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Network Robots - Abhijeet

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Software Solution For Modular & Self Independent Networked Robot. ...

Software Solution For Modular & Self Independent Networked Robot.
With description of different Robots and techniques...

Abhijeet Singh

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  • 1. Project Prepared By :- Abhijeet Singh Kalsi Shivam Sharma ( 2012701 ) ( 2012735 )
  • 2. Getting Familiar with ROBOTS In the past humans only fantasized about robots, today, many types of robots are a reality. For example, there are i. Industrial robots ii. Toy robots iii. Space exploration robots iv. Robots used in the medical field v. Robots used in agriculture and vi. Humanoid robots being created for providing services in household, for e.g. as caregivers for the elderly and the handicapped.
  • 3. [Surgical robot] [Space exploration robot] [Humanoid robot] [Mobile robot] [Service robot]
  • 4. Networked Robot  A Networked robot refers to a system where many intelligent devices are connected to a communication network such as Internet or LAN.  These robots operate together in coordination or cooperatively with sensors, embedded computers and human users.  Cooperation is achieved when more than one entity is working towards a common goal and coordination implies a relationship between the communicating entities to ensure- efficiency, better throughput, and lesser time for completion of the task.
  • 5. Technology Issues How is it different from a Need for a networked traditional robot…??? robot…??? a.) Internet improves drastically the a.) Devices can now exchange way of receiving and sending the data information between each other as among applications. long as they are connected to the internet.. b.) With the introduction of internet and its use in robotics field, robot b.) Improved efficiency. developers found their work complexity reduced. c.) Can react to the information sensed by other robots at a remote c.) Robots can now perform activities location. that are well beyond the capabilities of a single robot by interacting with each d.) It supports the robot with fault- other or a human controller wirelessly tolerance system in robot design and using TCP/IP protocol hence prevent robot failures. d.) Eg:- Surgeries performed by a e.) Components with distinct group of robots by communicating similarities are bound together making with each other. the whole system stronger than the sum of parts.
  • 6. Hardware Design The system is designed in such a manner to make it as modular as possible. The concept of modularity is very useful as it : 1. Improves flexibility 2. Provides scope for future extensions 3. Provides the ability to replace the parts according to the needs of the modules The System is divided into following 3 modules:- (i) Main Module : It involves the robot’s body and a main processor which is the central controlling unit and is also responsible for storing, manipulating and processing the data. A PC main board is deployed rather than embedded system as it provides flexibility and capability to be programmed using any available software package. (ii) Data Processing Module : It consists of software responsible for acquiring, manipulating and processing the data from different sensors. As an example, the software to process the temperature data is different from other sensors such as humidity sensors and so on. We can freely use any programming language such as C, Java, Perl and many more to develop those software. (iii) Data acquisition modules : Also called a hardware modules has multiple hardware related to data acquisition, measurement and control system.
  • 7. Concepts Applied  Navigation and Turning Geometrics : Navigation is the ability of a mobile system to catch up its actual position and to determine how to reach the next destination based on the present position. Algorithm used here: - Dead Reckoning It measures the distances on: - a.) Straight Line Movement For straight line distance is counted by counting the no. of wheel rotations using an opt coupler attached on each wheel. Knowing the wheel diameter and the degree of each transition level are important. For the fig. shown opt coupler calculates distance using: -
  • 8. b.) Curved Line Movement For a curved line where the angle of rotation comes into picture perimeter method only cant be employed. Each wheel is moving with different speed which makes it turn left or right. As a result it will turn through an arc of a circle centered at point O with radius R.. If it turns with an angle θ and dL and dR are the arcs made by wheel making same angle then, On substituting R we have,
  • 9.  Wireless Networking : 1. The evolution of wireless replacing wired enables individuals to use computer apps. anywhere. 2. It provides freedom of movement specially when the machines are connected to network from separate locations. A wireless LAN consists of radio NICs, wireless access points, routers and antenna.  Common Gateway Interfacing : It is a program interface on the server that accepts requests sent by the clients. It is a part of web server module to communicate with another program running on the server. Advantageous as: - It is the CGI which is responsible for the server to receive requests or some specific data from It provides an interface between the main unit and data acquisition module. the client, then the CGI program processes the received information and gives the feedback. And it can be programmed using different programming languages.
