OBJECTIVES OF THE MODULE After studying this unit on training needs analysis, you should be able to: 1. Explain how the major organizational and environmental factors are used in organizational analysis. 2. Use observation, forecasting technique and attitude survey to conduct organizational analysis. 3. Describe the steps in conducting task analysis. 4. Employ the different approaches for task identification. 5. Identify the knowledge, skills and abilities needed to perform a particular task. 6. Describe the steps in performing person analysis. 7. Use the various methods to appraise employee’s performance.
INTRODUCTION starting point for the design and management of a training program. systematically determining training needs. use training and development interventions only where it is needed. discuss the most comprehensive and sophisticated system consists of three kinds of analysis: organization, task and person analysis.
A. WHY THESE TNA?1. Where, What, Who, When, How???1. require time and human resources.2. a process that needs repeating.3. the 3 analyses are usually performed simultaneously.
B. ORGANIZATION ANALYSIS primary purpose--to determine where training activities should be conducted and the reasons for it. four elements - the environment, organization’s overall objectives, its human resources, and its climate.
1. ENVIRONMENT can be a critical factor supported financially by the organization. amount of support can be affected by its overall profitability in the competitive market, as well as the resources available. competitive markets and availability of resources need to be examined when doing organizational analysis.
environment also influence the structuralnatureorganizations operating in dynamic,uncertain environments - need training forthe employees to adapt rapidly to changingenvironmental conditions.Eg: scientific discoveries, technicalinventions and changes in the market place.
2. ORGANIZATION’S OBJECTIVESoverall objectives and sub-units objectives -determinewhere training is needed.examine closely how it being achieved.overall objectives should first be stated in broad termsand then stated specifically for the various sub-units.programs should not focus only on solving immediateproblem to the extend that long-term preventivetraining is forgotten.
3. HUMAN RESOURCESestimation of how many people need to be trainedimmediately and in the future.by - human resource analysis.organization performs employment planning either onan intuitive (informal) or a formal basis.Formal employment planning- for large organizationswith high growth rates, high employee turnover, andrapid changes in technology and product lines.
4. ORGANIZATION CLIMATEis used to determine the way employees perceivespecific aspects of their work (e.g., compensation,opportunities for advancement, etc.) and theirmembership in the organization (e.g., goals,policies, procedures, etc.).Company = personal needs, goals, and aspirations= GOOD OC
Why would we want to assess an organization’s climate?1) environment may affect whether training can produce changes in behavior – poor OC = resistance to training2) can help identify problem areas within the organization.is typically conducted by using a questionnaire.
E.g: organizational diagnosis questionnaire is Perspectives, a computer scored 82-items instrument that yields the following sub- dimension scores:Overall Job Satisfaction Satisfaction with the Work Itself Satisfaction with Co-workers Satisfaction with Compensation and Advancement Satisfaction with Pay Satisfaction with Benefits Satisfaction with Promotion
2. Overall Attitude Toward Leadership and Supervision Considerateness Promotes Teamwork Supervision of the Work Itself3. Evaluation of Communication
4. Attitudes Toward the Organization Policies Concern for Humana Resources Physical Working Conditions5. Individual’s Relation to the Job Job/Person Match Identification with Work Organizational Stress Job Contribution to Quality of Life6. Relative Importance of Various Job Aspects
5. SUMMARY 1. Training needs must be linked strongly to corporate strategy. 2. Training workers is one way of fostering corporate royalty and make the work force more flexible and adaptable to changes.
C. TASK ANALYSIS is conducted to determine the content. there are five steps in conducting task analysis: 1. Obtain a copy of the organization’s job description. 2. Identify the tasks involved in performing the job for which the training program is designed. 3. Identify the knowledge KSA 4. Develop course objectives. 5. Design the training program.
1. JOB DESCRIPTION develop a description of the target job. Is a statement about what the person does on the job, including the conditions (e.g., hazardous condition, excessive time pressures, dealing with irate customers) under which the job is performed.
2. TASK IDENTIFICATION focuses on the overt, observable behaviors that are involved in performing a job. e.g., a task listing of a home telephone installer : 1 .Reads and interprets service orders 2. Climbs pole to hook up the drop wire 3. Runs drop wire from pole to house 4. Checks protector to make sure it is functioning correctly 5. Use ladder on side of house to hook up drop wire
6 different approaches that can be used for task identification:a) Stimulus-response-feedbackb) Time samplingc) Linear sequencingd) Critical incident techniquee) Job/task inventoriesf) Future-oriented job analysis
A. STIMULUS-RESPONSE-FEEDBACK approach was developed by Miller (1962). each task activity consists of the following components:1. An indicator object that provides the cue for making response. is an out-of-tolerance signal that there is a difference between present conditions and how conditions ought to be.
2. Control object any means the employee uses to correct the out-of- tolerance situation. may require the use of a tool, a piece of machinery, or even another worker.3. Activation or manipulation the employee’s actual use of the control object. involves describing the actual use of the tool or machinery or even the message conveyed by one employee to another regarding the situation.
