Skillfully designed dentures
were made as early as 700
Talmud a collection of books
of hebrews in 352-407 AD
mentioned that teeth were
made of gold ,silver,and wood.
Egypt was the medical center
of ancient world, the first
dental prosthesis is believed
to have been constructed in
egypt about 2500 BC.
Hesi-Re Egyptian dentist of about
Front and back views of mandibular fixed bridge, four natural incisor
teeth and two carved ivory teeth
Bound With gold wire found in Sidon-ancient Phoenicia about fifth
and fourth century BC.
For years, dentures were fashioned from wood .
Wood was chosen
-can be carved to desired shape
-warped and cracked in moisture
-esthetic and hygienic challenges
-degradation in oral environment
Wooden denture believed to be carved out of box wood in
1538 by Nakoka Tei a Buddist priestess
Bone was chosen due to its availability,
reasonable cost and carvability .
It is reported that Fauchard fabricated dentures
by measuring individual arches with a compass
and cutting bone to fit the arches .
It had better dimensional stability than wood,
esthetic and hygienic concerns remained.
Denture bases and prosthetic teeth were fashioned by carving this
material to desired shape
Ivory was not available readily and was relatively expensive.
Denture bases fashioned from ivory were relatively stable in the oral
They offered esthetic and hygienic advantage in comparison with
denture bases carved from wood or bone.
Carved ivory upper denture retained in the mouth by springs with
natural human teeth cut off at the
Neck and riveted at the base. 7Dr Abhilash
Since ancient times the most
common material for false
teeth were animal bone or
ivory,especially from elephants
Human teeth were also
used,pulled from the deceased
or sold by poor people from
their own mouths.
1788 A.D. Improvement and
development of porcelain
dentures by DeChemant.
G.Fonzi an italian dentist in Paris
Porcelain teeth that revolutionized the
Of dentures.Picture shows partial
denture of about
1830,porcelain teeth of fonzi’s design
Soldered to a gold backing.8Dr Abhilash
One piece porcelain upper denture crafted by Dr John
Scarborough,Lambertville,New Jersey 1868.
In 1794 John Greenwood began to swage gold bases for
dentures. Made George Washington's dentures.
George washington’s last dental prosthesis. The palate was
swaged from a sheet of gold and ivory teeth riveted
To it.The lower denture consists of a single carved block of ivory.
The two dentures were held togther by steel
In 1839 an important development took place
discovered VULCANIZATION of natural rubber with
sulphur(30%) and was patented by Hancock in england
NELSON GOODYEAR (brother of charles goodyear) got
the patent for vulcanite dentures in 1864.
. They proceeded to license dentists who used their
material, and charged a royalty for all dentures made.
Dentists who would not comply were sued.
The Goodyear patents expired in 1881, and the
company did not again seek to license dentists or dental
Vulcanite dentures were very popular until the 1940s,
when acrylic denture bases replaced them.
A set of vulcanite dentures
worn by Gen. John J. (Blackjack)
Pershing, commander of the
American Expeditionary Forces
in France during the First World
War Set of complete dentures having
palate of swaged
Gold and porcelain teeth set in
In 1937 Dr. Walter Wright gave dentistry its very useful
It was polymethyl methacrylate which proved to be much
satisfactory material tested until now.
