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  • 1. E-HR HR as knowledge system, E-recruiting, HR self-service Abhijit Ghosh Mizoram University
  • 2. Agenda
    • Topics for the next three classes
    • Project
      • Teams
      • Assignment
    • Discussion/Lecture
    • Other topics of interest
  • 3. E-HR: Transforming HR from a cost center to a strategic weapon
    • Technology creates an opportunity to do things quite differently
    • Original investment in HR systems was motivated by:
      • Elimination of paper
      • Productivity changes
      • Staff trimming
    • Value now lies in:
      • Capacity to support new and changing ideas
      • Sustain competitive advantage
  • 4. What is to be achieved
    • Systems now permit:
      • Centralized systems (e.g., comp) across entire organization (even global)
      • Undertake HR innovations
      • Response quickly to government regulations and company policy changes
      • Provide increase in quality to employees
  • 5. Accomplished by:
    • Centralized service delivery—integrated across all HR functions
    • Modern call centers
    • Employee administration of benefits and policy—self-service HR transactions
    • Information access via corporate Intranet, interactive voice response
    • Automatic generation of bulletins, reports, data for government
    • Effective use of outsourcing
  • 6. Types of Knowledge dealt with by HR
    • Core HR Knowledge:
      • Underlying structure and logic of benefits and policies
      • How and why co. defines its employee groups
      • Relevant gov. regulations
      • Policies of other relevant org.s (e.g., unions)
    • Knowledge about employees
      • Skills, special arrangements, vacation, family, etc.
      • Employee and retiree groups
      • Contracts with employee and unions
  • 7. More knowledge
    • Knowledge about presentation and use of knowledge
      • Different presentations for employees, family members, managers, auditors, healthcare
      • How employees put their questions?
      • Life events and company events
      • What needs to be in a plan description/policy manual?
  • 8. More knowledge
    • Company specific benefits
      • Specific configuration of benefits and policies
      • Benefit plan design; knowledge of how people use benefits, employee demographics
      • Competitors’ plans
      • Workflow
    • Healthcare providers
      • Ways to determine coverage of an employee
      • Equivalent drugs
  • 9. More knowledge
    • Benefit providers
      • Product offerings
      • Geographical range
      • Financial soundness
    • Outsourcing
      • Firms
      • Temp agencies
      • Compensation specialists
  • 10. More knowledge
    • Compensation issues
      • Stock options (including stock price history; board actions)
      • Performance management
    • Diversity issues
    • IT Partners
      • How to interface to employee data in ERP
      • How to drive HRIS process to make it knowledge system
      • How to generate reports
  • 11. Goal of HR knowledge system
    • Answering employees’ questions and assist during self-service transactions
      • Get info to employees automatically
      • Coaching on how to complete forms
      • Push what employees need to know
    • Increasing the responsiveness of HR
    • Change the way decisions are made
  • 12. Knowledge system
    • HRIS: conventional systems (Peoplesoft, SAP, Oracle, Baan)
      • Offers automation of HR process: enrollment and repository of data
      • Integrate and share with other ERP modules
      • Generate broad array of reports
    • Designed to bring efficiencies of current practices; can’t respond to changes
  • 13. Data warehousing
    • Model of HR-related data from a variety of sources
      • Includes all sorts of information about policies, practices, employees
      • Ways of accessing the data and making sense of them
  • 14. Knowledge system
    • Encoding of knowledge about company policies, HR procedures, benefit plans, etc.
    • Key here is that knowledge is coded explicity—not just implicit in data
    • Possible components
      • Knowledgebase: specialized database where knowledge is stored (e.g., eligibility constraints, rules on what must appear in a plan description.
      • Editing tools for entering data and keeping it curent
      • Algoritm for using knowledge correctly
  • 15. Knowledge versus HRIS
    • In HRIS, knowledge is implicit in software and data
    • In knowledgebase, editing of code by subject matter experts puts policies explicitly
    • Can reason (provide information not only about current situations, but potential future—if subject matter experts put this in system)
    • Self-service systems are good examples of problems (person has to look and find problem, rather than system being set up to answer problems)
  • 16.
