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Survival skills
 

Survival skills

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    Survival skills Survival skills Presentation Transcript

    • Survival skills are techniques a person may use in adangerous situation (e.g. natural disasters) to savethemselves or others (see also bushcraft). Generallyspeaking, these techniques are meant to provide the basicnecessities for human life:water , food, shelter, habitat, and the need to thinkstraight, to signal for help, to navigate safely, to avoidunpleasant interactions with animals and plants and forfirst aid. Survival skills are often basic ideas and abilitiesthat ancient humans had to use for thousands of years, sothese skills are partially a reenactment of history.
    • Many of these skills are the ways to enjoyextended periods of time in remote places, or away to thrive in nature. Even hiking,backpacking, horseback riding, fishing, hunting,or some other activity, you need to make sureyou have the basic wilderness survivalskills to handle an emergency situation.Some people use these skills to betterappreciate nature and for recreation, notjust survival.
    • Before building a structure you must first consider yoursituation. Your shelter should be able to protect you fromexcessive heat/cold, wind, rain, sun, snow, and any weatherthat is around you. Shelter is mainly for protection andcomfort. It can protect against the weather, animals, or insects.It should be relatively comfortable because you must be ableto sleep, a basic human need. A shelter can range from a"natural shelter"; such as a cave or a fallen-down (cracked butnot split) thickly-foliaged tree, to an intermediate formof man-made shelter such as a debris shelter, a ditch dug nextto a tree log and covered with foliage, or a snow cave, tocompletely man-made structures such as a tarp, tent, or house.
    • A human being can survive an average of three to five days without the intake ofwater, assuming sea-level altitude, room temperature and favorable relativehumidity. In colder or warmer temperatures, the need for water is greater. Theneed for water also increases with exercise. A typical person will lose minimallytwo to maximally four liters of water per day under ordinary conditions, and morein hot, dry, or cold weather. Four to six liters of water or other liquids aregenerally required each day in the wilderness to avoid dehydration and to keep thebody functioning properly. The U.S. Army survival manual recommends that youdrink water whenever thirsty. Other groups recommend rationing water through"water discipline". A lack of water causes dehydration, which may resultin lethargy, headaches, dizziness, confusion, and eventually death. Even milddehydration reduces endurance and impairs concentration, which is dangerous ina survival situation where clear thinking is essential. Dark yellow or brown urine isa diagnostic indicator of dehydration. To avoid dehydration, a high priority istypically assigned to locating a supply of drinking water and making provision torender that water as safe as possible.
    • Many sources in survival literature, as well as forums and onlinereferences, list ways in which water may be gathered and renderedsafer for consumption in a survival situation, such as boiling, filtering,chemicals, solar radiation / heating (SODIS), and distillation (regular orvia solar distillation). Such sources also often list the dangers, such aspollutants, microorganisms, or pathogens which affect the safety ofback country water.Recent thinking is that boiling or commercial filters are significantlysafer than use of chemicals, with the exception of chlorine dioxide. Theissues presented by the need for water dictate that unnecessary waterloss by perspiration be avoided in survival situations. To thus avoidthese problems, culinary root tubers, fruit, edible mushrooms, ediblenuts, edible beans, edible cereals or edible leaves, edible moss, ediblecacti and algae can be searched and if needed, prepared (mostly byboiling). With the exception of leaves, these foods are relatively high incalories, providing some energy to the body. Plants are some of theeasiest food sources to find in the jungle, forest or desert becausetheyre stationary and can thus be had without exerting much effort .
    • Also, many commentators discuss the knowledge, skills, and equipment(such as bows, snares and nets) necessary to gather animal food in thewild through animal trapping, hunting, fishing. Some survival bookspromote the "Universal Edibility Test". Allegedly, one can distinguishedible foods from toxic ones by a series of progressive exposures to skinand mouth prior to ingestion, with waiting periods and checks forsymptoms. However, many other experts including Ray Mears andJohn Kallas reject this method, stating that even a small amount ofsome "potential foods" can cause physical discomfort, illness, or death.An additional step called the scratch test is sometimes included toevaluate the edibility of a potential food. Focusing on survival untilrescued by presumed searchers, The Boy Scouts of America especiallydiscourages foraging for wild foods on the grounds that the knowledgeand skills needed are unlikely to be possessed by those findingthemselves in a wilderness survival situation, making the risks(including use of energy) outweigh the benefits. Given that most peoplehave enough body fat to carry them through several days, using theenergy to procure water, fire and shelter is a better use of available timeand energy.
    • Making fire is recognized in the sources as to significantlyincrease the ability to survive physically and mentally.Lighting a fire without a lighter or matches, such as by usingnatural flint and steel with tinder, is a frequent subject ofboth books on survival and in survival courses. There is anemphasis placed on practicing fire-making skills beforeventuring into the wilderness. Producing fire under adverseconditions has been made much easier by the introduction oftools such as the solar spark lighter and the fire piston.