Dentures made of polymethyl methacrylate
Occlusion - It is the static relationship
between the incising or masticating surfaces of
the maxillary or mandibular teeth or tooth
analogues [ GPT 7 ]
Articulation - The static and dynamic
contact relationship between the occlusal
surfaces of the teeth during function is called
as articulation 14Dr Abhilash
Development of occlusion in complete
dentures differs from that present in natural
dentition due to the difference in the support
Differences between natural and
• Presence of periodontium in natural dentition
• Teeth act individually in natural dentition and
as a single unit on an unyielding base in a
• Bilateral balance is deemed necessary in
artificial occlusion but not in natural dentition
• Malocclusion in natural dentition may
remain uneventful but evokes severe
response in artificial occlusion
• Non vertical forces are well tolerated in
natural dentition but traumatic in
• Incising with natural teeth is uneventful
but in complete dentures affects all
teeth and the base
• In natural dentition second molar is favoured
for mastication but in a complete denture it is
the first molar and second premolar which are
favoured for mastication
• Proprioception present in natural dentition but
absent in artificial occlusion
Preliminary selection of
Anterior teeth – Esthetic requirement
Posterior teeth – Masticatory functional
Compatibility with surrounding oral environment Preliminary selection is based on:
Selection of Anterior teeth
Size of the face
Size of Maxillary arch
Incisal papilla and the cuspid eminence
Vertical distance between ridges
Selection of Posterior teeth
Functional harmony with musculature
Less buccolingual dimension
Conform to the general outline of face
Form of Posterior teeth
Occlusal surface – primary concern
Balanced in centric and eccentric positions – cusp
Disocclusion in eccentric position – Cusp or
Balanced in centric position only – Monoplane
Arrangement of artificial posterior teeth for functional
harmony depends on a thorough understanding of 23Dr Abhilash
Harmony with color of skin, eyes and hair
Shade of posterior teeth should harmonize
with shade of anterior teeth
Bulk influences the shade . . . .
Horizontal orientation of Anterior teeth
Insufficient support of lips
Drooping of corner of mouth
Deepening of nasolabial groove
Deepening of sulci
Reduction in prominence in philtrum
Reduction in visible part of vermilion
Excessive support of lips
Stretched appearance of lips
Elimination of contour of lips
Distortion of lip and sulci
Tendency of lip to dislodge the denture
Midline of upper
Buccolingual position of posterior teeth
Mainly determined by Neutral zone
If teeth located lingually .
If teeth located buccally .
If the upper lip is relatively long .
Length and movement of upper
Lower lip is a better guide
Cusp tips of canine and I premolar are even
- If lower anterior - above this
- If lower anterior
Maxillary anterior teeth are arranged according to
Two basic anatomic
- Orifice of Stenson’s
- Retromolar pad
If occlusal level is too low
If occlusal level too high
Character of residual
Inclination of teeth
Labial surface of bone
Profile form of the patient
ARRANGMENT OF TEETH
The four principal factors that govern the
positions of the teeth for complete dentures are
(1) the horizontal relations to the residual
(2) the vertical positions of the occlusal
surfaces and incisal edges between
the residual ridges,
(3) the esthetic requirements, and
(4) the inclinations for occlusion
Dr Abhilash 37
Guidelines for horizontal
Placement of Anterior Teeth
Dr Abhilash 38
Role of incisive papilla & mid
It is found in Lingual
embrasure b/t Maxi.C.I.
Labial surface of maxillary
incisors is approx. 8 to 10 mm
anterior to incisive papilla.
A transverse line bisecting the
middle of I.P. passes through
the tip of canine.
Dr Abhilash 39
When cuspid eminences are visible on cast,
a line marking the distal of eminences co-
incide with distal margin of cuspids.
Relation to residual alveolar ridge
Max. Anterior teeth are placed anterior
to residual ridge, depending upon
amount of resorption.
Dr Abhilash 40
Arch Form And Shape
Square arch – C.I. in line
with the canine
Tapering arch – C.I. at a
greater distance forward
Ovoid arch - in between
Dr Abhilash 41
Vermilion border of upper lip.
Mento-Labial & Naso-Labial groove.
Everted upper lip.
Corner of mouth (no drooping appearance)
Dr Abhilash 42
RELATION WITH THE UPPER LIP
◦ If set too far posteriorly
Lip looks unsupported.
Vermilion border would not be
◦ If set too far anteriorly
Lip would taut & stretch.
Nasolabial fold may fill out.
Incisal two-thirds of labial surface of teeth
supports the lips.
Dr Abhilash 43
MEDIO- LATERAL POSITION
Midline – midline of face
passes between 2 upper &
lower central incisors.
Ala of nose – line dropped
from the Ala passes through
tip of canine.
Dr Abhilash 44
Guidelines for vertical Orientation
of Anterior Teeth
Dr Abhilash 45
Role of upper lip
Visibility of upper anterior
Incisal edges are visible by
1 to 2 mm below the upper
lip at rest.
