Adolescent health

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  • 1. ADOLESCENT HEALTH
  • 2. Adolescent : 10 – 19Youth : 15 - 24Young people : 10 -24 Adol Health Com FOGSI - 2009-11
  • 3. • Physical maturing• Psychological maturing• Social maturing Adol Health Com FOGSI - 2009-11
  • 4. Importance of Adolescent Health• Developing Countries• Parents of next generation.• Early menarche• Late marriage• Urbanisation, migration• Less family influence• Exposure to mass media
  • 5. Changes in social and sexual behaviour Adol Health Com FOGSI - 2009-11
  • 6. Adolescence is characterized by conflicts of values, emotional stress and readiness to extreme attitudes, which invariably leads to several psycho-social problems of adolescents.
  • 7. • Puberty is the stage of the lifespan in which a child develops secondary sex characteristics.• The average age for girls:- 10-12 The average age for boys 12-14. Adol Health Com FOGSI - 2009-11
  • 8. Am I Normal ?• Rapid growth. . .Cause of Concern! Adolescents have a fundamental human right to accurate and comprehensive reproductive and sexual health information.
  • 9. Problems Encountered in Adolescents• Personal and social problems.• Problems of health and physical self-esteem.• Sex and reproductive health problems.• Home and family related problems.
  • 10. Adolescents : Some Facts and Perceptions• Adolescents between 10-19 years make up one fifth of India’s population and also a potential group for contracting HIV.• Adolescent girls constitute a disproportionate (25%) portion of the 5 million abortions performed annually. Adol Health Com FOGSI - 2009-11
  • 11. • High morbidity and mortality associated with pubertal and adolescent pregnancy.• Cultural practices often involve sexual abuse or exploitation, and act as barriers to responsible sexuality.• Boys and girls reveal a poor understanding of their sexuality and information sources seem to be media and peers.
  • 12. • Early marriage in girls Increasing Population• STIs due to unprotected sexual activity.• Alcohol use and Substance Abuse.• Not aware of contraceptives. Adol Health Com FOGSI - 2009-11
  • 13. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH• Organs• Changes developing• Proper Hygenic practices. Adol Health Com FOGSI - 2009-11
  • 14. Health implications of sexual dev.• Reproductive tract infections• Sexually transmitted infections• Pregnancy• Sexual abuse• Early sexual involvement• Criminal abortions• Menstrual disorders
  • 15. Adol Health Com FOGSI - 2009-11
  • 16. STI• Awareness about STI is essential Girls- Chlamydia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis, HSV, Trichomonas vaginalis• Complication : PID→ Infertility Boys- urethritis .• HIV awareness too is needed
  • 17. Nutritional Health• The fastest growth periods of a persons life.• Nutritional health during adolescence - important for supporting the growing body -for preventing future health problems. Adol Health Com FOGSI - 2009-11
  • 18. Increased nutritional needsCalories : boys- 2500-2800 Calories /day girls- 2200 Calories/dayProtein- 45-60gCalcium- 1200 mg/dayIron boys- 12 mg/day 15 mg/day
  • 19. Say YES to;• Milk & Milk products (Curd, Paneer)• Green vegetables, Fruits, Cereals• Soups, Juices• Regular meals• Balanced Diet
  • 20. Teenage & Diet / Obesity • Pizza ~ Burger ~ Sandwich • Aerated drinks / Preserved Juices • Coffee / Cocktails / Mocktails • French Fries • Vada-pav • What more do you like?! • AVOID Food with FAT
  • 21. Slim v/s fit• Do not starve• NO crash diet, seek professional help for weight loss (Not to get carried away with advertisements!)• FITNESS is more important than looking slim!• YOU CAN avoid nutritional deficiency by regular, balanced diet intake
  • 22. ANEMIAAdol Health Com FOGSI - 2009-11
  • 23. Why Anemia?• Poor dietary habits?• Are you losing excess blood from your body? Cure it urgently.
  • 24. Anaemia ~ How to deal with it?• Repeated Haemoblobin measurements• Diet rich in iron containing food• Iron supplements to make up for deficit (as advised by your doctor)
  • 25. Iron Rich sources
  • 26. Healthy food habits• Never skip meals or go for crash dieting.• Have proper breakfast and an early dinner.• Limit fast food intake to a minimum.• Have at least one fruit a day.• Have salads often and vegetables daily.
