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The crisis of nation building in the case of lebanon11
 

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The Crisis of Nation Building in the Case of Lebanon

The Crisis of Nation Building in the Case of Lebanon
POLIS200 LIU
Abir Chaaban

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    The crisis of nation building in the case of lebanon11 The crisis of nation building in the case of lebanon11 Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Political Science LIU Instructor: Abir Chaaban The Crisis of Nation Building in the Case of Lebanon
    • The Crisis of Nation-Building
      • Identity: All citizens have a common identity that reflects loyalty to the state
      • Legitimacy: All citizens recognize their government as legitimate and consequently obey the law.
      • Participation: All citizens participate in politics. They have equal rights to vote and to be a candidate.
      • Penetration: Government laws reach all geographical areas.
      • Distribution: Distribution of wealth.
    • The National Pact
      • The institutionalization of Lebanon as a sovereign and territorial state was concluded based on an unwritten agreement known as the National Pact ( الميثاق الوطني ).
      • The National Pact is a verbal agreement. The negotiations over the agreement was done by Egyptian and British actors with the support of General Edward Spears.
      • Bechara al-Khuri and several prominent members of the Sulh Family advocated the National Pact as a method of governing the Christian and Muslim Communities of Lebanon. The Agreement defines the executive positions of Christian to a Maronite and the Prime Minister to a Sunni.
    • The Lebanese Confessional System
      • The confessional system of Lebanon is set in article 95 of the Constitution of Lebanon.
      • Article 95 defines the sectarian mechanism according to which public office is allocated to parliament members by confession.
    • U.S. Policy after WW II and the Cold War: [1]
      • Before World War II, the U.S. had not moved fully onto the world stage. Americans developed commercial ties with the Middle East.
      • With regard to Lebanon, American interest was limited to the activity of American Protestant missionaries who had come to Lebanon in the mid-nineteenth century and built several educational institutions, most notably the American University of Beirut (established originally as the Syrian Protestant College).
      • [1] Salem Paul, Super Powers and Small States: An Overview of American Lebanese Relations http://www.lcps-lebanon.org/pub/breview/br5/psalembr5pt1.html
    • US Foreign Policy After the Cold War
      • America's entry into world politics in World War II, accompanied by the collapse of British and French power, the establishment of Israel, and the emergence of the Cold War, propelled the U.S. into the arena of Middle Eastern politics.
      • The U.S.'s first objective in this phase was to consolidate the still generally pro-Western regimes of the Middle East into a regional alliance system against Soviet expansion south into the Mediterranean, the Persian Gulf, or the Indian Ocean.
      • This objective crystallized into attempts to establish a Middle East Command in 1951,and then the Baghdad Pact in 1955,which was centered around a southern tier alliance with Turkey, Iraq ,and Iran.
    • US Policy
      • Opposition to the U.S. policy in the region, developed under the leadership of Egyptian President Gamal Abd al-Nasser. Between 1954 and 1958 Nasser led a wave of opposition to the United States which saw the downfall of pro-Western regimes in Syria and Iraq and the destabilization of other pro-Western regimes in Jordan and Lebanon. Meanwhile, the Soviets acquired new clients in Egypt, Syria, and Iraq.
    • US Policy
      • In Lebanon, this was reflected in increased polarization. President Camille Chamoun (1952-1958) chose close alignment with the U.S and was the only Arab head of state to come out in open support of the Eisenhower Doctrine in 1957. His administration was rewarded with American financial and other support, often channeled through the CIA, which was especially effective in helping Chamoun's supporters sweep the 1957 parliamentary elections.
    • US Foreign Policy
      • Lebanon quickly lost its political integrity as a nation-state.
      • South Lebanon became a battleground in the War of Attrition that developed in 1968-69, and the growth of Palestinian armed power in Lebanon, with Arab backing, led to a gradual collapse of state sovereignty.
    • U.S. Policy
      • This situation was recognized quasi-formally in the Cairo Agreement of 1969 in which the Palestinians were allowed special military and political privileges.
      • The U.S. was alarmed at the rapid advances made by the Palestinians and the radicals and soon lent its political support to a tougher Lebanese stance in which the Lebanese would deal with the Palestinians as King Husayn had dealt with them in Jordan. This was referred to as the 'Ammanization' option.
    • Civil Strife 1958 The Lebanese situation: [1]
      • Lebanon’s economic prosperity was not evenly spread between Muslims and Christians, which led to visible Muslim grievances against the Political order, which denied them equal access to benefits and privileges.
      • The upsurge of Pan-Arab nationalism inspired by Nasser gained considerable support for the mobilization of the underprivileged masses, undermined the authority of traditional Muslim Leaders and caused the anxiety of Maronite Political leaders.
      • [1] Khalaf, Samir, 2002, Civil and uncivil violence in Lebanon: a history of the internationalization of human contact , Columbia University Press: 103-149
    • 1985 Civil Conflict