    • HRIS systems good, integrate data and transactions; off-the-shelf functionality, and conform to enterprise data model
    • However, does not allow people to be proactive in looking to answer questions of users
  • 17. What one should look for in commercial knowledge system
    • Knowledge itself: templates for wide range of benefits, policies which must be set for particular company
    • Knowledge editing tools: to define how things work in a particular company and to keep knowledge up to date; tools should enable testing and should generate reports on how knowledge is being used
    • Company specific content (forms, documents, policies, plans): this data gathering process should involve procedures for examining company documents, interviewing people
    • Methodology for systems deployment: installing, populating databases, integrating with other databases, training, verifying data
  • 18. Vendors--continued
    • Should have easy interfaces to data in existing databases (HRIS)
    • Interfaces to other common systems
    • Ability to link online documents—government regulations,
  • 19. Performance Management
    • “ The role of HR is to be a strategic business partner within the company, not to be a bureaucrat. Yet human resources is burdened with the performance-management process every year or every quarter and it detracts from what they can really offer to the company.” Matt Park, Human Asset Technologies
  • 20. Historically
    • Manual
    • Paper-based assessment
    • Did not load information into database
    • Organizations did less frequently than they want because of cumbersome systems
  • 21. Web-based performance management
    • Uses email notification
    • Can be done quickly
    • Web-based means can be accessed anywhere
    • Can be broader—assess different competencies at different times and different behaviors under each competency
    • More frequently did performance management, faster responses in completing it.
  • 22. On-line recruiting
    • Familiarize yourself with the Internet
    • Research the market
    • Define the target audience
    • Determine your search needs
    • Compare costs
    • Continue experimenting
  • 23. E-recruiting
    • Since about 1995, huge increase in e-recruiting
    • Projections are that it could be $60 business
    • All organizations have web presence
    • Search engines facilitate finding some, but not all relevant positions
    • Questions:
  • 24. Questions
    • How does an organization effectively use the Internet to find qualified individuals?
    • What are the best practices
    • How can an organization find those not currently looking?
    • What are major trends in e-recruiting?
    • How do we evaluate e-recruiting?
    • How effective has this been?
  • 25. Familiarize yourself with the Internet
    • Benchmark other companies. See who is doing well, what you like, listen to others about discuss exemplars
    • Try to understand out things work on the Internet if you are unfamiliar
    • Actually take a class rather than rely upon others to explain it to you—learn the basics
  • 26. Research the market
    • What can the Internet offer to you?
    • Consider using an online index or directory to find out which recruitment services are available (e.g., Google; Yahoo)
    • Visit sites to get more information
    • Find out the size and makeup of the candidate pool
    • See if this fits budget
  • 27. Define the target audience
    • Each org has unique recruitment needs and thus you want to be exposed to different types and numbers of applicants
      • Some what huge exposure
      • Others want to target certain groups who tend to surf in particular areas or might use key words (cf Google)
    • Need to determine who is visiting your site, not just numbers
    • Be concerned also about geographical considerations
    • Be cognizant of diversity issues
      • Certain ages, racial groups might be more or less likely to use Internet or surf in particular ways
    • Key for success is narrowing search
  • 28. Determining your search needs
    • Different search services offer different needs
      • Some store resumes in a database (registered employers perform searches)
      • Some allow employers to create profiles of their organizations and post their jobs (allowing applicants to send in resumes)
      • Some services do job-matching (storing resume and job posting online and actively contacting both parties when there appears to be a match
    • Last seems good, but often uses key words; success depends on selecting correct key words; also should not use generic titles (admin)
  • 29. Compare costs
    • Some services free; others pricey
    • Have to weight what you get for the price
  • 30. Continue experimenting
    • Internet is totally dynamic
    • No single answers
    • Look for new trends
      • What image is created by web site?