    • Fire is presented as a tool meeting many survivalneeds. The heat provided by a fire warms thebody, dries wet clothes, disinfects water, andcooks food. Not to be overlooked is thepsychological boost and the sense of safety andprotection it gives. In the wild, fire can provide asensation of home, a focal point, in addition tobeing an essential energy source. Fire may deterwild animals from interfering with the survivor,however wild animals may be attracted to thelight and heat of a fire. The light and smokeemitted by a fire can also be used to work at nightand can signal rescue units.
    • First aid (wilderness first aid in particular) can help aperson survive and function with injuries and illnesses thatwould otherwise kill or incapacitate him/her. Common anddangerous injuries include:•Wounds, which may become infected•Bites or stings from venomous animals, such as snakes,scorpions, spiders, bees, stingrays, jellyfish, catfish,stargazers, etc.•Bites leading to disease/septicemia, such as mosquitoes,fleas, ticks, animals infected with rabies, sand flies,komodo dragons, crocodilians, etc.•InfectioN through food, animal contact, or drinking non-potable water
    • •Bone fractures•Sprains, particularly of the ankle•Burns•Poisoning from consumption of, or contactwith, poisonous plants or poisonous fungi•Hypothermia (too cold) and hyperthermia (toohot)•Heart attack•HemorrhageThe survivor may need to apply the contents of afirst aid kit or, if possessing the requiredknowledge, naturally occurring medicinal plants,immobilize injured limbs, or even transportincapacitated comrades.
    • Natural disasters such as flash floods, fires,and storms to name a few, are frequentlymentioned in survival training. Man madedisasters like terror attacks these days aretaking place also in trainings. Thesetrainings are really important because oftheir role in leading people to safety but alsoinvolve risks. With these tips you can beassured to lessen risks or eventually makeyour survival skills during disasters moreefficient.
    • Mitigation is all you need to be prepared. Theterm means knowing and avoiding risks especiallywhen disaster strikes. It also includes assessmentsof possible risks. Next is preparedness that helpsyou to focus on the aim of safety by using possibleequipments to use during disasters. Byremembering these factors will help you to avoidpanic and start initiatives.
    • Tropical areas are prone to natural disasters forexample: heavy storms, floods, earthquakes, and evenlandslides. When you’re in these type of occurrence,make sure that you’re in a secure place with strongfoundations for you to be secure or you can even findone is possible but always take caution. Make yourmove as quickly as possible in reacting but don’t panic.Take ease with the process and figure possible ways ofcommunication for respondents to assure safety.
    • Wildfires and blizzards are in some areas are occurring. Be ina safe shelter or make your way as safe as you can by instinctor perhaps by keen observation of the occurrence. Get as muchsource of communication attention to respondents either waypossible. In wildfires, finding place with water will be a bighelp for relief when waiting for respondents to arrive.Making your way with to safety when disaster strikes can behard but it will secure your safety and survival skills duringdisasters can help you do it. Focusing on your safety and peaceof mind to secure out of the disaster a better tomorrow surewaiting for those observe.
    • The way to survive in the urban environment is to createemergency disaster plans, to have enough food in storage, andto be prepared with the supplies that you might need in case ofany weather-related, health-related, or government-issuedsituations that may occur. Remember though, that just like inthe wilderness, surviving in an urban setting depends more onyour skills and knowledge than on the equipment and fancytools you own.
    • The most basic thing to develop when trying tosurvive is your will to survive. Your chance ofsurviving a disaster or an emergency dependslargely on your desire or intent to survivewhatever befalls you. Hold meetings with yourfamily to discuss what you are going to do inemergency situations in order to prepare each andevery member of your family. Teamwork is oftenmost crucial in times like this.
    • Store non-perishable foods and water for yourfamily. The ability to find drinkable water isone of the most important survival skills youcan learn. Lack of water can ultimately lead todehydration and death. Also, thirst can keepyou from thinking clearly and making the rightdecisions. When clean drinkable water is nolonger available, you should also be equippedwith the knowledge on how to purify drinkablewater. Remember, any source of water that iscontaminated may do more harm than good.
    • Last but not the least of urbansurvival skills is knowing how toprotect and defend yourself. Sadly,emergency situations may showthe worst of mankind mainlybecause it is a “save yourself”scenario. Therefore, learning basicself defense is important.
    • There are different types of disasters orcalamities that people all over the world canencounter, these could be a hurricane, flashflood, or even fire in your home. Survivingskills during disasters is very vital in copingwith such situations. Included in this article aretips that you can consider in order to beprepared for any unavoidable circumstanceand help you in facing these occurrences if itdoes happen.