      • Chamoun’s pro-Western Policies were suspicious to the majority of Muslims. The Suez crises in 1957 exposed the government. Chamoun refused to sever the relationship with Britain and France, or condemn the Israeli, French, British attack on Egypt causing the resignation of the Prime Minister Abdullah Yafi and the Minister of State Saeb Salam.
      • He supported the Baghdad Pact and anti Nassirist governments like Iraq, Saudi Arabia Iran, Turkey and Jordan.
      • He supported the Eisenhower Doctrine, in an effort to curtail the radical leftist’s ideologies, which caused major resignations in government.
    • 1958 Civil Conflict
      • Electoral reforms of 1957 alienated a sizable cross sections section of the country’s political leaders and their constituents causing the development of a large opposition in regions like Tripoli, Beqa’a Southern Lebanon, Chouf, and Zgharta. Even though the opposition did not have intentions to resort to political violence, the sequence of events during the rest of the year led to the escalation of the situation into a full fledged civil war that caused the US to send its Marines to Lebanon.
    • 1958 Civil Conflict
      • The opposition called for the resignation of the government, and in a demonstration by its supporters, the government used fire arms and tear gas causing civilian deaths and engeries.
      • Saeb salam who was injured and taken to hospital went on a hunger strike until the government resigned.
      • The results of the elections which were held after were stunning with the opposition gaining barely 8 seats of the 66 seats in the Chamber, causing public outcry about fraud and briberies on behalf of the government.
    • 1958 Civil Conflict
      • The situation started to deteriorate with infiltrations and subversive activities attributed to political dissident groups, particularly Palestinians, Syrians, Egyptians and other political refugees. Syrian and Egyptian regimes were hostile to Chamoun’s government and provided arms and funds to the opposition, as well as pushed into the country “Arab” missionaries to support the insurgency later on.
    • 1958 Civil Conflict
      • By early 1958 Lebanon was entrapped in a spiral of escalating violence. Two events provided direct impetus for the outbreak of violence:
      • The Creation of the United Arab Republic, (UAR) by the Union of Syria, and Egypt in 1958. Students affiliated with Al-Maqassed Sunni Benevolent Society, took the streets asking the government to support the Union.
      • What triggered the insurgency was the Assassination of Nassib al-Matni on May 8, 1958, an independent Maronite Journalist who was critical to the government.
    • The 1975 Civil Conflict and the collapse of the Lebanese government.
      • The beginning of 1975-75 war was a result of a fight between the Palestinians and the Phalanges Party related to the PLO freedom fighters operations from Lebanon.
      • The civil war was precipitated by the Lebanese National Movement ( the left ) support of the Palestinians, which brought about the collapse of the Government.
    • The 1975 Civil Conflict and the collapse of the Lebanese government.
      • The Lebanese were divided between the Christian Maronite the Lebanese Front, and the Lebanese National Front (Muslim, Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholics, and Druze).
      • The Lebanese National Front was composed of Progressive Socialist Party, Lebanese Communist Party, Arab Nationalist Party, Syrian Nationalist Party, and Organization of the Ba’ath Party. Beirut was divided into East and West.
      • The Lebanese Front was presided by Camille Chamoun, Al Ahrar Party and its main participants were Pierre Gemayel-the Kataeb Party and President Suleiman Franjieh, Charles Malik and Fouad Frem al-Boustani, the president of the Lebanese University.
    • The 1975 Civil Conflict and the collapse of the Lebanese government.
      • The division of the two fronts with the President alliance with the Lebanese Front brought the collapse of the Lebanese government, and a split in political power.
    • The 1975 Civil Conflict and the collapse of the Lebanese government.
      • In 1976 some of the Maronite groups sought the help of the Syrians against the ascendant Palestinian-Lebanese National Front coalition.
      • The Syrian support of the Christians was not altruistic and was due to several factors:
        • The emergence of a strong Palestinian presence in Lebanon decreased Syrian influence on the Lebanese political scene.
        • Syria feared a potential Israeli intervention to protect Israel’s northern borders.
        • Syria preferred a balance of power among Lebanese contending groups so that it could control them all.
    • The 1975 Civil Conflict and the collapse of the Lebanese government.
      • Syria under the Arab Deterrent Force was able to prevent a victory by the Palestinians and the Lebanese National Front.
      • The U.S consent to the Syrian intervention in Lebanon provided Syria an opportunity to advance a long standing ambition of extending its influence to Lebanon.
    • Paper Topic I
      • Evaluate the U.S. Foreign Policy in Lebanon since WWII, then write a paper in which you evaluate the National Pact and the alliances of the Prime Minister and the President prior to the 1958 civil conflict.
      • Discuss how would the alliances of the executive officials lead to the polarization of public opinion and possibly conflict. Take into account the relevant crisis (s) ( identity, participation, penetration, legitimacy, distribution) as it relates to the crisis of nation building.
    • Paper Topic II
      • The National Pact divided the executive power in Lebanon to Maronite President and a Sunni Prime Minister. Disagreement between the two positions brought the country to a condition of polarization of public opinion, which consequently turned to conflict in 1958 and in 1975.
      • Discuss by evaluating the breakdown of the state over confessional lines in 1975 and the crisis of identity leading to the collapse of the state.