Virtual Reality...oh no VR, experience is one “in which the user is effectively immersed in a responsive virtual world.”
Augmented Reality (AR) A technology…and confluence of technologies A field of research A vision of future computing An emerging commercial industry A new medium for creative expression Augmented reality (AR) refers to the addition of a computer-assisted contextual layer of information over the real world, creating a reality that is enhanced or augmented. ELI Horizon Report, February 2011 Trying to imagine how augmented reality will be used is like trying to forecast the future of the web in 1994. The Economist Technology Quarterly, September 2009.
Augmented Reality WOW-NOW Augmented reality (AR) is a term for a live direct or indirect view of a physical real-world environment whose elements are merged with (or augmented by) virtual computer-generated imagery - creating a mixed reality. The augmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semantic context with environmental elements (Wikipedia)
Components of an Augmented Reality System
GPS and GIS Technology A global information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. This application is designed to provide the user easy capability to search one position in the world map like city name, place etc using a Web service. GIS can integrate and relate any data with a spatial component, regardless of the source of the data The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense. Smartphones are taking market share from standalone personal navigation devices (PNDs)
Web 2.0 Originally in 2004, “Web as a platform". "cutting edge Web 2.0“. Web 2.0 is a Social Web Web 2.0 is an Interactive Internet What is Web 2.0? Putting It All Together Some web application Gmail , Google Maps, Flickr, Del.icio.us, Tecnorati, Digg. Web 2.0 Copyright Web 2.0 Etiquette for Using an Article or Picture
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Generated through to an IT based program/department or section , also called the knowledge life cycle. KMS are developed to support and enhance
knowledge-intensive processes, tasks or projects of e.g., creation, construction, identification, capturing, acquisition, selection, valuation, organization, linking, structuring, formalization, visualization, transfer, distribution, retention, maintenance, refinement, revision, evolution, accessing, retrieval and last but not least the application of knowledge.
Optical Character Recognition OCR, is the mechanical or electronic translation of scanned images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. Widely used to convert books and documents into electronic files, to computerize a record-keeping system in an office, or to publish the text on a website. OCR makes it possible to edit the text, search for a word or phrase, store it more compactly, display or print a copy free of scanning artifacts, and apply techniques such as machine translation, text-to-speech and text mining to it. OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and computer vision. Web OCR & Online OCR. Application-Oriented OCR.
Every word Hypertext Hypertext is intimately connected with the rise of the Internet as we know it today. The idea was implicitly described by Vannevar Bush in his pioneering article, "As we may think" (1945), and developed by Douglas Engelbart, who coined the term "text link" and linked the concepts of hypertext and multimedia to create the term "hypermedia" and later "open hyperdocument systems." The term "hypertext" was coined by Ted Nelson, who defined it in Literary Machines as "non-sequential writing.“ Nelson also drew attention to what he termed the framing problem of ordinary hypertext and in his Xanadu system accordingly called for a universal hypermedia environment. As to the origins of the concept Nelson claimed: "The hypertext is a fundamental document of Jewish religion and culture and the Talmudic scholar is one who knows many of its pathways.”
Various Application of AR Gaming and Entertainment
RPG games in the future can be integrated with augmented reality systems to give the user real environments as backdrops for his game and to make the user's senses perceive that he truly is one of the characters in the game
For educational purposes, augmented reality systems can be used to view a panoramic recreation of a historical event superimposed on its real-time background.
Students could use this system to have a deeper understanding on things like the formation of clouds, the structure of the universe and the galaxy, etc. through realistic and easily understandable augmented reality systems simulations.
Conti… Security and Defence
The military, particularly the Office of Naval Research and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or DARPA, are some of the original pioneers of augmented reality systems.
One of the main uses of augmented reality systems to the military is providing field soldiers crucial information about their surroundings as well as friendly troops and enemy movements in their particular area
Augmented reality systems will also play a big role in law enforcing and intelligence agencies
This system will enable police officers to have a complete and detailed view and information about a crime scene, a patrol area, or a suspect line up.
augmented reality systems could be used to give the surgeon a better sensory perception of the patient's body during an operation.
This will result in less risky and more efficient surgical operations.
The system could also be used in conjunction with other medical equipments such as an x-ray machine or an MRI to instantly give the doctors the information they need to make a medical diagnosis or decision.
The building and construction field will benefit from the easier project management that augmented reality systems will bring.
Markers can be placed or attached to a particular object a person is currently working on so that project and site managers can monitor work in progress.
In the petroleum and mining industry, it will enable decision makers to make timely decisions.
Augmented reality systems can be used in almost any field or industry. The novelty of instant information coupled with enhanced perception will ensure that augmented reality systems will play a big role in how people live in the future.
