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Project report (web 3.0)

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web 3.0 project report

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    Project report (web 3.0) Project report (web 3.0) Document Transcript

    • Seminar Report<br />On<br />WEB 3.0<br />(Group Discussion and Seminar on Assigned Topic-IT 606)<br />Submitted to<br />Mr. Ajoy Kr Khan<br />Submitted by<br />Abhishek Roy( Roll No 14)<br />2152650263525<br />Department of Information Technology<br />ASSAM UNIVERSITY<br />SILCHAR, DORGACONA-788011<br />ACKNOWLEDGEMENT <br />At the very outset I take this opportunity to convey my heartfelt gratitude to those persons whose co-operation, suggestions and support helped me to accomplish the project successfully.<br />I take immense pleasure to express my sincere thanks and profound gratitude to our respected Mr. Sudipta Roy, H.O.D. and Mr Ajoy Kr Khan , Department of Information Technology, Assam University, Silchar for his kind co-operation and able guidance, valuable suggestions and encouragement he rendered for completing the Seminar topic.<br />I express my sincere thanks to all the faculty members of the Department of Information Technology, for providing the encouragement and environment for the success of my topic.<br />In the end, I would be failing in my duties if I do not express my heartfelt gratitude to my family whose constant inspiration and patience have helped me to complete this work. And last but not the least I would like to thank God for all he has given me till today.<br />Abhishek Roy<br />i<br />2381250-19050<br />Department of Information Technology<br />ASSAM UNIVERSITY<br />SILCHAR, DORGACONA – 788011<br />Date: 24-March-2011<br />To whom it may concern<br />This is to certify that Abhishek Roy (resgistration number 24401388 of 2008-09) - worked on the seminar topic ” WEB 3.0 ” from January to May 2011 and has successfully completed the work, in order to partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Information Technology under my supervision and guidance.<br /> Mr Ajoy Kr Khan<br />Deptt. of Information Technology<br /> Assam University<br /> Silchar, Dorgacona -788011<br />ii<br />Abstract<br />The Semantic Web or Web 3.0 is a "web of data" that enables machines to understand the semantics, or meaning, of information on the World Wide Web. It extends the network of hyperlinked human-readable web pages by inserting machine-readable metadata about pages and how they are related to each other, enabling automated agents to access the Web more intelligently and perform tasks on behalf of users. The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web and director of the World Wide Web Consortium, which oversees the development of proposed Semantic Web standards. He defines the Semantic Web as "a web of data that can be processed directly and indirectly by machines."<br />iii<br />Table of Contents<br />Acknowledgement ……………………………………………………………………………….i<br />Certificate………………………………………………………………………………………..ii<br />Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………iii<br />1.0 Web 3.0 - A Brief Overview :……………………………………………………………………………….........1<br /> 1.1 . Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………..……..1<br /> 1.2 . Scope ……………………………………………………………………………………………………2<br /> 1.3. Glossary………………………………………………………………………………………………….2<br /> 2.0 Overall Description :………………………………………………………………………………………………3<br /> 2.1 Need for Web 3.0……………………………………………………………………….4<br /> Semantic Web Enabling Technologies………………………………………..…5<br /> 2.2 Purpose………………………………………………………………………………….6<br /> 2.3 Components …………………………………………………………………………….7<br /> 2.4 Challenges ………………………………………………………………………………9<br /> 2.5 Uses of Web 3.0………………………………………………………………………...11<br /> 2.6 Web 3.0 Examples……………………………………………………………….12<br /> 2.7 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………...13<br />3.0 Index………………………………………………………………………………………...14<br />4.0 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………15<br />5.0 References…………………………………………………………………………………...16<br />1.0 Web 3.0 - A Brief Overview :<br />1.1. Introduction<br />Web 3.0 is the new generation of the World Wide Web, through which Web 2.0 technology joins hands with the Semantic Web, making it possible for humans as well as machines to access and use the information stored in the Web. With Web 3.0, machines will be able to perform tasks requiring human intelligence, reducing our time and effort on the Internet dramatically.Web 3.0, aiming at making the Internet a better, smarter network, is a precursor to the fully semantic Web, and successor to the Web 2.0.Web 2.0 specialized in making the net usage collaborative by allowing the people to interact with the data and contribute their views through such things as wiki, blogs, social networking sites, etc. Examples: Wikipedia, Blogger, Digg, Technorati,  StumbleUpon, Myspace, Facebook, Flickr, and many more.