Precision Agriculture using
GPS
By
E.LAKSHMI
131867
1
Contents :
Introduction
Precision Agriculture
Technological tools
Benefits of PA
PA vs Traditional Agriculture
PA with GPS...
Precision Agriculture
Precision farming (PA) or satellite farming or site specific crop
management (SSCM) is a farming man...
Precision agriculture aims to optimize field-level management with
regard to:
Crop science (e.g. fertilizer inputs);
Env...
Technological tools
1.Remote sensing
2.GPS
3.GIS
4.Yield monitor
5.Variable rate technology
5
Fig 1
Benefits of Precision Agriculture
Increase productivity and net profit;
Provide better decision making ability;
Improve so...
PA vs Traditional Agriculture
Precision farming
The farm field is broken into
“management zones” based on
soil pH, yield r...
PA with GPS
Farm uses include:
mapping yields (GPS + combine yield monitor),
variable rate planting (GPS + variable rate p...
Thomas et al, (2000) explained about the development of Carrier-
Phase Differential GPS (CPDGPS) for automatic tractor con...
Maheswari et al, (2008) discussed about the adoption of precision
farming technology and productivity of vegetables in Res...
Methodology for PA
Review current data
Obtain additional data
Gather yield data
Examine results
Data Interpretation
Manage...
12
Fig 3. PA cycle
Case Study 1
Title: Precision Farming Technology, Adoption Decisions and
Productivity of Vegetables in Resource-Poor Envir...
Study Area
In Tamil Nadu, precision farming was implemented under the Tamil
Nadu Precision Farming Project (TNPFP) in the ...
Methodology used
The data on precision and non-precision farmings were collected
through the interview schedule during the...
Variable rate application with GPS
Using the field position from a
GPS receiver and a prescription
map of desired rate, th...
17
Chisel plough
The chisel plough technology ensured better
aeration to root zone and effective drainage
during rainy day...
Observation
Adoption of precision farming leads to about 80 per cent increase in
yield in tomato and 34 per cent in brinja...
Case Study 2
Title : Tractor-based Real-time Kinematic-Global Positioning System
(RTK-GPS) guidance system for geospatial ...
Materials and Methods
Global positioning system
Transplanter design
Data acquisition hardware
Data acquisition software
Fi...
A single Real-time Kinematic-Global
Positioning System (RTK-GPS) system
mounted on the tractor for Global
Positioning Syst...
The mechanical hitch interface
between the tractor and the
transplanter was instrumented
with orientation sensors to
allow...
Fig 8. Automatically generated crop
geoposition map.
After planting, the actual
geospatial location of each
transplant was...
Transplant Map, geo-referenced
to the world coordinate system,
showing the estimated plant
locations automatically generat...
Observation
This study demonstrated the feasibility using the GPS signal from an
RTK-GPS auto guidance system mounted on t...
Summary
Precision agriculture deals with the Spatial and temporal variability of
crop variables using GPS, RS, GIS.
Precis...
References
Gabriel Badescu, Rodica Badescu, Ovidiu Ştefan Mircea Ortelecan(2011),
“Using GPS-GNSS global positioning syste...
Michael O’Connor, Thomas Bell, Gabriel Elkaim, and Dr. Bradford
Parkinson (2000), “Automatic tractor guidance using carrie...