      • Manipulating key words
  • 31. On-line recruiting issues
    • One issue is how to attract potential employees even though neither are looking at a certain time (I have a job now, the economy will improve so want people to ramp up)
  • 32. Skills-based marketing
    • Currently have applicant tracking system which enable companies to identify top talent with such tools as:
      • Skills-based screening
      • Prescreening
      • Ranking features
      • Candidate alerts
    • Still wait for openings to advertise positions
  • 33. Skills-based
    • Some idea of general skills you will need in the future
    • Solution is to advertise for skills you will need, rather than by job-opening
  • 34. Branding and reputation
    • E-recruiting forces a company to come to grips with brand and reputation on potential employees
      • has better information about company’s employees than company
      • External world better idea of company’s workforce because of database of competencies
  • 35. Internet recruiting strategies
    • Company web pages
    • Job-posting boards
    • Internet advertising
    • Proactive candidate searches
  • 36. Issues related to internet recruiting
    • Application processing
    • Quality versus quantity
    • Future strategies
  • 37. Company web pages
    • Permits any look company wants
    • Advertisements can be linked to corporate sites
    • Can configure with search engines, enabling candidates to do searches, can also manipulate what comes up first
    • Sites enable on-line application or resume posting
    • Effectiveness depends upon frequency of updates and site maneuvability
  • 38. Company web pages-2
    • Recruiting page
      • Company information
      • Job openings
      • Search function
      • Apply now!: submit resumes online
      • Career agent:
        • feature allows applicants to complete detailed skills profile;
        • can receive information about current jobs also emails on future job openings
  • 39. Web pages--3
    • Improvements
      • Enhance site maneuverability (shorten link paths)
      • Increased searching capability (allowing more focused and productive job hunting)
      • Special features allowing applicants to declare race and sex separately for EEO compliance
  • 40. Job posting boards
    • Electronic job-posting boards allow companies to:
      • Advertise job openings for fee (can range from minimal annual fee to large amt. )
      • Search board’s database of resumes posted without posting own job openings
    • May increase effectiveness of job-postings by linking postings on major boards to own Web sites
  • 41. Job posting boards-2
    • Major Boards Used
      • Career City
      • On-line career center
      • Eastband
      • Diversilink (and other diversity sites)
      • AJB (America’s job bank)
      • Wall Street Journal site (
      • Career Mosaic
      • Hot Jobs
  • 42. Job posting boards
    • Evaluation of various boards
      • How user-friendly is it?
      • What other companies post there (especially competitors)?
      • How easy is site to access in the first place?
      • Is there a searchable resume database?
      • What are the returns?
  • 43. Critical things to consider
    • Do not depend on one highly competitive board for all postings
    • Do not post jobs everyone…site does matter
    • Continue changing strategies
  • 44. Internet advertising
    • Banner advertising at job boards and other recruiting sites
      • Can help create name recognition
      • Point to certain positions
      • Help to create brand
  • 45. Advertising
    • Things to consider
      • Site location (industry, job boards) makes a difference
      • Advertising with links makes it easy to get to job postings
      • The type of advertising is important
        • Can buy key words
        • Can by location
        • Can just be in your face
  • 46. Proactive candidate searches
    • May use the Internet to identify candidate pools from which to actively recruit for positions
      • Can do manually (have people search posted resumes) (cool)
        • Search engines to identify potentially related sites (industry chat group)
        • Identify contact at site who can identify potential applicants
        • Actively recruit those seen as qualified
      • Can do automatically (extremely cool)
        • Develop software (robot) known as a “spider” capable of retrieving resumes of qualified candidates even if they are not seeking employment actively. Spider:
          • Visits sites (automatically) related to specific job openings
          • Follows all links within a site