<br />1<br />1.2. Scope<br />Web 3.0 contributes extremely to the development of the current Internet. Companies like ZCubes, ZOHO, Google, etc., which specialize in Web 3.0, have built applications to incorporate the semantic revolution of the Web.Its scope is vast…<br />1.3. Glossary :<br />HTML …………Hyper Text Markup Language<br />WWW…………World Wide Web<br />W3C……………WWW consortium<br />XML…………….Extensible Markup Language<br />OWL……………..Web Ontology Language <br />Catastrophe….Sudden Disaster<br />URW3-XG ……..Uncertainty Reasoning for the World Wide Web <br />2<br />2.0 Overall description :<br />Web 3.0 is the new generation of the World Wide Web, through which Web 2.0 technology joins hands with the Semantic Web, making it possible for humans as well as machines to access and use the information stored in the Web. With Web 3.0, machines will be able to perform tasks requiring human intelligence, reducing our time and effort on the Internet dramatically.Web 3.0, aiming at making the Internet a better, smarter network, is a precursor to the fully semantic Web, and successor to the Web 2.0.Web 2.0 specialized in making the net usage collaborative by allowing the people to interact with the data and contribute their views through such things as wiki, blogs, social networking sites, etc. Examples: Wikipedia, Blogger, Digg, Technorati,  StumbleUpon, Myspace, Facebook, Flickr, and many more.But Web 3.0 will give Internet itself intelligence by making the machines-programs that access data (search engine bots, etc.,) -understand what the data itself is. This will make them dig up the best information from the Web for our needs and be able to contribute a lot better than they do now.<br />3<br />2.1 Need for Web 3.0 <br />When we search in Google for particular information, most of what we get on the first page are the links to websites without any information useful to us. To obtain the Website that we need, we might have to use different keywords or go to the second or third SERP. Without using our intelligence, we can't get the required result. Programs cannot see what people can.<br />Google is a dumb machine discharging its bots throughout the Web, scanning for keywords. When it finds a keyword in any site already indexed by it, it will present the link to you. It is up to you to decide if the site is actually useful or not. Hence, most of the time, the first search results of Google are not what you want; they either contain technical jargon allover or advertisements, not the specific thing you want.With the advent of Web 3.0, this is all going to change. Web 3.0 aims to make the Internet itself a huge database of information, accessible to machines as well as humans. When Web 3.0 becomes popular, we will have a data-driven web, enabling us unearth information faster from the net.You can get the machines to contribute to your needs, by searching for, organizing, and presenting information from the Web. That means, with Web 3.0 you can be fully automated on the Internet. Besides this, with machine intelligence, you can achieve tasks like the following very easily: automating share transactions; checking and deleting unwanted emails; creating and updating websites; and booking your movie tickets, airplane tickets, etc.Web 3.0 is going to be actually the era of artificial intelligence enabled programs sprawling the Web.<br />4<br />Semantic Web Enabling Technologies<br />Web 3.0 technologies help create the Semantic Web by generating a worldwide database from the data currently scattered across the Internet. We have a million data formats for even a single simple task. This is because there are too many applications on every genre, and each of them creates its own data format, which is hidden from the other applications. The major task of Web 3.0 technologies is to unify all these formats, and create a common, extensible format that can understand any application data. Only when the data is not hidden from the machines, can the machines do anything productive.<br />5<br />2.2 Purpose<br />The main purpose of the Semantic Web is driving the evolution of the current Web by allowing users to use it to its full potential, thus allowing them to find, share, and combine information more easily. Humans are capable of using the Web to carry out tasks such as finding the Irish word for "folder," reserving a library book, and searching for a low price for a DVD. However, machines cannot accomplish all of these tasks without human direction, because web pages are designed to be read by people, not machines. The semantic web is a vision of information that can be interpreted by machines, so machines can perform more of the tedious work involved in finding, combining, and acting upon information on the web.