The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States 1933 defines the state as a territory, with a permanent population, a government, and a capacity to enter into relations with other states. 
The permanent population in the state does not precede an internationally recognized and defined territory over which the population is permanent.
 Hugh M. Kindred et al., International Law , 12-13.
The capacity to enter into relations with other states requires international recognition of a domestic sovereign authority, or the “rulers” who assume this authority in order to secure the supreme jurisdiction over the territorial state.
The dynamic that mobilizes the state internationally is the recognition of its sovereignty as embodied in the “rulers” who are recognized as sovereigns possessing the authority to make law domestically and internationally.
“ the free act by which one or more states acknowledge the existence on a definite territory of a human society politically organized, independent of any other and is capable of observing the obligations of international law.”
The General Assembly’s partition of mandated Palestine into two states, a Jewish state, and an Arab state in Resolution 181.
In resolution, 181 both territorial entities the Arab state and the Jewish state were recognized as territorial states by the General Assembly. Israel was recognized internationally as a sovereign nation-state. Sovereignty over the Palestinian territories was not recognized by international powers.
United Nations General Assembly “Resolution 181 (II)”, Chapter 4 F. A/RES/181(II)(A+B) (29 November 1947).
Resolution 181 (II), envisioned membership to the United Nations under Part I section F, The article states:
“ When the independence of either the Arab or the Jewish State as envisaged in this plan has become effective and the declaration and undertaking, as envisaged in this plan, have been signed by either of them, sympathetic consideration should be given to its application for admission to membership in the United Nations in accordance with Article 4 of the Charter of the United Nations.” 
 United Nations. General Assembly Resolution 181 (II) , Chapter 4 F. A/RES/181(II)(A+B) (29 November 1947).
Charter of the United Nations article 4(2), states that “Admission of any state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon recommendation of the Security Council. Only upon admission, the state is granted supreme sovereign jurisdiction over territory and a status of equality of exercising sovereign powers domestically and internationally.
A state then can exist as a territory in the absence of a recognized sovereign authority exercising control over territory as in the case of the Arab state created by resolution 181 General Assembly, Forty Fifth Meeting, Application of Israel for Admission to membership in the United Nations (A/818) A/AC.24/SR.45 (5 May 1949).
The capacity to Enter in International Relations ( Independence
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Article 6. Every state possesses capacity to conclude treaties. Article 7(2), In virtue of their functions and without having to produce full powers, the following are considered as representing their states a) Heads of States, Heads of Government and Ministers for Foreign Affairs, for the purpose of performing all acts relating to the conclusion of a treaty.
Pragmatically, during a time in history when empires were falling, the primary question the League of Nations had to resolve was the territorial allocation of states to internationally recognized sovereign authorities.
The territorial demarcation of “Historic Syria” into Palestine, Lebanon, and Syria was not a problem presented by “nations” who inhabited the territorial states of Palestine, Lebanon, and Syria as demarcated by the Sykes Picot Agreement.
The British introduced the discourse of the legitimacy of the “nation” being a mass of people, sharing a historic myth of the nation and the state, and existed in 1919 devoid the territorial state.
The legitimacy criteria promoted by the British was most evident in and was to take shape in conflicting discourses emerging around the “Balfour Declaration”, which is a pledge that was given by the British Government in 1917 to the Zionist Organization conveying that Government's support for the establishment in Palestine of a “national home” for the “Jewish people.”
The institutionalization of Lebanon as a sovereign and territorial state was concluded based on an unwritten agreement known as the National Pact ( الميثاق الوطني ).
The National Pact is not even mentioned in the Constitution of Lebanon. Egyptian and British actors with the support of General Edward Spears, Bechara al-Khuri and several prominent members of the Sulh Family advocated the National
The institutionalization of Lebanon as a sovereign and territorial state was concluded based on an unwritten agreement known as the National Pact ( الميثاق الوطني ). The National Pact is not even mentioned in the Constitution of Lebanon. Egyptian and British actors with the support of General Edward Spears, Bechara al-Khuri and several prominent members of the Sulh Family advocated the National Pact as a power-sharing formula for Muslims and Christian coexistence. In the National Pact formula, Muslim meant Sunni-Arab nationalist and Christian meant Maronite-Phoenician.