29
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PRECISE AGRICULTURE USING GPS

  1. 1. Precision Agriculture using GPS By E.LAKSHMI 131867 1
  2. 2. Contents : Introduction Precision Agriculture Technological tools Benefits of PA PA vs Traditional Agriculture PA with GPS Literature review Methodology Case study 1 Case study 2 Summary References 2
  3. 3. Precision Agriculture Precision farming (PA) or satellite farming or site specific crop management (SSCM) is a farming management concept based on observing, measuring and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops. Spatial and temporal variability of crop variables are at the heart of PA. Spatial - changes across a field. Temporal - changes from season to season and from year to year. 3
  4. 4. Precision agriculture aims to optimize field-level management with regard to: Crop science (e.g. fertilizer inputs); Environmental protection (e.g. limiting leaching of nitrogen) Economics (e.g. improved management of fertilizer usage and other inputs) 4
  5. 5. Technological tools 1.Remote sensing 2.GPS 3.GIS 4.Yield monitor 5.Variable rate technology 5 Fig 1
  6. 6. Benefits of Precision Agriculture Increase productivity and net profit; Provide better decision making ability; Improve soil productivity; Improve water quality; Improve wildlife habitat; Sustain natural resources for generations to come. 6
  7. 7. PA vs Traditional Agriculture Precision farming The farm field is broken into “management zones” based on soil pH, yield rates, pest infestation, and other factors that affect crop production. Management decisions are based on the requirements of each zone and PF tools (e.g. GPS/GIS) are used to control zone inputs. Traditional agriculture Traditional farming methods have used a “whole field” approach where the field is treated as a homogeneous area. Decisions are based on field averages and inputs are applied uniformly across a field in traditional farming. 7
  8. 8. PA with GPS Farm uses include: mapping yields (GPS + combine yield monitor), variable rate planting (GPS + variable rate planting system), variable rate lime and fertilizer application (GPS + variable rate controller), field mapping for records and insurance purposes (GPS + mapping software), and parallel swathing (GPS + navigation tool). 8
  9. 9. Thomas et al, (2000) explained about the development of Carrier- Phase Differential GPS (CPDGPS) for automatic tractor control to track the target lines in the field for plowing, sowing, fertilizing, pesticide spraying etc. Hermann (2001) discussed about the environmental challenge in Precision Farming with use of information technologies in agriculture. It is identified that precision farming will likely gain in importance only when viable additional benefits, such as reduced environmental burdens and increased flow of information, are recognised and evaluated. 9 Literature review
  10. 10. Maheswari et al, (2008) discussed about the adoption of precision farming technology and productivity of vegetables in Resource poor environment and also comparing the results with non-precision farming. Manuel et al, (2011) discussed about RTK accuracy mapping system for transplanted plants and could provide substantial savings in agro- chemicals with associated environmental and economic advantages for sustainable agricultural production systems. Rodica et al, (2011) explained the use of GNSS RTK technology in agriculture which shows the increase in profit. The GPS-GNSS positioning systems, together with the Geographical Informational Systems represent the future in all fields of activity, and especially in that of agriculture. 10
  11. 11. Methodology for PA Review current data Obtain additional data Gather yield data Examine results Data Interpretation Management strategy 11Fig 2. General methodology
  12. 12. 12 Fig 3. PA cycle
  13. 13. Case Study 1 Title: Precision Farming Technology, Adoption Decisions and Productivity of Vegetables in Resource-Poor Environments Authors: R. Maheswari, K.R. Ashok and M. Prahadeeswaran Journal: Agricultural Economics Research Review Objective: The impact of precision farming on resource-poor regions and underprivileged farmers. Specifically, the study has looked into productivity, income, employment, and adoption behaviour of technology in agriculture. 13
  14. 14. Study Area In Tamil Nadu, precision farming was implemented under the Tamil Nadu Precision Farming Project (TNPFP) in the Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri districts on about 400 ha of land with a total budget of 720 lakhs for a period of three years. 14
  15. 15. Methodology used The data on precision and non-precision farmings were collected through the interview schedule during the year 2007. The respondents were selected were 35 adopters and 35 non-adopters of precision farming in each of tomato and brinjal crops, making the total sample to be of 140 respondents. 15
  16. 16. Variable rate application with GPS Using the field position from a GPS receiver and a prescription map of desired rate, the concentration of input is changed as the applicator moves through the field. 16 Fig 4. GPS
