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  • 1. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. CHAPTER 7SALES OBJECTIVES AND QUOTASCopyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVESObjectives and quotas are fundamental parts of a company, becausethey provide the sales force with direction and goals. Selling byobjectives (SBO) is a system that unites the sales force. Thischapter should help you understand:  The relationship between sales objectives and quotas.  Why quotas are important.  The various types of quotas.  The methods for setting quotas.  Criteria needed for a good quota plan.  Major areas for establishing objectives.  How organizations set objectives.  The selling by objectives process. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 4. WHAT IS A QUOTA?A quota refers to an expected performanceobjective.Quotas are tactical in nature and thus derivedfrom the sales force’s strategic objectives. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 5. WHY ARE QUOTAS IMPORTANT?• Quotas provide performance targets.• Quotas provide standards.• Quotas provide control.• Quotas provide change of direction.• Quotas are motivational. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 6. TYPES OF QUOTAS• Sales volume quotas. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 7. Sales volume quotas includes dollar orproduct unit objectives for a specific periodof time. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 8. TYPES OF QUOTAS• Sales volume quotas.• Break down total sales volume. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 9. • Product lines.• Individual established and new products.• Geographic areas based on how the sales organization is designed, which would include: • Sales division. • Sales regions. • Sales districts. • Individual sales territories. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 10. TYPES OF QUOTAS• Sales volume quotas.• Break down total sales volume.• Profit quotas. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 11. The two types of profit quotas: • Gross margin quota determined by subtracting cost of goods sold from sales volume. • Net profit quota determined by subtracting cost of goods sold and salespeople’s direct selling expense from sales volume. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 12. TYPES OF QUOTAS• Sales volume quotas.• Break down total sales volume.• Profit quotas.• Expense quotas. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Expense quotas are aimed at controlling costs ofsales units. Often expenses are related to salesvolume or to the compensation plan. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 14. TYPES OF QUOTAS• Sales volume quotas.• Break down total sales volume.• Profit quotas.• Expense quotas.• Activity quotas. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Activity quotas set objectives for job-relatedduties useful toward reaching salespeople’sperformance targets. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Customer satisfaction refers to feelings about anydifferences between what is expected and actualexperiences with the purchase. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 17. TYPES OF QUOTAS• Sales volume quotas.• Breakdown total sales volume.• Profit quotas.• Expense quotas.• Activity quotas.• Quota combinations. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 18. METHODS FOR SETTING SALES QUOTAS • Quotas based on forecasts and potentials. • Quotas based on forecasts only. • Quotas based on past experience. • Quotas based on executive judgments. • Quotas salespeople set. • Quotas related to compensation. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 19. TABLE 7.4 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL SALES PLANNING LEVEL PURPOSE: WHAT IS WHO (USUALLY) IS PLANNED INVOLVED 1. Marketing •Organizational goals Upper management and (increase in market share or sales and marketing penetration, increase in executives customers, increase in sales dollars and units sold) 2. Regional plan •Priorities (which regions, Regional and district sales markets, and products to managers (which input emphasize) from sales reps) 3. District plan •Dollar allotment (for District managers and sales promotion, advertising, representatives new employees, sales incentives, and so on) 4. Territorial plan •Goals for number of new Sales representatives customers and for increased business with old customers in each region and territory Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 20. SELLING BY OBJECTIVES SETS FUTURE TARGETSTwo basic steps to implementing sales strategies: Step 1: Organize the jobs. Step 2: Define annual objectives in important areas. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 21. FIGURE 7.2 THE FOUR MAJOR AREAS TO ESTABLISH OBJECTIVESWITH EACH SALESPERSON SALES MANAGEMENT Step 1: Organizing the Job Salesperson Territorial Management Account Management Call Management Self-Management • Limits • Portfolio of • Preparation • Appearance • Potential Business Accounts • Selling Technique • Manner • Size • Potentials • Training • Communication • Customer Base • Coverage • Communication Skills • Prospects • Records • Buyer Behavior • Abilities • Leads • Order Size • Impact • Attitudes • Market Share • Penetration • Handling Resistance • Selling Abilities • Growth • Reports • Trade Relations • Customer • Dealer Relations Satisfaction Step 2: Defining Annual Objectives 1. Regular 2. Problem Solving 3. Innovative Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 22. SELLING BY OBJECTIVES SETS FUTURE TARGETS • Treating the territory as a business. • Managing each account. