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Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
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Anatomy of lymph node

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  • 1. LYMPH NODE
  • 2. generally...–oval, bean shaped structures scattered throughout body along lymphvessels–Usually 1-25 mm in length–may be deep or superficial–concentrated along the respiratory tree and GI tract, in the mammaryglands, axillae, and groin–filter lymph fluid to trap foreign organisms, cell debris, and tumor cells
  • 3. Anatomical picture
  • 4. Usually 1-25mm in length,but they canbe larger.Greatestconcentrationnear groin,axilla, neck,thorax, andalong guttube inabdomen.
  • 5. Structure of a Lymph Node➢Outermost is the covering called capsulecomposed of fibrous connective tissue➢Capsule contains theparenchyma or stroma➢Stroma isdifferentiated intocortex & medulla•Trabeculae extendfrom cortex to medulla
  • 6. ● outer cortex ● - filled with lymph follicles -outer edge of follicle contains more T cells- inner germinalcenter is the site of B-cell proliferation●inner medulla-medullary cords oflymphocytes, Cortexmacrophages, plasmacells. Medulla
  • 7. Cytology of the lymph nodeThe normal or reactive lymph node iscomposed of ➢ Transient B and T lymphocytes➢ Antigen processing and presenting cells➢ Replicating B and T lymphocytes (in response to antigen)➢ Persistent and transient final effector cells➢ Macrophages
  • 8. B lymphocytes arelocated primarily in the follicles andperifollicular areas T lymphocytes arefound primarily in the interfollicular orparacortical areas of the lymph node.
  • 9. physiology
  • 10. •Macrophages and lymphocytes reside in theouter ("cortex") region of a node.Afferent (entering) vessels bring lymph in.●●Lymph first enters into a large subcapsularsinus & then into many small sinuses.●Throughout the node are lymph sinusescrisscrossed by reticular fibers
  • 11. •Macrophages reside on these fibers wherethey phagocytise foreign matter. •The node acts as a “settling tank,” because there are fewer efferent vessels, lymph stagnates somewhat in the node.
  • 12. ●This allows lymphocytes and macrophages timeto carry out their protective functions●Reticular fibres filter and trap damagedcells, microorganisms, foreign substances, tumorcells.●Macrophages phagocytize some, lymphocytesdestroy some by immune defenses. "Medulla" is the inner collecting area. Efferent (exiting) vessel leaves at the "hilus.
  • 13. Distribution
  • 14. Lymph nodes of clinical importance have been put under 5 main groups:➢ Cervical groups➢ Axillary groups➢ Inguinal groups➢ Epitrochlear lymph nodes➢ Popliteal lymph nodes
  • 15. Cervical groups● Right & left groups● each divided into: horizontal (circular)and vertical The horizontal group include: > sub-mental > sub-mandibular > parotid > pre-auricular > post-auricular > occipital
  • 16. The vertical group include:> superficial (along external jugular vein) > deep (along internaljugular vein) > Prelaryngeal > Pretracheal > Paratracheal
  • 17. Axillary groups● Right & left groups● each divided into 5 groups: > Anterior (pectoral) > posterior (sub-scapular) > medial (along chest wall) > lateral (humeral) > central
  • 18. Inguinal groups Horizontal group lies along theinguinal ligament (both above and over) Vertical group is beside thegreat saphenous vein in the proximal thigh.Iliac nodes:aboveand deep to inguinalligament
  • 19. Epitrochlear nodes 3 cm proximal to the medialhumeral epicondyle, in the groove between thebiceps and triceps brachii.
  • 20. Thank you.....

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