<br />Semantic Web application areas are experiencing intensified interest due to the rapid growth in the use of the Web, together with the innovation and renovation of information content technologies. The Semantic Web is regarded as an integrator across different content, information applications and systems, it also provides mechanisms for the realisation of Enterprise Information Systems. The rapidity of the growth experienced provides the impetus for researchers to focus on the creation and dissemination of innovative Semantic Web technologies, where the envisaged ’Semantic Web’ is long overdue. Often the terms ’Semantics’, ’metadata’, ’ontologies’ and ’Semantic Web’ are used inconsistently. In particular, these terms are used as everyday terminology by researchers and practitioners, spanning a vast landscape of different fields, technologies, concepts and application areas. Furthermore, there is confusion with regard to the current status of the enabling technologies envisioned to realise the Semantic Web. In a paper presented by Gerber, Barnard and Van der Merwe the Semantic Web landscape is charted and a brief summary of related terms and enabling technologies is presented. The architectural model proposed by Tim Berners-Lee is used as basis to present a status model that reflects current and emerging technologies.<br />6<br />2.3 Components<br />The semantic web comprises the standards and tools of XML, XML Schema, RDF, RDF Schema and OWL that are organized in the Semantic Web Stack. The OWL Web Ontology Language Overview describes the function and relationship of each of these components of the semantic web:<br />XML provides an elemental syntax for content structure within documents, yet associates no semantics with the meaning of the content contained within. XML is not at present a necessary component of Semantic Web technologies in most cases, as alternative syntaxes exists, such as Turtle. Turtle is a de facto standard, but has not been through a formal standardization process.<br />7<br />XML Schema is a language for providing and restricting the structure and content of elements contained within XML documents.<br />RDF is a simple language for expressing data models, which refer to objects ("resources") and their relationships. An RDF-based model can be represented in XML syntax.<br />RDF Schema extends RDF and is a vocabulary for describing properties and classes of RDF-based resources, with semantics for generalized-hierarchies of such properties and classes.<br />OWL adds more vocabulary for describing properties and classes: among others, relations between classes (e.g. disjointness), cardinality (e.g. "exactly one"), equality, richer typing of properties, characteristics of properties (e.g. symmetry), and enumerated classes.<br />SPARQL is a protocol and query language for semantic web data sources.<br />8<br />2.4 Challenges<br />Some of the challenges for the Semantic Web include vastness, vagueness, uncertainty, inconsistency, and deceit. Automated reasoning systems will have to deal with all of these issues in order to deliver on the promise of the Semantic Web.<br />Vastness: The World Wide Web contains at least 24 billion pages as of this writing (June 13, 2010). The SNOMED CT medical terminology ontology contains 370,000 class names, and existing technology has not yet been able to eliminate all semantically duplicated terms. Any automated reasoning system will have to deal with truly huge inputs.<br />Vagueness: These are imprecise concepts like "young" or "tall". This arises from the vagueness of user queries, of concepts represented by content providers, of matching query terms to provider terms and of trying to combine different knowledge bases with overlapping but subtly different concepts. Fuzzy logic is the most common technique for dealing with vagueness.<br />Uncertainty: These are precise concepts with uncertain values. For example, a patient might present a set of symptoms which correspond to a number of different distinct diagnoses each with a different probability. Probabilistic reasoning techniques are generally employed to address uncertainty.<br />Inconsistency: These are logical contradictions which will inevitably arise during the development of large ontologies, and when ontologies from separate sources are combined. Deductive reasoningfails catastrophically when faced with inconsistency, because "anything follows from a contradiction". Defeasible reasoning and paraconsistent reasoning are two techniques which can be employed to deal with inconsistency.<br />Deceit: This is when the producer of the information is intentionally misleading the consumer of the information. Cryptography techniques are currently utilized to alleviate this threat.<br />9<br />This list of challenges is illustrative rather than exhaustive, and it focuses on the challenges to the "unifying logic" and "proof" layers of the Semantic Web. