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Political theory vs. political ideology2

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  • 1. Political Theory vs. Political Ideology POLS 200 Introduction to Political Science Lecturer: Abir Chaaban
  • 2. Politics vs. Political Science
    • Politicians
    • Advocate ideologies
    • Love Power
    • Seek popularity
    • Think practically
    • Hold firm views
    • Offer single causes
    • See short-term payoff
    • Plan for the next election
    • Respond to groups
    • Seek name recognition
    • Political Scientists
    • develop theories
    • are skeptical of power
    • Seek accuracy
    • Think abstractly
    • Reach tentative conclusions
    • Offer many causes
    • See long-term consequences
    • Plan for the next publication
    • Seek the good of the whole
    • Seek professional prestiege
  • 3. Political Theory
    • Political theory is an interpretive and analytic enterprise.
    • It aims at studying facts and trends, then abstract these facts into universal concepts.
    • Describes, explains and evaluates human life as it occurs in society.
    • It aims at predicting future patterns of society.
  • 4. Political Theories
    • Two main major approaches to political theory
      • Empirical theory
      • Normative theory
  • 5. Empirical Theory
    • Definition of Empirical
      • Relying on or derived from observation or experiment: empirical results that supported the hypothesis.
      • Verifiable or provable by means of observation or experiment: empirical laws.
  • 6. Normative Theory
    • normative theory hypotheses about what is right and wrong, desirable or undesirable, just or unjust in society.
    • They prescribe how things ought to be rather than how things are.
    • Is vs. ought to be
  • 7. Classic Political Theories
    • Plato, The Republic and Aristotle
    • Contractual Theories:
      • Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau
    • Marxist Theories
    • Institutional Theories
  • 8. Contractual Theories
    • Absolute Government ( Thomas Hobbes)
    • Liberalism, Parliamentary Democracy ( (John Locke)
    • Republican Liberalism ( Rousseau)
  • 9. Contractual Theories of Sovereignty
    • The State of Nature
    • The condition of man in the state of nature
    • Hobbes
    • Locke
    • Kant
    • Rousseau
  • 10. The Command Theory
    • “ A command is simply an expression by one person of the desire that another person should do or abstain from doing some action, accompanied by a threat of punishment, which is likely to follow disobedience. Commands are laws if two conditions are satisfied, first they must be general; second they must be commanded by what (…) exists in every political society whatever its constitutional arrangement form, namely, a person, or a group of persons, who are in receipt of habitual obedience from most of the society but pay no such obedience to others. These persons are its sovereign. Thus law is the command of the un-commanded commanders of society-the creation of the legally untrammeled will of the sovereign who by definition is outside the law.” [1]
    • [1] H.L.A Hart “Positivism and the Separation between Law and Morality” in David Dyzenhaus and Arthur Ripstein. Law and Morality: Readings in Legal Philosophy. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001:44-45).
  • 11. Thomas Hobbes
    • Hobbes argued the problem of the legitimacy hypothetically as a condition that exists in the "state of nature" when men are governed by “natural law.”
    • In the absence of a central government, Hobbes argues, individuals live in a perpetual state of uncertainty resulting from a continuous state of war, what Hobbes calls the war of everyman against everyman.
    • The war of everyman against everyman in Hobbes hypothetical condition is born out of equality, since in the case of difference there will be peace as the strong will dominate and the weak will submit. [1]
    • [1] Michel Foucault. Society Must be Defended (New York: Picador, 1997: 90-92).
  • 12. Thomas Hobbes
    • Men out of the fear of death, and the desire to live in peace and security, give up their liberties by delegating their law making and execution powers granted to them by the “law of nature,” to a man amongst equals. By this power, this man is sovereign, this power gives him the authority to make law, while himself by assuming sovereign authority, falls outside the rule of law. [2]
    • Hobbes’ discourse in the Leviathan sought to rationalize the problem of the legitimacy of sovereignty during the religious conflicts that engulfed Europe, arguing that rebellion against sovereignty is contrary to reason, where reason can only be derived from the rule of the contractual law by which men gave up to their civil and political freedoms and rights to a sovereign. [3]
    • [2] David Dyzenhaus and Arthur Ripstein, “Thomas Hobbes 1851 Leviathan”, Law and Morality: Readings in Legal Philosophy , (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001, 11-13).