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 23. Tactical plan for managing accounts: 1. Build the stars. 2. Harvest the cash cows. 3. Fix the problems. 4. Divest the dogs. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 24. SELLING BY OBJECTIVES SETS FUTURE TARGETS • Treating the territory as a business. • Managing each account. • Managing each call. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 25. Questions about the content of calls: • Is the sales rep properly armed with information, leads, and materials before the call occurs? • Is the sales rep applying the major principles of selling technique during the presentation? Or is the sales rep inventing his or her own and perhaps making every mistake every salesperson in history has made? • Has the salesperson planned some coherent attack for the sales presentation, and is it working well? Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 26. Questions about the content of calls: continued • Does the sales rep have enough training in communication, in meeting sales resistance, in understanding buyer behavior, in improving call impact, in gaining greater account penetration, in follow-through methods to do the job? • Does the sales rep have enough knowledge of the product and its applications, service and system backup, and technical problems to handle the toughest calling situation? Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 27. SELLING BY OBJECTIVES SETS FUTURE TARGETS • Treating the territory as a business. • Managing each account. • Managing each call. • Managing oneself. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 28. Self-management in selling includes the following:• Since selling involves making contact with strangers, dress, style, demeanor, and personal decorum are part of the salesperson’s tool kit.• Communication skills, memory, logical speaking habits, and writing competence are vested in the person.• Attitudes and outlook toward the job, the product, the company, and the customers all have an important bearing in the results to be achieved.• The knowledge of selling techniques, what the various kinds are and how and when to use them, are personally vested in the sales rep and can be produced and polished by training. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 29. BASIC LEVELS OF INDIVIDUAL OBJECTIVES 1. Regular, ongoing, and recurring objectives. 2. Problem-solving objectives. 3. Innovative or creative objectives.The highest level of excellence is reserved forpeople who are attaining all three. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 30. THE PROCEDURES FOR SETTING OBJECTIVES ANDQUOTAS WITH SALESPEOPLE• Prepare the way.• Schedule conferences with each salesperson.• Prepare a written summary of goals agreed upon.• Optional group meeting to share objectives. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 31. FIGURE 7.3 SELLING BY OBJECTIVES FORM N am e For Y ear L is t Y o u r R e s p o n s ib ilit y A r e a R e s u lts E x p e c te d O u tp u t P e s s im is t ic R e a lis t ic O p t im is t ic R e s u lts 1 . $ V o lu m e / m o n t h 2 . $ E x p e n se / m o n th 3 . G r o s s m a r g in / m o n th 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. O th e r I n s t r u c t io n : L is t t h e r e g u la r , o n g o in g , r e c u r r in g o b je c t iv e s . C o v e r t h e t e n m a jo r r e s p o n - s ib ilit ie s o f y o u r jo b n e x t y e a r t o m a n a g e t e r r it o r y , a c c o u n t s , c a lls , a n d y o u r s e lf. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 32. A GOOD OBJECTIVE ANDQUOTA PLAN IS SMART Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Time specificCopyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 33. A simple three-way test to judge how well quotasand objectives are written: Test 1: Does this quota state exactly what the intended result is? Test 2: Does this quota specify when the intended result is to be accomplished? Test 3: Can the intended result be measured? Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 34. SELLING-BY-OBJECTIVES MANAGEMENTSelling by objectives (SBO) is the processelaborated on earlier whereby the manager andsalesperson jointly identify common goals, definemajor areas of responsibility, and agree on theresults expected. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 35. FIGURE 7.4 SETTING OBJECTIVES AND QUOTAS IS A TWO-WAYPROCESS BETWEEN MANAGER AND SALESPERSON M u tu a lly S e t M ea su re O b je c tiv e s a n d P e r fo r m a n ce Q u o ta s E v a lu a te P e r fo r m a n ce P u b liciz e P e r fo r m a n ce R ew a rd R e s u lts o r P e n a lty Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 36. THE SALES TERRITORY IS WHERE QUOTAS ARE MADEThe sales territory is “where the action is!” Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 37. THE BOTTOM LINEQuotas are important to a company because they establish the“end state” sought, and they change according to external andinternal forces.Many different types of quotas exist.Methods for setting quotas may vary.Setting a sales quota can be an involved process.Selling by objectives (SBO) is a common concept and is widelyused by sales organizations. Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

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