Short or long or
incompetent lip influences
the amount of teeth
Some racial types have
fuller lips, others have
Dr Abhilash 46
Effect of aging
In young pt, Incisal edges are visible by 1 to 2
mm below the upper lip at rest.
While smiling or during speech,incisal & middle
1/3 are visible in normal person.
With aging, tone of upper lip decreases, lesser
amount of maxillary teeth visible and more of
mandibular teeth become visible.
Dr Abhilash 47
Relationship of lower lip to anterior
Lower canine & Ist premolar
should be even with lower lip at
the corner of mouth.
If lower teeth are high
-Anterior plane of occlusion may be
-Excessive vertical overlap
reverse is true if mandibular teeth are below
lower lip at corner of mouth.
Dr Abhilash 48
Guides to position of posterior
Dr Abhilash 49
The maximum extension posteriorly of any
artificial tooth is anterior border of Retromolar
pad. to avoid having a tooth over an incline which
results in denture sliding.
Sometimes space is available for only 3
mandibular posterior teeth, then drop Ist
Dr Abhilash 51
Teeth should not be set on the Tuberosity
as it can lead to lever imbalance and
might lead to cheek bite in posterior
When space permits,4 maxillary posterior
teeth can be placed opposing 3
mandibular posterior teeth, to provide
support to cheeks
Dr Abhilash 52
Anterior occlusal plane
parallel to interpupillary line
& at the level of commissure.
- posterior occlusal plane
should be at the level of 2/3
the height of retromolar pad
Dr Abhilash 53
Stenson’s duct –it exits at Bu mucosa in the
region of 2nd Molar. Occlusal plane is located of
1/8 of an inch below this.
With these anterio-posterior guidelines,occlusal
plane is made parallel to lower mean foundation
plane and Ala-Tragus plane.
Height of occlusal plane is also influenced by-
-length of lips
-Amount of maxillomandibular space available
Dr Abhilash 54
Relationship with tongue
Occlusal plane should be located in relation
to lateral surface of tongue near
demarcation zone b/w Dorsal keratinized
mucosa & ventral nonkeratinized mucosa.
Dr Abhilash 55
Teeth should not be set too far
off the ridge.
Placing too far Buccally can
- Cheek Biting
- Esthetic problems due to
obliteration of Buccal corridor.
- Denture instability due to lever
imbalance & muscle function.
Dr Abhilash 56
Lingual cusps of molars are in
alignment with Mylohyoid ridge.
Placing too far lingually can cause
◦ Crowding of tongue.
◦ Tongue biting.
◦ Imbalance due to tongue function.
Dr Abhilash 57
Overjet & Overbite
Class I – Normal , Class II – Retruded , Class III -
Dr Abhilash 58
Canine & Molar Relationship
Mesial slope of cusp of upper
canine opposes the distal slope
of Lower canine cusp.
Distal surface of lower canine is
in line with tip of upper canine.
M.B cusp of upper 1st molar
opposes the Buccal
groove of lower 1st molar.
Dr Abhilash 59
Space b/w buccal surface of posterior teeth & inner surface of cheeks.
Excessive buccal corridor results when posterior teeth are set too far ligually.
Resulting dark space appears excessive & unaesthetic.
Inadequate buccal corridor occurs when posterior teeth are placed too far buccally,
causing obliteration of buccal corridor.
Dr Abhilash 60
Canine-retromolar Pad Reference
From tip of Canine to center
of Retromolar pad. This
designates centre of
Central fossae of mandibular
Posterior teeth should
coincide with this line OR
This in turn corresponds to
maxillary palatal cusps .
ARRANGING TEETH FOR COMPLETE
Maxillary Central Incisor:
The long axis of the tooth is
perpendicular to the horizontal
Its long axis slopes towards the vertical
( mesiodistal inclination)
Slopes labially about 15 degrees when
viewed from the side.
Incisal edge is in contact with the 62Dr Abhilash
Teeth is set on the
Maxillary Lateral Incisor:
Long axis slopes rather more
towards the midline
Inclined labially about 20 degrees
when viewed from
The neck is slightly depressed
The incisal edge is about 1mm short
of the occlusal plane.