          • Reads all documents
          • Retrieves any resumes found
  • 47. Applicant processing
    • Automatic resume posting (I-Post)
      • Linked to company’s web site and allows candidate to submit resumes online; can also add resumes sent other ways (such as email)
    • Resume screening (Resumix): database of resumes
      • Duplicate screening (remove same resumes or old ones using key words)
      • Quality screening (remove those, manually, not competitive)
      • Compiles professional/college applicants
      • Screens by key words
    • For nonapplicants, take resumes from spiders and compiles into database then to recruiters
  • 48. Processing--2
    • Online interviewing
      • Some job boards (e.g., Career Bridge) screens applicants with a set of online interview questions
        • Individuals interested in a position submit answers to questions—written by hiring manager
        • Hiring manager use answers as a screening tool for “soft skills” and other competencies that may not be on a resume
        • Pull out these individuals for interviews
  • 49. Recruiting metrics
    • Metrics to assess the effectiveness of different e-recruiting methods
      • Time to interview, acceptance, or decline
      • Analysis of accepted and declined offers
      • Average time to fill
      • Cost to hire
      • Source of hire
      • Volume of good resumes/all resumes
  • 50. Internet recruiting in the future
    • As more search firms start to use Internet, they will come into competition with individual companies
    • As companies become more skilled in Internet searches, expert services will develop and companies will outsource
    • Databases will start to use additional information (such as willingness to relocate, salary level, willingness to travel)
    • Recruiting sites will include more video and audio
    • Consolidation
    • Niche job boards
  • 51. Self-service--Goals
    • Improve services to employees and managers
    • Increase access to information
    • Reduce administrative costs
    • Enable the HR function to serve the organization more strategically
    • Eliminate process steps/approval/foprms
    • Enhance technological image of organization
  • 52. Self-service applications
    • Employee communications (HR policies; FAQs)
    • 401(k) or pension services
    • Open enrollments
    • Benefits inquiries
    • Training registration
    • Personal inquiry
    • Personal data maintenance
  • 53. Applications--more
    • Time card entry
    • Withholding changes, deductions
    • Electronic paystubs
    • Vacation, leave requests
    • Family status changes/life event changes
    • Services for retirees
    • *All tend to be employee focused
  • 54. Applications—more
    • New trends are management applications
      • Travel and expense management
      • Purchase orders
      • Time card approval and reporting
      • Budget analysis
      • Management reports (headcount, salary listings)
      • Employee change actions (transfers, promotions)
      • Approvals
      • Leave management
  • 55. Applications--more
    • Newest trends are in Strategic Applications: acquiring, developing, and managing key talent
      • Online job applications
      • Job requisitions by managers
      • Employee stock handling
      • Skills management
      • Salary actions
      • Bonus actions
      • Staff development
      • Succession planning
      • Workforce planning
  • 56. How people access
    • Web
    • Toll free phones
    • Interactive Voice Response (IVR)
    • Call center
    • Kiosks
  • 57. Commercial products
    • Big ERP vendors
      • PeopleSoft
      • Oracle
      • SAP
      • Lawson
    • Specialized corporate portal software
      • Workscape
      • Talx
      • Plumtree
      • Authoria
  • 58. Security
    • Single sign-on
    • Data encrypted
    • Corporate VPNs
    • Corporate Extranets
    • Security cards
  • 59. Business case for self-service
    • Metrics
      • Average cost per transaction
      • Cycle time reduced
      • Headcount changes
      • Return on investment
      • Employee satisfaction
      • Inquiries to service center
  • 60. Obstacles in implementation
    • Cost of ownership/limited budget
    • Security fears, concern over privacy
    • Other HR initiatives taking priority
    • Technical infrastructure not in place
    • Lack of technical skills to implement
    • Unable to show business benefit
  • 61. Requirements for success
    • Adequate budget
    • CEO commitment
    • Collaboration between HR and IT
    • Process design
    • Marketing and communication
    • Access by all employees
    • Metrics