  • 10. Software Based Solution  The software solution is provided for the previous hardware design only, which consisted of 3 modules : - Main Unit, Data Acquisition Module and Data Processing Module.  It assumes the hardware modules to be modeled as: - The goal of this concept was: - a.) To improve the flexibilities of robot to b.) Enables the users to replace the sensors meet various levels of monitoring and with and other data processing modules with any less modification in the design. available packages later on, with the same main unit. Or, inversely replacing the main unit with the same data acquisition and processing modules.
  • 11. Characteristics of the Concept :  All aspects are fully controllable wirelessly over web through TCP/IP protocol.  Acquired data are stored and processed at the robot’s local system independent from external apparatus.  The processed data can be retrieved and analyzed by users also over web in such a way that there is no need for additional software installation at the user’s terminal.  The hardware driven parts are replaced as much as possible with the software driven systems, even in the main unit.  High compatibility due to limited hardware, rather embedded software, used in the system.
  • 12. Hardware and Software Together Microcontroller Interfacing It translates or decodes the command that is sent by main modules into appropriate action. To avoid collision while performing task we separate the microcontroller into two categories.  One for driving an actuator and  One for reading the data. Main Unit Software This include the software embedded in the main unit, OS, web server, networking, some interpreters like Java. It also includes  Monitoring system that processes the feedback from actuators and reflecting it back to the system. Fig. Microcontroller commands sent by main  Navigation System module  Web interface for interfacing the whole system with the users.
  • 13.  Data Acquisition Hardware • Data Acquisition Software  This module contains some  What previously done was all acquired hardware interfaces for both controlling data from the attached sensors through microcontrollers was processed by the the actuators and retrieving the measured hardware-based filters. data from sensors. In the Fig only two microcontrollers are shown performing  But this approach suggested that the the raw signals should be sent directly to the two main tasks of the system. main unit to be processed and filtered using the dedicated software.  Both microcontrollers are connected to the  This was generic kind of scheme for all types of data received from various parallel ports as they are easily sensors. Hence reducing the need for extra programmed. hardware and also improves its flexibility and modularity.
  • 14. • Data Processing Software  This component plays an important role to get rid off any software installation at the user’s terminal connecting to the robot.  User just run the browser, points it to the assigned address and that’s all. This software is a dedicated software for a particular purpose relevant with the acquirable data taken from a set of data acquisition hardware. It is remarked here that the main unit has a capability to install a new or upgrade a new version of DAPS software over web. ADVANTAGES OF SOFTWARE DESIGN 1. With the availability of different software one might have single main unit with different DAPS packages. 2. It enables the users to replace the outdated sensors or actuators while using the same packages and main unit. 3. Also the case of replacing the main unit with an appropriate one according to the needs of the environment while using same DAPS packages. 4. Some considerable packages are, for example, sensors of hazardous gas can be combined with vibration sensor and software based seismograph, and so forth. This is the reason it is called as a generic robot which is adaptable to any DAPS.
  • 15. The Implementation LIPI NETWORKED ROBOT- “To observe hazardous gas environment” DAPS packages are designed to observe hazard gas in certain area and to measure the surrounding environment. The whole system then consists of: - • Main unit: It includes main processor (mini PC etc), storage media (mini hard-disk), access point, power supply, battery and all mechanical components. Of course, it also includes the underlying operating system, integrated web interface, hardware control and monitoring systems and storing system for all data. • Data acquisition module: It consists of a set of sensors (CO gas, temperature, humidity, NO gas, smoke) and small camera. The software in this module are also responsible for filtering the raw signal from sensors. • Data processing module: It covers all add-on softwares to process, store and analyze the acquired data and display the results accordingly. The system provides a real-time warning system regarding the air quality in a certain area.