Maxillary Canine :
Its long axis is parallel to the vertical
axis when viewed from both the front
and side or it may be slightly to the
The bulbous cervical half of the tooth
provides its prominence.
Its cusp is in contact with the
The neck of the tooth must be
Remaining maxillary teeth are arranged on the
other side of the arch to complete the anterior
To maintain the set teeth in position, the wax
supporting the teeth must be heated and
sealed both to the teeth and to the record base.
Long axis is parallel to the
vertical axis when viewed
from the front or the side.
Its palatal cusp is about
1mm short of, and its
buccal cusp in contact
with, the occlusal plane.
Its long axis is parallel
the vertical axis when
from the front or the
Both buccal and
are in contact with the
Long axis slopes buccally
when viewed from the
front, and distally when
viewed from the side.
Only mesiopalatal cusp is
with the occlusal plane.
Long axis slopes buccally more
than the first molar when
the front, and distally more
when viewed from the side.
All four cusps are clear of the
plane, but the mesiopalatal
Maxillary teeth set checked on occlusal plane
Mandibular central incisor:
Long axis slopes slightly towards
the vertical axis when viewed
from the front.
Slopes labially when viewed from
Incisal edge is about 2mm above
Mandibular lateral incisor:
Long axis inclines to
vertical axis when viewed
from the front
Slopes labially when
viewed from side but not
so steeply as the central
Incisal edge is about 2mm
above occlusal plane
Long axis leans very slightly
towards the midline when viewed
from the front.
Leans very slightly lingually when
viewed from the side
Neck is slightly prominent and the
tooth is tilted to the distal
Tip at same level as incisors.
Teeth arrangement checked in patient mouth
The retromolar pad is exposed and points are marked on pounds li
joining the cannine to retromolar pad.
Long axis leans lingually when viewed from the
front and mesially when viewed from the side.
All cusps are at a higher level above the occlusal
plane than those of the second premolar.
The buccal and distal cusps are higher than the
mesial and lingual.
The mesiobuccal cusp occludes in the fossa
between upper second premolar and first molar.
Dr Abhilash 89
Mandibular 1st Molar
Facial: Long axis leans mesially, when viewed from
Proximal : Long axis inclines Lingually, when
viewed from front.
Occlusal: Buccal cusps are higher than Lingual
cusps.Distal cusps are higher than Mesial cusps.
Long axis is parallel to the vertical plane
when viewed from both the front and the
Both cusps are about 2mm above the
The buccal cusp contacts the fossa
between the two upper premolars.
Dr Abhilash 92
Mandibular 2ed Premolar
Facial & Proximal : Long axis is vertical from both
Occlusal : Both cusps are about 1-2mm above
Long axis is parallel to the vertical plane
when viewed from the front and the side.
Its lingual cusp is below the horizontal plane
Its buccal cusp about 2mm above it as it
contacts the mesial marginal ridge of the
upper first premolar.
Dr Abhilash 95
Mandibular Ist Premolar
Facial : Long axis is parallel to vertical plane.
Proximal : Long axis is parallel to vertical plane.
Occlusal : Bu cusp is above the occlusal plane,
whereas Li cusp is below occlusal plane.
Lingual and mesial inclination of the long axis is
more pronounced than in the case of the first
All the cusps are at a higher level above the
occlusal plane than those of the first molar, the
distal and buccal cusps more so than the mesial
The mesiobuccal cusp contacts the fossa between
the two upper molars.
Dr Abhilash 98
Mandibular 2nd Molar
Facial : Mesial inclination is more than 1st
Proximal : Lingual inclination is slightly more
than 1st molar.
Occlusal : Buccal cusps are higher than
Lingual. Distal cusps are higher than Mesial.
Key of occlusion
Cannine key of occlusion
◦ The distal arm of the lower cannine
should align with the mesial arm of the
Molar key of occlusion
◦ The mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary
permanent molars should coincide with
the mesiobuccal groove of the mandibular
Overjet & overbite
Overjet denotes the distance between
the upper & lower incisor measured in
horizontal plane - 2mm
Overbite denotes the vertical overlap
of the maxillary and mandibular
anterior – 2mm