the community/ of projects and programmes to be answered.“control: to compare progress against plan so that corrective action can be taken when a deviation occurs” 24
  25. 25. Problem facing planners Data are essential tools to planning and plays an important role for: Problem definition, measurement & analysis, Inventorying & decision-making, Evaluation; Lack of information Lack of trained staff Inflation Shortage of funds Paucity of data Lack of cooperation among stakeholders Untimely response from boss/leaders, Dilemma on decision making and etc. 25
  26. 26. “An organization to execute better, learn faster,and change more easily” (Mohrman et al.) Qabiyyee fi Formaatti karoora 2005 26
  27. 27. THANK YOU 27