  • 27. KISHORI SAKTI YOJNAICDSAdolescent girls 11-18 years. 500 Calories + 20-25 g protein Adol Health Com FOGSI - 2009-11
  • 28. Exercise & Physical ActivityDoes it really HELP? YES,• Improves your strength & endurance.• Bones & muscles becomes more healthy.• Avoids weight gain.• Reduces anxiety & stress.• Increases self esteem, confidence.
  • 29. Enjoy outdoor games
  • 30. • Transition from childhood to adult• Attraction• Fantasies• Mood changes…irresponsible, stubborn• Search for identity and sexual development create sense of crisis
  • 31. Life Style• Regular.• Simple.• Optimistic.• Helping hand, interdependence.• Getting involved in humanitarian activities.• Respecting social values & spirituality.
  • 32. Smoking, drinking, drugs• Smoking is an evil which is best avoided it can cause cancers, heart disease, early death.• Avoid alcohol intake.• Drugs are like taking poison – stay away.
  • 33. SpiritualityUnless we develop the spiritual side of our nature, society cannot combat the evils that plague society – wanton cruelty, corruption, violence, poverty, injustice, oppression of the weak, sexual abuse, terrorism and war… the list goes on.Morality, justice, truthfulness, love, sacrifice for the common good, peace and discipline
  • 34. Moral Decision-making• An important aspect of spirituality• Spiritual empowerment comes through prayer, self-less service to mankind; serving one’s parents, to be loving, keeping our self and our ego in disciplined check, courtesy and humility, firmly upholding the principle of justice, being self-less or detached etc.• These qualities come through the love of God.
  • 35. Say NO to stress• Often we burden ourselves with stress• Always count your blessings in life• Accept circumstances which you cannot change• Effectively conquer stress before it engulfs you
  • 36. Two Important vaccines for young girlsVaccine to prevent• Rubella infection (thereby avoiding birth of a child with defect) CERVIX •Cervical Cancer (Cervix is the mouth of the organ-uterus. Its cancer prevalence is increasing & is the top most killer for women)
  • 37. Cancer CervixFromSmile toAgony
  • 38. HPV Vaccine is available to fight against cervical cancer• Two vaccines have been licensed globally for adolescent girls aged 9-26 yrs• Quadrivalent vaccine.• Bivalent vaccine.Quadrivalent vaccine Bivalent vaccine Prevention of: HPV related Prevention of –Cancer Cervix HPV related –Vulvar & Vaginal cancers –Cancer Cervix –Ano -Genital warts –Recurrent Respiratory Papilomatosi
  • 39. PROTECTION-LEGAL ASPECTS• Age of consent to sexual activity -16 years -reduces the incidence of *STI *teenage pregnancy * sexual abuse&exploitation• Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1989 (children defined as under 18)-against unchecked child labour, child prostitution and pornography.
  • 40. PROTECTION OF ADOLESCENTS• STI & HIV prevention and pregnancy prevention information• Encouraging health care providers to make their services youth friendly ADOLESCENT FRIENDLY HEALTH SERVICES (AFHS)
  • 41. ADOLESCENT FRIENDLY HEALTH SERVICES• WHO consultation 2001- AFHS• piloting under Adolescent District Health Project• Target population- young people• Key elements: Confidentiality Flexibility Well staffed Information Partnershipapproach
  • 42. MENTAL DISORDERS• Conduct and behavioural disorders• Learning disorders• Anxiety disorders• Teen depression• Juvenile delinquency• Adjustment problems
  • 43. DELINQUENCY PREVENTION• broad term for all efforts aimed at preventing youth from becoming involved in criminal, or other antisocial, activity.• CHILD GUIDANCE CLINIC• Prevention services include activities :- substance abuse education and treatment, family counseling, youth mentoring, parenting education, educational support, and youth sheltering.
  • 44. ADOLESCENT COUNSELING• School Avoidance• Separation Anxiety• Coping With Chronic Illness• Building Social Competence• Managing Powerful Peer Personalities• Minimizing Family Conflict• Working Through Divorce & Separation• Avoiding Drug & Alcohol Use• Transitioning - High School to College• Accepting Imperfection