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Incubator Group for Uncertainty Reasoning for the World Wide Web (URW3-XG) final report lumps these problems together under the single heading of "uncertainty". Many of the techniques mentioned here will require extensions to the Web Ontology Language (OWL) for example to annotate conditional probabilities. This is an area of active research. <br />10<br />2.5 Uses of Web 3.0<br />Web 3.0 contributes extremely to the development of the current Internet. Companies like ZCubes, ZOHO, Google, etc., which specialize in Web 3.0, have built applications to incorporate the semantic revolution of the Web.The Web 3.0 enabled technologies include the online applications (or web services), which can do virtually anything. For instance, if you go to the ZCubes website, you can create custom web pages that can contain text, spreadsheets, live calculation scripts, music, pictures, live videos, live websites, and much more. You can even handwrite on the page, and create your own high quality vector drawings. All these features can be embedded on a single page by drag and drop, and the product (a normal HTML file) can be saved on your computer or published on the Web.<br />11<br />2.6 Web 3.0 Examples<br />When we want to search for particular information, more often than not, we get the answers after multiple searches. However, with Web 3.0, this task will be carried out in one search itself. Once you read some examples of Web 3.0, this will become more clear to you.If you want to go out for a movie of a specific genre and also want to eat out after the movie. You will type in a complex sentence and the search engine will fetch the answer for you. An example of Web 3.0 will be "I want to go for an action movie and then eat at a good Chinese restaurant. My options are?". You query string will be analyzed by the Web 3.0 browser, looked up the Internet and will fetch all the possible answers and also organize the results for you. Certain health data can also be looked up on the Internet using Web 3.0. One of the Web 3.0 examples for health search can be, a patient might want to ascertain, what is he suffering from with the set of symptoms, he is currently facing. Like I have mentioned previously, after assessing the query, the web browser will fetch the results. However, there is a loophole here. The data may not be accurate, as there can be multiple diseases, which may have similar symptoms.These are just some of the Web 3.0 examples. It is certain, that the browser is going to have an intelligent browsing experience and may not have to narrow down his search. Also multiple search in a single search will reduce the browsing time for the browser, but it may bring additional pressure on the browser.<br />12<br />2.7 Conclusion<br />Web 3.0 is all about the backend of the Web, about creating extreme machine interfacing. When the Web 3.0 interface becomes more popular, it will entirely change the way we access the Internet. We humans will no longer have to do the difficult tasks of researching on the Internet and finding the exact information. Machines will better do all these tasks. We only will need to view the data, modify it in the way we want, and create whatever new thing we wish to create.<br />Very few people knew ‘Web 2.0’ existed and talks of Web 3.0 have already started. It is the era of new age browsing using new age Internet technology. So that we understand, Web 3.0 better we will understand, what is Web 2.0 first. Web 2.0 is associated with web applications, which facilitate interactive information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design and collaboration on the web, rather World Wide Web. With it almost any site, service or technology, which promoted sharing and collaboration right down to the Net’s grass roots. This includes blogs, tags, RSS feeds, etc. There was a debate about the necessity of Web 2.0 and before people could assimilate Web 2.0, Web 3.0 has already come into existence. Hence, there is also a Web 3.0 vs Web 2.0 debate and there is guess work, about how would Web 3.0 look like. <br />Web 3.0 is called as "Semantic Web". It is a term coined by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of World Wide Web. To simplify it further, the semantic web is going to be a place, where machines will be able to read web pages much like humans. It is going to be a place, where Internet search engines along with software agents will troll the Internet and find what the user is exactly looking for. In words of Nova Spivack, "Web 3.0 is a set of standards that turn the web into one big database". With the Web 3.0 there is going to be intelligent search and behavioral advertising among other things.<br />13<br />3.0. Index<br />Facebook…………………..3<br />Myspace…………………….3<br />OWL…………………………..7<br />RDF…………………………….7<br />Semantic Web…………..5<br />SPARQL…………………….8<br />Wikipedia………………….3<br />WWW………………………3<br />W3C………………………….10<br />XML………………………….7<br />ZOHO………………………11<br />14<br />4.0. Bibliography<br />Web 3.0 ebook<br />Magazines<br />Articles<br />15<br />5.0. References<br />en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_Web<br />www.iiea.com/Web3.0<br />www.suite101.com/content/what-is-web-30-a61407<br />www.readwriteweb.com/.../web_30_when_web_sites_become_web_services.php<br />www.alistapart.com/articles/web3point0<br />en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Peter_Campbell/Web_3.0<br />e-language.wikispaces.com/web3.0<br />16<br />