PLASMA DERIVED VACCINE Based on surface antigen (HBsAg) Obtained from plasma of human carriers of HBV I/M injection Dose: Each 1ml contains 20 micrograms of HBsAg formulated in an alum adjuvant
R.DNA-YEAST DERIVED VACCINE Immunogenic, safe and effective as plasma derived vaccine Dose: 10-20 µg (adult) 5-10 µg (child <10 yrs) Deltoid is preferred < 2 yrs – anterolat. thigh Schedule: 0, 1, 6th month Does not interfere with immune response to any other vaccine
Vaccine induces protective antibody levels in more than 95% infants, children & young adults After 40 yrs – 90% After 60 yrs - 65-75% Duration of protection is atleast 15 yr Immunogenicity is reduced in HIV infection, CLD, c/c renal failure, DM etc. Storage : 2 – 8 °c It can tolerate up to 45 °c for 1 week, 37 °c for 1 month C/I : Allergic reaction to any one of the vaccine component.
It is given for a) those acutely exposed to HBsAg + blood eg: surgeons, nurses, lab workers… b) newborn of carrier mother c) sexual contacts of a/c hep. B patients It should be given within 6 hours At the same time the victims blood is drawn for HBsAg testing Dose: 0.005 - 0.007 ml/kg, 2 doses, 1 month apart Immunity lasts for 3 months
MANAGEMENT OF A CASE OFACUTELY EXPOSED TO HbsAgPOSITIVE BLOOD IF the person is immunised previously,check the AB titre IF less than 100 give booster If not immunised –HBIG(0.05-0.07ml/kg) should be given as soon as possible within 24hour Then Hep.B vaccine 1ml should be given IM within 7 days of exposure 2nd ,3rd dose at 1,6 month respectively
PASSIVE – ACTIVEIMMUNIZATION Simultaneous administration of HBIG + vaccine Ideal for persons accidentally exposed to virus, newborn babies of HBV carrier mothers Dose: 0.07 ml/kg HBIG + 1 ml of vaccine is given
OTHER MEASURES All blood donors should be screened for HBV infection Voluntary blood donation should be encouraged Health persons should be alert – sterilization of all instruments and practice of simple hygiene measures Carrier should avoid sharing of razor, tooth brush etc. Use barrier method of contraception They should not donate blood.