It is a driving force that makes a person to achieve desired goal.According to various theories motivation is one of the basic needto achieve desired goal.Factors influencing motivation are : •Extrinsic factors-Comes from outside the individual. •Intrinsic factors-Exists within the individual.Motivation are positive and negative both. They can be intrinsicor extrinsic.
1. Activation Decision to initiate a behavior.2. Persistence Continuous effort toward goal regardless of number of obstacles.3. Intensity Concentration goes into pursuing a goal i.e how hard a person is trying to achieve the goal .
•Intrinsic Factors They are self generated factors as Responsibility Freedom to act Develop skills and abilities Interesting and challenging work Opportunities for advancement•Extrinsic Factors Done by others as Rewards Promotion Punishment
Motivation is mostly influenced by needs. On this basis AbrahamMaslow gave a hierarchy known as “Maslows Hierarchy”.Five needs are described in Maslows Hierarchy 1. Physiological Needs 2. Security and Safety Needs 3. Social Needs (Love/Belonging Needs) 4. Self-Esteem Needs 5. Self-Actualization Needs
The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramidcontain "deficiency needs" or “d-needs”Exception of the most fundamental need is physiological needs.He also coined the term Metamotivation.Metamotivated people are driven by B-needs (Being Needs),instead of deficiency needs (D-Needs).
For the most part, physiological needs are obvious — theyare the literal requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met, the human body simplycannot continue to function.Some of these are: •Air •Water Metabolic Requirement •Food •Clothing •Shelter
It is second most important need.Safety and Security needs include: Personal security Financial security Health and well-being Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts
It is the third important layer of human need.Deficiencies in this need can have effect on individual’s abilityto form and maintain emotionally significant relationship as: Friendship Intimacy Family
It is the Fourth important layer of human need.Esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted andvalued by others. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem or aninferiority complex.Two versions of esteem needs A lower one A higher one.
It is the Fifth and the last layer of human need. Its about “What a man can be, he must be.” Described by Maslow : What one desires to be.Typically it is defined as “The full realization of ones potential”.Few people attain it.
Developed by Douglas McGregor.Two theories are described •Theory X •Theory YThese theories relates to Maslow’s HierarchyTheory Y relates to Self Actualization and Self Esteem.
Assumes Average person as: Dislike work and avoid it where possible. No(or lack in) ambition, dislike responsibility and would followthan lead.Desire security.Self CenteredResists ChangeGullible
Hard Approach Environment of command and control.Purposely low output.Soft ApproachPermissive & Seek HarmonyRequest more RewardsBoth the extreme approaches are not optimal.
Characterize workers who, Consider work can be natural like rest or play Do not dislike work Seek responsibility Self Directed Committed to their Job.
Align personal goal with organizational goalNo soft approachSome employees are not Mature enoughMotivation TechniquesDecentralization and DelegationJob EnlargementParticipative ManagementAppraisals
Also known as “Herzbergs motivation-hygiene theory”.Nature of the work.Distinguished between Motivators Hygiene Factors
Achievement Company policyRecognition SupervisionWork itself Relationship with bossResponsibility Work conditionsAdvancement SalaryGrowth Relationship with peers Security Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not two sides of same thing.
Provide Hygiene FactorsProvide Job enrichment for intrinsic motivation Sufficient Challenge in Job. More responsibility to employees. Replacing employee of high level skill with low level skill employee.
Example:I need to be paid on time each month so I can pay my bills. If I am not paid ontime, I get really unhappy. But when I get paid on time, I hardly notice it.On the other hand, when my boss gives me a pat on the back, I feel good. I dontexpect this every day and dont especially miss not having praise all of the time.