Child Development Presented by: Abidah M (G 0838238) Saheed Aliu O. (G0821455) Biological Beginnings ……
The Biological Beginnings Contents: 1. Heredity & Environment –Nature VS Nurture 2. Genetic Foundation 3. Reproductive Challenges & Choices
Heredity and Environment Nature vs Nurture Nature : development happens because of genetic influenced (ex : twin & adoption study) Nurture : development happens because of environment influenced (ex : feral study) “Is a child's development influenced by genetics? Or, could the majority of influence be found in the child's environment?”
T.J. Bouchard (1979) studied about twins case equal chance of being similar to the co-twin in terms of personality, interests, and attitudes This finding leads us to believe that the similarities between twins are due to genes, not environment Ex : Jim twins
Adoption study To discover whether in behavior & psychological characteristics, adopted children are more like their Adoptive parents Biological parents Texas Adoption Research Project (1976): "little similarity between adopted children and their siblings and greater similarity between adopted children and their biological parents” Ex : Schizophrenia case (Plomin et al., 1997)
عَنْ عَائِشَةَ قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم تَخَيَّرُوا لِنُطَفِكُمْ لاَ تَضَعُوهَا إِلاَّ فِى الأَكْفَاءِ. رواه الدارقطنى
“Be selective in where you drop your sperm, don’t place it unless where it is suitable”.
“A woman is married for 4 things, i.e. her wealth, lineage, beauty and religion. So marry the religious woman (otherwise) you will be loser”.
Feral study “Feral" means : wild or undomesticated Psychologists have studied feral children--children reared in complete or nearly complete isolation from human contact Ex : Victor, the "wild boy of Aveyron," is the most famous case of a human being surviving in total isolation for an extended period of time
Islamic Perspective قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ”كُلُّ مَوْلُودٍ يُولَدُ عَلَى الْفِطْرَةِ فَأَبَوَاهُ يُهَوِّدَانِهِ أَوْ يُنَصِّرَانِهِ أَوْ يُمَجِّسَانِهِ كَمَثَلِ الْبَهِيمَةِ تُنْتَجُ الْبَهِيمَةَ هَلْ تَرَى فِيهَا جَدْعَاءَ“ The Prophet Says “Every child is born with a true faith of Islam but his parents convert him to Judaism, Christianity or Paganism, as an animal delivers a perfect baby animal. Do you find it mutilated?.....” (Bukhari: Book 23, Hadith: 440)
Birth order study a person's rank by age among his or her siblings specific characteristics tend to be associated with different birth orders (Hoffman, 1998) Some psychologists suggest that being an older or younger sibling affect development of : 1. Personality (Alfred Adler, (1870-1937)) : Firstborns are "dethroned" when a second child comes along, and this may have a lasting influence on them Firstborns scored higher on conservatism, conscientiousness and achievement orientation Later borns scored higher on rebelliousness, openness, and agreeableness 2. Intelligence (Robert Zajonc, 1970) Firstborns frequently score higher on intelligence and achievement tests than other children
Ecological Theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979)
Shared and Non Shared Environment Experiences (Plomin, 1993) Shared environmental experiences: Siblings’ common experiences Parents’ personalities intellectual orientation Family’s socioeconomic status Non shared environmental experiences: a child unique experiences within family, outside family) Often have different peer, teacher in schools
Frameworks of interpreting the influence of nature on individual development
Genetic Foundation Cell Nucleus Chromosomes DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Genes (The basic unit of heredity in a living organism)
The prophet said: “A man came to the prophet and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! A black child has been born for me."
The Prophet asked him, "Have you got camels?“
The man replied, "Yes."
The Prophet asked him, "What color are they?"
He replied, "They are red."
The Prophet further asked, “Is there a gray colour among them?"
He replied, "Yes."
The Prophet asked him, "Whence did that grayness come?"
He said, “ May be it is because of heredity."
The Prophet said (to him), "Therefore, this child of yours has inherited as a result of heredity (ancestors)." (Bukhari: Book 63, Hadith, 225)
Processes of Gene transfer from one generation to generation Mitosis Meiosis Fertilization Duplication of cells Duplication of cells Combination egg and sperm (in the body) sex cell (gametes)
The Genetic Difference Between Males and Females:a. The chromosome structure of a maleb. The chromosome structure of a female
Genetic Principles Dominant-Recessive Genes Dominant genes : exerts its effect, overriding the potential influence of the other, recessive genes (brown eyes, blue eyes), BB, Bb Recessive genes : A gene that is expressed only when it is present if two genes are recessive (brown hair, blond hair), bb Sex-Linked Genes The inheritance of an altered (mutated) genes, is carried on X chromosome. May develop X-linked disease. Ex : Hemophilia and fragile X syndrome Genetic Imprinting Occurs when genes have differing effects depending on whether they are inherited from father or mother Ex : Huntington disease Polygenic Inheritance Occurs when many genes interact to influence characteristics Ex : Aggressive
Some Chromosome Abnormalities
Some Gene-Linked Abnormalities
Down syndrome Characteristics of Down Syndrome 1. Facial Distortion 2. Mental Retardation 3. Broad Forehead
Fragile X syndrome Turner syndrome (XO) Swelling Shorter Stature Webbed neck Elongated Face Large or protruding ear Flat feet & soft skin
Adoption is the social & legal process by which a parent-child relationship is established between persons unrelated at birth
Psychological experience & School-related effects
Illicit drugs and delinquency behaviour (sharma 1998)
Later and infant adoption sharma 1996)
References Al Qur’an Al Hadits Santrock, J.W. 2009.Twelfth edition. Child development. McGraw-Hill, New York, United States. Cole, M, Sheila, R.C, Judith, B. 1993. The development of children. Second edition. Scientific American Books is a subsidiary of scientific American. Inc. New York and England Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. E., & Rutter, M. (1997). Behavioral genetics (3rd. ed.). New York: Freeman. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birth_order http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0002/ai_2602000247/ http://www.nurture-or-nature.com/articles/twin-and-adoption-studies/index.php http://www.nurture-or-nature.com/articles/twin-and-adoption-studies/index.php http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/haimowitz.html