Various application in Market
483 AR apps exist in the Apple Store out of 300,000+ total iOS apps
258 AR apps exist in the Android Market out of 130,000+ total Android apps
Browsers allow you to view augmented content – Junaio, Layar, and Wikitude World Browser
Editing tools allow you to augment your own reality – Tag What, Artags, and Sekai Camera
Educational tools help you learn by interacting with the environment around you – Google Goggles and Google Sky Map
Sources: AndroidZoom, Augmented Planet
Limitation of AR tech. Constrained audience Immature technology Complex app authoring Limited use cases
An Introduction to AR Book An augmented book is an application that augments virtual 3D objects to a real book via AR technology Augmented Reality(AR) books are interactive paper-based books implementing some forms of physical-to-digital links where physical paper documents become augmentedly merged with digital content.
The main hardware elements of AR book system are display(PC monitor, HMD, handheld device, smart device), tracking, input device(marker, web-camera, and keyboard), and computer. The software technologies for AR book applications are divided by two: off-line software technologies such as ARToolKit, 3D Studio Max, and PaperVision3D; and real-time software technologies such as FLARManager of all the software libraries(Lizrokapis, 2007).
Types of AR book A Situated Learning Technique (SLT) in which the user access the contents by the OCR that couldn’t be edited. In applying SLT to AR book content, a major focus falls on the main components of SLT such as authentic context, affordable knowledge, active social interaction, and task/activities A Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) in which user can customize the text according to there choice In accordance with CLT, there are three different types of cognitive load, namely, intrinsic load caused by the complexity of the instructional goals and content, germane load originating from design of instructional materials in ways that contribute to learning, and extraneous load imposed by the elements of the instructional design itself that is irrelevant to the learning goal.
Virtual reorganizations Virtual reorganizations of Museums Virtual reorganizations of libraries Virtual reorganizations of knowladge
New technology Miniaturization and electronic books Ubiquity and mobiles Geographic information systems and global positioning systems Agents Optical character recognition
Display Technologies Monitor Based Head Mounted Displays: Video see-through Optical see-through
Monitor Based Augmented Reality Simplest available Little feeling of being immersed in environment
Optical see-through HMD
Artificial Reality indoor A conceptual drawing of a tracking system: Magnetic trackers vs vision-based trackers!!! The tracking system has two parts; specifically, six sensors that are attached to the user, and a set of light-emitting diodes attached to the ceiling. The sensors attached to the user look upwards at the ceiling, and from that position and knowing the location of the user sensors compared to the location of the LEDs, it is possible to calculate the precise position of the user in the room and project the virtual objects accordingly
Artificial Reality indoor Monocular and binocular optical see-through head-worn displays
Mobile AR: smart phones Smartphone come mashup mobileditecnologieconvergenti gps/agps bussola videocamera markers cell networkmobile internet wi-fi larger display multiple touch tecnologyaccelerometro
AR outdoor AR escedailaboratori e diventa wearable L’AR ourdoorstruttural’esperienzaarchitettonicasudiversi layer didati, rimappai real estates e litrasforma in media landscape
ARToolKit ARToolKit is a software library for building Augmented Reality (AR) applications. These are applications that involve the overlay of virtual imagery on the real world. For example, in the image to the right a three-dimensional virtual character appears standing on a real card. It can be seen by the user in the head set display they are wearing. When the user moves the card, the virtual character moves with it and appears attached to the real object. One of the key difficulties in developing Augmented Reality applications is the problem of tracking the users viewpoint. In order to know from what viewpoint to draw the virtual imagery, the application needs to know where the user is looking in the real world. ARToolKit uses computer vision algorithms to solve this problem. The ARToolKit video tracking libraries calculate the real camera position and orientation relative to physical markers in real time. This enables the easy development of a wide range of Augmented Reality applications. Some of the features of ARToolKit include: * Single camera position/orientation tracking. * Tracking code that uses simple black squares. * The ability to use any square marker patterns. * Easy camera calibration code. * Fast enough for real time AR applications. * SGI IRIX, Linux, MacOS and Windows OS distributions. * Distributed with complete source code.
FLARToolKit * AS3 ported version of ARToolKit. * Actually, FLARToolKit is based on NyARToolkit, Java ported version of ARToolKit. * FLARToolKit recognize the marker from input image. and calculate its orientation and position in 3D world. * You should draw 3D graphics by your own. * But helper classes for major flash 3D engines (Papervision3D, Away3D, Sandy, Alternativa3D) are included. * Papervision3D is used in starter-kit. GPL FLARToolKit is free to use for non-commercial applications under the GPL license. This means the complete source code for your application must be made available to anyone that asks for it. FLARToolKit is based on the ARToolKit library under the GPL license and so the source code for any FLARToolKit applications that are made needs to be GPL as well.
Thanks to Wikitude Wikipedia Global information system Youtube Isioc.org