    • Tip number one:- Calamity is anyevent that swamps the society orpersons capacity to cope and act inresponse. Being smart to meet yourfundamental needs for at least a weekis a rational course of action. Duringan urgent situation, all levels ofauthority may be beset with managingthe crisis.
    • Tip number two:- In order to survive during this typeof calamities, people must have air tobreathe, drinking water, a humid and sheltered placeto hang about, getting in touch with others is reallyimportant to be alive. Having enough stock of waterand face masks per person for a week is muchgreater. In addition, canned goods and other readyto eat foods will really help you to survive during inthis type of calamities. Keep your phone charged tokeep in touch with people around you and to have asource of communication, this is really an effectivesurvival skills during disaster.
    • Tip number three. Getting in touch after the calamity withyour relatives is very important, staying connected with eachand everyone in the family is really vital. Phone a familymember to let them know that your safe and sound, make sureyour landlines are still in good condition, cell sites are surelydumped after what happen, set a place where you and otherfamily members can meet. Don’t forget to have a batterypowered radio in your survival kit, to make sure you will havethe access on the news; for sure television satellites andinternet servers are shut down. These survival skills duringdisaster will certainly help you during these times ofunexpected calamities.
    • The occurrence of numerous natural disastersnowadays has caused a lot of concerned individuals allover the world. Though these disasters cannot beprevented there is still something you can do to beprepared when it strikes. Below are some disastersurvival tips that will help you and your family faceany disaster emergency situations. Your lives maygreatly depend on these tips so be sure to keep them inmind.
    • First is to get yourself an emergency radio.Through this radio you can listen for furtherinstructions during an emergency so make sureyou know how to use it. You will also be able toknow specific evacuation areas for shelter.Provide yourself and your family your ownemergency food, water storage, and survivalsupplies. This might not be an essential fordisaster survival tips but you may consider selfdefense products to protect your family.
    • There is a tendency that looting and unrulinesswill be caused by major disasters and emergencies.Another valuable thing to learn in times ofdisasters would be basic first aid and CPR. Youwill be capable to take care of the people aroundyou and yourself if you know a thing or twoabout it. When the situation calls for anevacuation it would be smart to get out early.You should also have a backup travel plan likevarious routes to form your home.
    • Should you have friends or perhaps families fromdistant cities, plan ahead to stay withthem. A meeting place should also be planned inadvance with each family member. Having a grab-and-go bag for each member of the family is alsovery important. This is to prevent panic packingduring an emergency and leave any valuable stuffbehind. These bags should include emergencysupplies that would last at least for three days.
    • You should also keep some cash available becausepower outages will render ATM machinesunusable. Remember that in any natural disaster,your greatest enemy would panic andunpreparedness. Follow these disaster survivaltips and you will be able to take care of yourfamily and survive any calamities andemergencies. Being prepared is your greatestdefense for these situations so you better be.
    • A human being can survive an average of three to five days without the intake ofwater, assuming sea-level altitude, room temperature and favorable relativehumidity. In colder or warmer temperatures, the need for water is greater. The needfor water also increases with exercise.A typical person will lose minimally two tomaximally four liters of water per day under ordinary conditions, and more in hot,dry, or cold weather. Four to six liters of water or other liquids are generallyrequired each day in the wilderness to avoid dehydration and to keep the bodyfunctioning properly. The U.S. Army survival manual recommends that you drinkwater whenever thirsty.Other groups recommend rationing water through "waterdiscipline".A lack of water causes dehydration, which may resultin lethargy, headaches, dizziness, confusion, and eventually death. Even milddehydration reduces endurance and impairs concentration, which is dangerous in asurvival situation where clear thinking is essential. Dark yellow or brown urine is adiagnostic indicator of dehydration. To avoid dehydration, a high priority istypically assigned to locating a supply of drinking water and making provision torender that water as safe as possible.
    • Many sources in survival literature, as well as forums and online references, listways in which water may be gathered and rendered safer for consumption in asurvival situation, such as boiling, filtering, chemicals, solar radiation / heating(SODIS), and distillation (regular or via solar distillation). Such sources also oftenlist the dangers, such as pollutants, microorganisms, or pathogens which affect thesafety of back country water.Recent thinking is that boiling or commercial filtersare significantly safer than use of chemicals, with the exception of chlorine dioxide.[The issues presented by the need for water dictate that unnecessary water lossby perspiration be avoided in survival situations.To thus avoid theseproblems, culinary root tubers, fruit, edible mushrooms, edible nuts, edible beans,edible cereals or edible leaves, edible moss, edible cacti and algae can be searched andif needed, prepared (mostly by boiling). With the exception of leaves, these foods arerelatively high in calories, providing some energy to the body. Plants are some of theeasiest food sources to find in the jungle, forest or desert because theyre stationaryand can thus be had without exerting much effort.