In addition to the non-constitutional National Pact, article 95 of the Constitution of Lebanon defines the sectarian mechanism according to which public office is allocated to parliament members by confession. This allocation is based on the 1932 census, which is the one and only official census ever conducted in Lebanon. The results of this census, were also the foundation according to which the unwritten National Pact ( الميثاق الوطني ) power-sharing formula of 1943 divided the executive power between a Sunni Prime Minister and Maronite President.
The Problem of Legitimacy in the Case of Lebanon
The elites that concluded the power-sharing formula were chosen, protected, and recognized as the legitimate representatives of the Lebanese people by the British not by the Lebanese people.
These elites negotiated with the British to achieve the independence of Lebanon, consequently they granted themselves and their descendents the right to be the “confessional representatives” of the “confessional communities” of Lebanon. The Lebanese people never voted to grant either the Constitution or to the National Pact any popular legitimacy. This makes the Lebanese confessional system and the National Pact illegitimate in the eyes of the Lebanese people. This illegitimacy calls for a revolution to change and a revolution that will rewrite the constitution by the people of Lebanon.
Michael G. Roskin et al, Political Science, An Introduction Ninth Edition 36-41 Picard, Elizabeth. Lebanon a Shattered Country. New York: Holmes & Meier, 2002. 23-35
The Elements of Nationhood
The Making of the State of Lebanon
Four Michael G. Roskin et al, Political Science, An Introduction 18-23 92-112, Instructor Handout
Theories of Political Science Vs. Political Ideologies
Political Ideologies in Lebanon
Three Instructor Handout
The International State System
Westphalia, The League of Nations and the United Nations.
World War I and the Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Two Michael G. Roskin et al, Political Science, An Introduction Ninth Edition (New Jersey: Pearson, 2006). 6-7
Introduction to Course Syllabus
Is Politics a Science
Key Concepts: Legitimacy, Sovereignty, Authority
One Readings Class Topic of Study Week
Michael G. Roskin et al, Political Science, An Introduction Ninth Edition
Democracy, Totalitarianism and Authoritarianism
Is Lebanon a Democracy
Ten Michael G. Roskin et al, Political Science, An Introduction Ninth Edition. Instructor Handout
Elections in Lebanon
Nine Michael G. Roskin et al, Political Science, An Introduction Ninth Edition. Instructor Handout
Political Party and Party System
Is Lebanon a Party System
The Lebanese Confessional System
The National Pact
Each student must have a clear topic of their paper. 5% of your paper mark
Each student must have a list of bibliography of books he will investigate for their topic. 10% of your paper mark
Each Student must have developed a clear thesis, an introduction and a plan of development.
Seven Michael G. Roskin et al, Political Science, An Introduction Ninth Edition
The Basic Institutions of Government
Six Part II: The Basic Elements and Systems of Government Michael G. Roskin et al, Political Science, An Introduction Ninth Edition
Individuals and Constitutions
Comparison between The Constitution of Lebanon, the United States, and France
Paper Presentations Fifteen Instructor Handout
Revisiting the Concepts of Legitimacy, Sovereignty and Authority
Case studies, the Case of Egypt, the case of Libya, the Case of Iraq
Fourteen Michael G. Roskin et al, Political Science, An Introduction Ninth Edition 355-375
Violence and Revolution
Thirteen Michael G. Roskin et al, Political Science, An Introduction Ninth Edition 36-41 Rotberg, Robert I., ed. State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror . Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003
The Crises of Nation Building
Case Study the Collapse of the Lebanese Government 1975
Twelve Part III: Legitimacy, Sovereignty and Authority and the Crises of Nation Building Michael G. Roskin et al, Political Science, An Introduction Ninth Edition