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  • 1. Chapter 6 Mobile, Wireless and Pervasive Computing1 Chapter 6
  • 2. Need for Mobile Computing-1  To make computer small enough so that they can be easily carried around.  Laptop computers were invented.  PDAs and other handheld devices.  Much lighter and more powerful in processing speed and storage.2 Chapter 6
  • 3. Need for Mobile Computing-2  To replace wires with wireless communication media.  Wireless systems used in radio, TV and telephones led to adaption of WCM to the computing environment3 Chapter 6
  • 4. Need for Mobile Computing-3  To use mobile devices in a wireless environment.  Wireless mobile computing: enables combination of a real-time connection between a mobile device and other computing environments such as Internet and intranet.4 Chapter 6
  • 5. -cont…  Used in education, health care, entertainment, security.  Available anywhere, anytime.5 Chapter 6
  • 6. Driving factors for Mobile computing : Intel Centrino Chip-2003  Standard feature in most laptop.  Capabilities:  A connection device to a wireless LAN  Low usage of electricity, enabling users to do more work on a single battery charge  A high level of security6 Chapter 6
  • 7. Driving factors for Mobile computing : 3G and 4G  Introduction of 3rd generation and 4th generation wireless environments.  Adoption of a Wi-fi as a wireless LAN7 Chapter 6
  • 8. Mobile Commerce  The impact of mobile computing on human lives is very significant.  It also has its impact occurring in the way of conducting the business.  This impact is described as mobile commerce (also known as m-commerce and m-business),8 Chapter 6
  • 9. M-commerce/business  M-commerce/business is basically any e-commerce or e- business done in a wireless environment, especially via the Internet.9 Chapter 6
  • 10. -cont…  m-commerce can be done via  the Internet,  private communication lines,  smart cards, or other infrastructures10 Chapter 6
  • 11. -cont…  M-commerce is a variation on existing Internet services;  it is a natural extension of e-business.  Mobile devices create an opportunity to deliver new services to existing customers and to attract new ones11 Chapter 6
  • 12. Mobile Computing Basic Terminology  Global positioning system (GPS). A satellite-based tracking system that enables the determination of a GPS device’s location.12 Chapter 6
  • 13. Mobile Computing Basic Terminology  Personal digital assistant (PDA).  A small portable computer, such as the family of Palm handhelds and the Pocket PC devices from companies like HP.13 Chapter 6
  • 14. Mobile Computing Basic Terminology  Short Message Service (SMS)  A technology, in existence since 1991, that allows for the sending of short text messages.  SMS messages can be sent or received concurrently, even during a voice or data call.  Used by hundreds of millions of users, SMS is known as the e- mail of m-commerce.14 Chapter 6
  • 15. Mobile Computing Basic Terminology  Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS).  An extension of SMS that is capable of simple animation, tiny pictures, and short melodies.15 Chapter 6
  • 16. Mobile Computing Basic Terminology  Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS).  The next generation of wireless messaging, this technology will be able to deliver rich media.16 Chapter 6
  • 17. Mobile Computing Basic Terminology  Bluetooth.  A chip technology wireless standard designed for temporary, short-range connection (data and voice) among mobile devices and/or other devices17 Chapter 6
  • 18. Mobile Computing Basic Terminology  Wireless Application Protocol (WAP).  A technology that offers Internet browsing from wireless devices18 Chapter 6
  • 19. Mobile Computing Basic Terminology  Smartphones  Internet-enabled cell phones that can support mobile applications.  These “phones with a brain” are becoming standard devices.  They include WAP microprocessors for Internet access and the capabilities of PDAs as well.19 Chapter 6
  • 20. Mobile Computing Basic Terminology  Wi-Fi (short for wireless fidelity)  Refers to a standard 802.11b on which most of the wireless local area networks (WLANs) run.20 Chapter 6
  • 21. Mobile Computing Basic Terminology  WLAN (wireless local area network)  A broad term for all 802.11 standards.  Basically, it is a wireless version of the Ethernet networking standard.21 Chapter 6
  • 22. Attributes and Drivers of Mobile Computing  Mobility  Broad reach22 Chapter 6
  • 23. Mobility  Mobile computing and m-commerce are based on the fact that users carry a mobile device everywhere they go.  Mobility implies portability.  Users can initiate a real-time contact with other systems from wherever they happen to be if they can connect to a wireless network.23 Chapter 6
  • 24. Broad Reach  In mobile computing, people can be reached at any time.  Of course, users can block certain hours or certain messages, but when users carry an open mobile device, they can be reached instantly.24 Chapter 6
  • 25. Value-added attributes  attributes that drive the development of m-commerce:  ubiquity,  convenience,  instant connectivity,  personalization, and  localization of products and services25 Chapter 6
  • 26. Drivers Of Mobile Computing And M- commerce  Widespread Availability of Mobile Devices  No Need for a PC  The Handset Culture  Vendors’ Push  Declining Prices and Increased Functionalities  Improvement of Bandwidth26 Chapter 6
  • 27. M-Commerce Value Chain and Revenue Models  m-commerce is a complex process involving a number of operations and a number of players (customers, merchants, mobile operators, and the like)27 Chapter 6
  • 28. Mobile Computing – Value Chain Link Function Provider Transport Maintenance and operation of the Technology infrastructure supporting data platform communication between mobile users vendors and application providers Enabling Server hosting, data backup, and system Infrastructure services integration equipment vendors Transaction Mechanisms for assisting with Application support transactions, security, and billing platform vendor Presentation Conversion of content of Internet-based Application services applications to applications suitable for developer28 Chapter 6 mobile devices
  • 29. Mobile Computing – Value Chain Link Function Provider Personalization Gathering of users’ preferences, Content developer support information, and devices in order to provide individualized applications User General and specialized applications Mobile service applications for mobile users provider Content Design and operation of portals that Mobile portal aggregators offer categorized information and provider search facilities29 Chapter 6
  • 30. WLAN  A wireless LAN (WLAN) is like a wired LAN without the cables.  WLANs transmit and receive data over the airwaves.30 Chapter 6
  • 31. Wi-fi  a transmitter with an antenna, called a wireless access point, connects to a wired LAN from a fixed location or to satellite dishes that provide an Internet connection.31 Chapter 6
  • 32. -cont…  A wireless access point provides service to a number of users within a small geographical perimeter (up to a couple hundred feet), known as a “hot spot” or hotspot zone.32 Chapter 6
  • 33.  Several wireless access points are needed to support larger numbers of users across a larger geographical area.  End users can access a WLAN with their laptops, desktops, or PDAs by adding a wireless network card.33 Chapter 6
  • 34. Wireless Personal Area Networks (Wpans)  A wireless personal area network (WPAN) is a kind of WLAN that people have at their home offices.34 Chapter 6
  • 35. -cont…  With 6.2 MOBILE COMPUTING INFRASTRUCTURE 249 Wireless Local Area Networks and Wi-Fi such a network,  one can connect PCs, PDAs, mobile phones, and digital music players that detect each other and can interact35 Chapter 6
  • 36. Problems with Wi-Fi  Roaming – users cannot roam from hotspot to hotspot if the hotspots use different Wi-Fi network services  Security – because Wi-Fi uses radio waves, it is difficult to protect  Cost – commercial Wi-Fi services are low cost but not free and each service has its own fees and separate accounts for users to logon36 Chapter 6
  • 37. Mobile Computing Infrastructure – WWAN’s37 Chapter 6
  • 38. Mobile Computing – L-Commerce Applications38 Chapter 6
  • 39. Landscape of Mobile Computing39 Chapter 6