4. Indication of response adequacy feedback that the employees receive regarding the adequacy of their behaviors. It may be proximal (as by the feel of a switch when machine is being adjusted) or distal (as when one hears the machine starting up again). S-R feedback approach can be particularly useful in training where equipment simulators need to be developed.
B. TIME SAMPLING direct observations of work activities. enables trainers to determine exactly what employees do on the job and how frequently they do it. randomized observations
C. LINEAR SEQUENCING designed expressly for specifying training content. applicable for analyzing the basic steps of any job. excellent method for determining training content with any job involving certain prescribed procedures.
D. CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE (CIT) requires observers who are aware of the aims and objectives of a given job and who frequently see people perform the job, to describe to a task analyst incidents of effective and ineffective job behavior. supervisors, peers, subordinates, and clients may be interviewed about the critical requirements of a job.
Three questions are always asked by the interviewer for each incident that is recalled:1. What were the circumstances surrounding this incident?2. What exactly did the individual do that was either effective or ineffective?3. How is the incident an example of effective or ineffective behavior?
E. JOB/TASK INVENTORIES a structured questionnaire. list of tasks obtained through brainstorming activities. the training specialist calculates the mean rating for each task for both importance and time spent. end product--comprehensive picture of the job’s task.
F. FUTURE-ORIENTED JOB/TASKANALYSIS anticipates the dynamic environment. is based on research. focus on future objectives of the organization. development and training of senior executives. purpose--to link individual executive learning with the business strategy. future executive requirements are defined in terms of the future strategic organizational objectives.
3. KSA IDENTIFICATION Knowledge refers to factual material. Skills pertain to the hand-on, overt doing of things. Ability are basic mental processes. using a panel of people familiar with the particular job. brainstorm the knowledge, skills, and/or abilities for each and every job task.
4. COURSE OBJECTIVES consist of statements that specify the desired behavior of the trainee at the end of training. what the trainer expects the trainee to know and to do after participating in the training program.
5. DESIGN OF PROGRAM own program, decisions must be made about: a) Its contents/curriculum b) Its length c) The techniques and methods to be used d) Where and when it should be conducted e) Who the trainers should be f) The type of training the trainers will be given g) Who will train the trainers h) Who the trainees will be
D. PERSON ANALYSIS focuses on the individual employee. It deals with the question, “Who needs training and of what kind?” There are two major steps in person analysis. 1. Performance appraisal 2. Diagnosis
1. STEP 1: PERFORMANCEAPPRAISAL performance appraisal--it refers to techniques employed by training specialist to measure an employee ’ s job proficiency. methods can be conveniently categorized into three general areas: a) Behavioral measures b) Economic measures c) Proficiency tests
A. BEHAVIORAL MEASURES Involves ratings based on observations of an employee’s on-the-job behaviors by superiors, peers, subordinates, and/or outside evaluators. they are dependent on human observation. accuracy in reporting observations is often affected by factors irrelevant to job performance.
Some of these factors are:1) Halo error - the tendency to rate an employee either high, average, or low because the rater believes the employee is high, average, or low on one single factor.2) Similarity effect - the tendency on the part of the rater to judge more favorably individuals perceived as similar to him- or herself.3) First impression - the tedency to evaluate another person on the basis of a judgement made primarily after an initial meeting.
4) Contrast effect - the tedency to evaluate subordinates in comparison to one another rather than against pre-established job requirements.5) Other factors - an individual ’ s physical attractiveness, race, seniority in the organization, personality, and level of education. a number of behavioral procedures available for appraising employee proficiency. Behavioral Expectation Scales (BES) Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS)
BEHAVIORAL EXPECTATIONSCALES (BES) requires that each dimension be arranged on a continuous vertical rating scale with a behavioral anchor listed near each of the seven points ranging from ineffective to effective behavior. examine respective dimension and place a check mark beside the one behavior anchor that best describes the behavior that the employee could be expected to demonstrate based. extrapolate from actual behaviors observed to those “expected” as defined by the scale
BEHAVIOR OBSERVATIONSCALES (BOS) ratter indicates the frequency of each of the critical behavior listed in the questionnaire based on their observations of each behavior. can determine an employee ’ s total score on each dimension or criterion of job performance by totalling his or her scores on the five-point BOS scales.
B. ECONOMIC MEASURES records the number of units produced in a given amount of time, sales volume, number of injuries, scrappage weight, and so on. can be broken down into two subcategories: 1. Those dealing with production 2. Those dealing with personnel information problem--they cannot be meaningful applied to many organizational positions.
C. PROFICIENCY TESTS two variants to this approach: 1. to ask an employee to performed the duties required in a job in either actual work setting or a simulation of it. 2. involves the use of written job- knowledge tests to assess employees.
2. STEP 2: DIAGNOSIS involves determining the specific skills and knowledge that an employee needs to acquire. requires a systematic diagnosis of each employee’s strengths and weaknesses. An alternative way of performing step 2--employees to self-assess their own individual training needs.