  17. 17. 17 Chisel plough The chisel plough technology ensured better aeration to root zone and effective drainage during rainy days. Further it has helped the plants to develop root system with characteristical uniformity in pattern, architecture and in adequate mass. The Chisel plough needs to be operated once in two years. Drip irrigation Fig 5. chisel plough
  18. 18. Observation Adoption of precision farming leads to about 80 per cent increase in yield in tomato and 34 per cent in brinjal. Increase in gross margin has been found 165 per cent and 67 per cent in tomato and brinjal production. The net return increases by 39 per cent and 28 per cent in tomato and brinjal cultivation, respectively. Lack of finance and credit facilities have been identified as the major constraints for non-adoption of precision farming. 18
  19. 19. Case Study 2 Title : Tractor-based Real-time Kinematic-Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) guidance system for geospatial mapping of row crop transplant. Authors: Manuel Perez-Ruiz , David C. Slaughter , C. Gliever , Shrini K. Upadhyaya. Journal: Biosystems Engineering Objective: • Develop a real-time, transplant geoposition data-logging system. • Produce geospatial transplant maps. • Compare the accuracy of the automatically generated transplant geoposition map with surveyed transplant locations under standard and challenging conditions. 19
  20. 20. Materials and Methods Global positioning system Transplanter design Data acquisition hardware Data acquisition software Field Experiments 20
  21. 21. A single Real-time Kinematic-Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) system mounted on the tractor for Global Positioning System (GPS) location mapping of planting events occurring on the tractor-drawn transplanter. 21 Fig 6
  22. 22. The mechanical hitch interface between the tractor and the transplanter was instrumented with orientation sensors to allow computation of the GPS crop plant location. Reduce the equipment cost of the system. 22 Fig 7.Hitch position sensor used to determine the relative heading between the tractor-implement system.
  23. 23. Fig 8. Automatically generated crop geoposition map. After planting, the actual geospatial location of each transplant was determined by RTK-GPS using a handheld surveying system interfaced to a rover RTK-GPS. 23
  24. 24. Transplant Map, geo-referenced to the world coordinate system, showing the estimated plant locations automatically generated from the plant wheel sensor data and the surveyed plant location. The performance of the hitch yaw sensor was quite good and allowed the estimated plant map accuracy in the curved sections of the rows to be comparable to the straight sections of the trial. 24 Fig 9. True track and straight AB line for the curved planting path treatment.
  25. 25. Observation This study demonstrated the feasibility using the GPS signal from an RTK-GPS auto guidance system mounted on the tractor in the automatic mapping of crop plants during planting. Hitch orientation sensor was developed that allowed for accurate real- time monitoring of the position of the transplanting sled in relationship to the tractor. Thus it is possible to use single RTK-GPS system mounted on tractor for GPS location mapping of planting , reduce the equipment cost. 25
  26. 26. Summary Precision agriculture deals with the Spatial and temporal variability of crop variables using GPS, RS, GIS. Precision agriculture also started to adopt in developing countries especially in India but having some constraints due to small scale farms. GPS-based applications in precision farming are being used for farm planning, field mapping, soil sampling, tractor guidance, crop scouting, variable rate applications, and yield mapping. Therefore with the help of GPS it is easy to get the accurate information of crop variability in precision farming. 26
  27. 27. References Gabriel Badescu, Rodica Badescu, Ovidiu Ştefan Mircea Ortelecan(2011), “Using GPS-GNSS global positioning systems in Agriculture”, Advances in Biomedical Engineering Vols. 1-2. Hermann Auernhammer(2001), “Precision farming - the environmental Challenge”, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture ,Vol 30 ,31–43 Manuel Perez-Ruiz , David C. Slaughter , C. Gliever , Shrini K. Upadhyaya(2012),“Tractor-based Real-time Kinematic-Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) guidance system for geospatial mapping of row crop transplant”, biosystems engineering Vol 111 ,64-71. 27
  28. 28. Michael O’Connor, Thomas Bell, Gabriel Elkaim, and Dr. Bradford Parkinson (2000), “Automatic tractor guidance using carrier-phase differential GPS”, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture Vol 25 ,53– 66. R. Maheswari, K.R. Ashok and M. Prahadeeswaran(2008), “Precision Farming Technology, Adoption Decisions and Productivity of Vegetables in Resource-Poor Environments”, Agricultural Economics Research Review Vol. 21,415-424. Pinaki Mondal , Manisha Basu (2009), “Adoption of precision agriculture technologies in India and in some developing countries: Scope, present status and strategies”, Progress in Natural Science Vol 19,659–666. 28
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