    • [3] David Dyzenhaus and Arthur Ripstein, “Thomas Hobbes 1851 Leviathan,” Law and Morality: Readings in Legal Philosophy , (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001, 16).
  • 13. Contractual Theories
    • Liberalism, John Locke
    • The notions of John Locke (England, 1632–1704) of a "government with the consent of the governed" and man's natural rights—life, liberty, and estate (property).
    • The notion of tolerance was laid down in A Letter Concerning Toleration and Two treatises of government.
  • 14. Liberalism, Jean Jack Rousseau
    • Rousseau's most important work is The Social Contract, which outlines the basis for a legitimate political order within a framework of classical republicanism.
    • Rousseau argues that sovereignty (or the power to make the laws) should be in the hands of the people.
    • Rousseau also makes a sharp distinction between the sovereign and the government. The government is composed of magistrates, charged with implementing and enforcing the general will. The "sovereign" is the rule of law, ideally decided on by direct democracy in an assembly.
  • 15. Political Ideology
    • political ideology refers either to ideas used by states or political actors to justify programs of reform or revolution.
    • Political ideologies also refer to a variety of “isms” that ran from right to left but were to be studied as persuasive ideas without serious analytical content.
  • 16. Political Ideologies
    • Political parties base their political action and program on an ideology.
    • Political Ideology is a certain set of ideals, principles, myths, or symbols of a social movement, institution, class, or large group that explains how society should work , and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order.
    • A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used.
    • Some parties follow a certain ideology very closely, while others may take broad inspiration from a group of related ideologies without specifically embracing any one of them.
  • 17. Political Ideologies
    • Political ideologies have two dimensions:
      • Goals : how society should work (or be arranged).
      • Methods : the most appropriate ways to achieve the ideal arrangement.
  • 18. Western-Ideologies
    • Many Western Ideologies stem from political theories.
      • Classic Liberalism
      • Classic Conservatism,
      • Communism
  • 19. Ideologies in the Middle East
    • The most dominant political ideology in the Middle-East is nationalism.
    • There are three main broad areas of nationalism in the Middle-East
      • Arab Nationalism
      • Ismalism
      • Particularism, Egyptian, Lebanonism, Syrianism, and Jewish Nationalism, or Zionism
  • 20. Political Ideologies in the Middle East
    • The aim of these ideologies was to resolve the problem of the “nation” that will rule the nation-state as demarcated by Western Powers.
    • The Peace of Paris 1919 demarcated the Ottoman Empire into nation-states based on the Sykes Picot Agreement.
  • 21. Political Ideologies in the Middle East
    • Upon the partition of Arab speaking Ottoman Empire territories into nation-states, various theories of statehood emerged in the Arab world.
    • The most dominant were Arab nationalism and Pan-Islam
    • both ideologies were driven by the Western revolutions that promoted the ideas of nationalism and the concept of the nation.
  • 22. Islamism
    • Islamic revivalism was an intellectual movement led by Jamal al-Din Al Afghani.
    • Al Afghani sought to revive Islam towards the end of the eighteenth centaury and early nineteenth centauries.
    • The modernists were led by Jamal al-Din Al Afghani (1837-1897), Mohamed Abduh (1849-1905) and Rashid Rida (1865-1935) their work emphasized on pan-Islam, the relationship between Islam and the state and women.
  • 23.
    • Al-Afghani opposed the notions then current in Europe which claimed that only Europe could produce culture and civilization. “Al Afghani was aware of the tendency towards the formation of national states was increasing. Therefore he tried to attune Islam to this development by taking the European idea of the nation, purifying it from its secular connotations and declaring that all Muslims were a single nation, disregarding all ethnic, linguistic and cultural differences”.
  • 24. The Muslim Brotherhood
    • Al-Afghani interpreted Islam as an ideology that was mainly aimed at resisting European colonialism and made it a duty for the Muslim “nation” to resist European domination of the Muslim nation.
    • Towards the early twentieth centaury Islamic revivalism took the form of a political activist movement aiming to establishof a pan-Islamic state.
    • The Muslim Brotherhood was a revivalist movement that was established in 1928 by Hassan Al-Banna.