  • 16. Global Architecture Several devices are needed to build the whole prototype. Some of them are shown in the fig. Each has its own specific function. 1. Wireless access point - for transmitting and receiving the data especially when a client sends a request to the server and vice versa. 2. The motherboard - a processor unit storing web server and all embedded software. It acts as a master controller to control and monitor the robot’s actuators and sensors. 3. Two microcontrollers for different tasks. Software Required:- - Linux Operating system AT89S51 for controlling the DC motor , and (Ubuntu). - Apache web server software. ATmega8535 for measuring or acquiring the data from the - Software for video streaming sensors. over web. - Web browser for the user To measure wheel counter Opt Coupler is used interface web pages. To measure the direction the digital compass module CMPS03 - CGI-BIN script. - C/C++ compiler for accessing is deployed. the hardware port (GCC). - Some additional software (JAVA etc).
  • 17. The Flow of messages Data flow between the client and the main module or server takes place as:- a.) Client downloads main web pages. b.) Sends particular requests through the web. c.) Receives the feedback.
  • 18. Parallel port programming  Parallel ports are easier to work as compared to serial port as there is no need for special IC’s which are used for interfacing serial ports.  In this implementation port addresses being used are:- Data 0x378 Status 0x379 Control 0x37A  In the present work the author has used the base address as the output port if there is a need for it to be used as both input and output then there is a.) Need for additional circuits. b.) Conflict among incoming and outgoing data.  To avoid this problem we set the port in nibble mode by using another port address instead of base address.
  • 19. Working In Nibble Mode  Nibble = 4 bits, means we are referring 4 bits at a time.  Nibble mode uses a 2 line to 1 line multiplexer (74LS157) to read a nibble of data at a time.  A/B input is low -> A inputs are selected and vice versa. The Y outputs connected to status port, in such a manner that it represents the nibble of the status register.  Short program on the algorithm to control the motors and read compass in LNR using C language. And along with it is explained how the nibble mode is operated. #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <sys/io.h> #define base 0x378 #define status base+1 #define control base+2
  • 20. main(int argc, char **argv) { int input=0; if (ioperm(base,1,1)) fprintf(stderr, "Error: port %xn", base), exit(1); if (ioperm(status,1,1)) fprintf(stderr, "Error: port %xn", status), exit(1); if (ioperm(control,1,1)) fprintf(stderr, "Error: port %xn", control), exit(1); outb(0x01, base); //to set the robot move forward usleep(5000); outb(0x09, base); //command to read compass usleep(5000); outb(inb(control) & 0x0F,control); input=(inb(status) & 0x0F); usleep(100); outb(inb(control) 0xF0,control); input=input|(inb(status) & 0xF0); usleep(100); printf("%d",input); }
  • 21. Discussion  SUMMARY  As a typical implementation of the concept, LNR is developed.  It is shown that the software-based solution is crucial to enable the required features.  It improves significantly its flexibility to various purposes.  It is argued that regarding its main objective as a monitoring apparatus, LNR is quite efficient and has good total cost-performance due to its modularity and dominant software based solutions.  FUTURE CHALLENGES This prototype works well in hazardous areas where minimum human involvement is required and also its design is cost efficient but it is observed that more efforts are still required. Some of them are: - 1. Using serial ports along with parallel ports for faster processing. 2. Citing more examples of DAPS packages to fit certain purposes. 3. More complicated robot’s actuators and the relevant algorithms. 4. Need for multiple humans to become the part of the communication network.
  • 22. References  [1] I. Firmansyah et.al, LIPI Networked Robot, http://robot.teori.fisika.lipi.go.id.  [2] I. Firmansyah, Z. Akbar, B. Hermanto and L.T. Handoko, Modular and Self- independent Networked Robot, Proc. of the 2008 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Singapore, 2008.  [3] I. Firmansyah et.al, openNR: open architecture for modular networked robot, http://sourceforge.net/projects/opennr/.  [4] Theoretical concepts and facts www.wikipedia.com  [5] LIPI Wireless Robot, http://robot.teori.fisika.lipi.go.id.  [6] LIPI Networked Robot, http://opennr.teori.fisika.lipi.go.id.  [7] http://cmc.cs.dartmouth.edu/papers/corke:flying.pdf  [8] Programming Constructs from article http://members.tripod.com/~srohit/IO- Port-Prog.html  [9] http://www.buzzle.com/articles/types-of-robots.html  [10] http://www.robots.com/