    • Al Banna promoted Islam religiously, culturally and economically as the only alternative to westernization.
  • 25. Ideologies in Lebanon
    • Following World War I, Three major ideologies evolved in Lebanon.
    • Arab Nationalism
    • Syrian Nationalism/ Syrianism
    • Phoenicianism
  • 26. Arab Nationalism
    • The promotion of Arab literature and Arab cultural awareness was carried out by a group of Lebanese Christian intellectuals.
    • These intellectuals were close to the American Protestant mission in Lebanon.
    • Mainly Nasif Al-Yaziji ( 1800-1871), Faris Al-Shidyaq ( 1805-1887), Butrus Al-Bustani ( 1819-1883).
    • Syrian Ba’ath
  • 27. Syrianism vs. Phoenicianism
    • Discourses in history prior to the institutionalization of the League of Nations were the discourse of the territorial state and its history.
    • This discourse did not distinguish between sectarian groups or confessions that inhabited the state.
    • The first written historical account of the of historic Syria with an Arab culture was written by Lebanese/Syrian Maronite historian Butrus el-Bustani following the 1860 civil strife between Druze and Maronites.
  • 28. Syrianism vs. Phoenicianism
    • Arab Syrianism
    • Later on and during the era of the partition of the Ottoman Empire, politicians, and historians who wanted to justify their claims for the Arab sovereignty over Syria utilized el-Bustani’s history to Establish the claim of the Arabism of Syria. [1]
    • [1] Asher Kaufman. Reviving Phoenicia: The Search for Identity in Lebanon (London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2004: 39-40).
  • 29. Non-Arab Syrianism
    • The idea of Syria with a non-Arab culture was first expressed by Belgian Jesuit Henry Lammens and historian George Samné “who championed the theme of the national unity of distinct character of Greater Syria, whose population and cultures were distinct, from those of Arab and Muslim.” [1]
    • [1] Elizabeth Prichard. Lebanon a Chattered Country ( London/New York: Holmes and Meier 2002:24-25).
  • 30. Non-Arab Syrianism
    • In France and prior to WWI, Christian Lebanese/Syrians led by Charles Corm established the National Association of the Young Syrians in France, “advocating Syrian unity, equity disregarding ritual and religion.” (Later on Antun Saadeh continued this trend)
    • In 1919 when the King Crane report came out Charles Corm changed philosophy and began issuing La Revue Phénicien, possibly financed by Robert de Caix Gourard. [1]
    • Only when the British promoted Arabism of Faisal started threatening the existence of a non-Arab republican Syria as promoted by many Greek Orthodox, as well as Maronites, Greek Catholics, and Shi’a, that the discourse of territorial Phoenicia and the Phoenicians ancestors of the Lebanese started to be the discourse arguing the national identity and the legitimacy of Greater Lebanon.
    • [1] Asher Kaufman. Reviving Phoenicia: The Search for Identity in Lebanon (London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2004: 88-89).
  • 31. Phoenicianism
    • Phoenicianism of Corm was not statist but racial.
    • Corm defined the nation or the race based on religion by constructing a racial conflict between the Muslims and Christians of Syria.
    • Corm’s idea of the Phoenician nation was influenced with Zionism.
    • He created a poetic account of the Phoenicians ancestors of the Maronites, who established the Judeo-Phoenician ancient kingdoms of the Levant.
  • 32. Phoenicianism
    • For Corm “two sides of the coin complement each other. In Corm’s world of reference and the earthly Phoenicians serve as the appendage to Christian spirituality.”
    • For Corm, the Phoenician faith was monotheist, and Islam and the Arabs did not exist in the history of Phoenician Lebanon. In his La Montagne Inspirée ” he created an account linking Christianity to Phoenicia. In this account, Ba’al Bek itself was Phoenician, and the Temple of the Sun was the embodiment of the Christian faith in Phoenicia, disregarding the Romans and their significance to Temple of the Sun. [2]
    • [2] Asher Kaufman. Reviving Phoenicia: The Search for Identity in Lebanon (London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2004 : 141-158)
  • 33. Discussion
    • The relationship between the partition of the Ottoman Empire and the three major national ideologies in Lebanon.
    • The relationship between the problem of legitimacy and national ideologies.