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  1. 1. Chapter 8Enterprise Systems 1
  2. 2. ESSENTIALS OF ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS AND SUPPLY CHAINS• ERP or enterprise systems control all major business processes with a single software architecture in real time.• ERP are systems or processes that involve the entire enterprise or major portions of it.• Contrasts the functional systems that are confined to one department/function. Chapter 8 2
  4. 4. -cont… Chapter 8 4
  5. 5. Chapter 8 5
  6. 6. Chapter 8 6
  7. 7. What is a Supply Chain?• Defined as a set of relationships among suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and retailers that facilitate the transformation of raw materials into final products. Chapter 8 7
  8. 8. Supply Chain Includes Chapter 8 8
  9. 9. Chapter 8 9
  10. 10. Supply Chain Chapter 8 10
  11. 11. Configuration level includes Cash Flow decisions 11
  12. 12. ERP and Supply Chains ERP or enterprise systems control all major business processes with a single software architecture in real time.It is comprised of a set of applications that automate routine back-end operations such as: financial management inventory management scheduling order fulfillment cost control Chapter 8 12
  13. 13. ERP & Supply Chain• It includes front-end operations such as: – POS – Field Sales – Service• It also increases efficiency, improves quality, productivity, and profitability. Chapter 8 13
  14. 14. Supply Chain Problems Adding value along the chain is essential forcompetitiveness, however, problems existespecially in complex or long chains and incases where many business partners areinvolved. These problems are due to uncertainties andthe need to coordinate several activities,internal units, and business partners. Chapter 8 14
  15. 15. -cont…• Demand forecasts are a major source of uncertainties – Competition – Prices – Weather conditions – Technological development – Customer confidence Chapter 8 15
  16. 16. -cont…• Uncertainties exist in delivery times – Machine failures – Road conditions – Shipments• Quality problems may also create production delays Chapter 8 16
  17. 17. Supply Chain Problems (Continued)•The bullwhip effect refers to erratic shifts inorders up and down the supply chainbecause of poor demand forecasting, pricefluctuation, order batching, and rationingwithin the chain.•Even slight demand uncertainties andvariability become magnified if each distinctentity, on the chain, makes ordering andinventory decisions with respect to its owninterest above those of the chain. Chapter 8 17
  18. 18. -cont..• Distorted information can lead to tremendous inefficiencies, excessive inventories, poor customer service, lost revenues, ineffective shipments, and missed production schedules. Chapter 8 18
  19. 19. Supply Chain Challenges List• Trust and collaboration• Global SCM issues• Outsourcing : Make-Buy Decision• Man-supplier strategy• Vendor selection• Difficulty in forecasting demand• Cost or reverse logistics Chapter 8 19
  20. 20. Reverse Logistics• Process of continuously taking back products and/or packaging materials to avoid waste.• Costly• Create difficulties Chapter 8 20
  21. 21. Supply Chain Opportunities• Managing: – Information – E-business – Logistics – Inventory – E-procurement – collaboration – Other IT assisted solutions Chapter 8 21
  22. 22. Supply Chain SolutionsInformation sharing among supply chain partners (c-commerce)sometimes referred to as the collaboration supply chain is onemethod to overcome problems in the flow.Others are: Chapter 8 22
  23. 23. -cont… Chapter 8 23
  24. 24. Supply Chain Solutions (Continued) Chapter 8 24
  25. 25. Supply Chain Collaboration ManagementEvery company that has business partners has tomanage the relationships with them. Informationneeds to flow between the firms and must beconstantly updated and shared. Chapter 8 25
  26. 26. Global Supply ChainsSupply chains that involve suppliers and/orcustomers in other countries are referred to asglobal supply chains.Global supply chains are usually longer thandomestic ones, and more complex. Therefore,additional uncertainties are likely. Chapter 8 26
  27. 27. Supply Chains BenefitsThere are many benefits to integrating functional systems.  Tangible benefits:  Inventory reduction  Personnel reduction  Productivity improvement  Order management improvement  Financial-close cycle improvements  IT cost reduction  Procurement cost reduction  Cash management improvements  Revenue/profit increases  Transportation logistics cost reduction  Maintenance reduction  On-time delivery improvement. Chapter 8 27
  28. 28. Supply Chains Benefits (Continued)  Intangible benefits:  Information visibility  New/improved processes  Customer responsiveness  Standardization  Flexibility  Globalization  Business performance  Reduction in duplication of entries  Controls and reconciliation are enhanced  Rapid assimilation of data into the organization Chapter 8 28
  29. 29. Enterprise Resource Planning• ERP is an integrated software solution that integrates: – Planning – Management – Use of all resources in the entire enterprise. Chapter 8 29
  30. 30. ERP• ERP is comprised of sets of applications that: – Automate routine back-end operations• Objectives – To integrate all departments and functional information flows across a company onto a single computer system that can serve all of the enterprise’s needs. Chapter 8 30
  31. 31. Capabilities of ERP• Combining logistics across business units with neighboring facilities.• Combining distribution centers and less than truckloads to fill trucks, reduce pick- up/delivery lanes and eliminate un-needed facilities.• Dynamically sourcing products from different manufacturing & distribution facilities. Chapter 8 31
  32. 32. -cont..• Shared services for manufacturing• Global order management• Consolidation of global operations• Co-ordination of procurements• Creating supplier portals Chapter 8 32
  33. 33. Issues• ERP system selection• ERP and processes• ERP development & implementation• Open source ERP5• Switching ERP systems• Value from ERP systems Chapter 8 33
  34. 34. Business Process Management• BPM refers to activities performed by businesses to optimize and adapt their processes. – A business process is a collection of related activities that produce something of value to the organization, its stakeholders, or its customers. – Cuts across departments of business. Chapter 8 34
  35. 35. -cont…• A process has both inputs and outputs with activities and tasks that can be measured. – Cuts across functional areas of the enterprise. – Can be broken down into lower-level processes, has goals, and feedback. Chapter 8 35
  36. 36. The need to Re-engineer BPs• To achieve quality improvement in business processes.• Improved productivity• Improved efficiency Chapter 8 36
  37. 37. Why use BPM?• Reduce product design time by 50%.• Result in faster time-to-market of competitive products.• Reduce order fulfillment time by 80%.• Improve customer satisfaction with ordering process.• Help organizations achieve efficiency gains of 60% in call centers. Chapter 8 37
  38. 38. Process modeling• Business process modeling includes techniques and activities used as part of of the larger BPM discipline.• It’s a blueprint. Chapter 8 38
  39. 39. Re-engineering• Re-engineering: the radical redesign of an organization’s business.• Takes the current process model and makes changes to processes to increase efficiency and create new process models. Chapter 8 39
  40. 40. Measuring Processes• ISO 9000• Six Sigma• TQM Chapter 8 40
  41. 41. Re-engineering Principles• Add a new process• Delete a process• Expand a process• Reduce a process• Combine a process• Split a process Chapter 8 41
  42. 42. IT support for BPM• Case Tools: Computer-aided software engineering.• BPM software Chapter 8 42
  43. 43. Business Value of BPM• Improve: – Processes – Process flow – Productivity – Efficiency Chapter 8 43
  44. 44. Product Life Cycle Chapter 8 44
  45. 45. Product Life Cycle (cont’d) Chapter 8 45
  46. 46. PLM• A business strategy that enables manufacturers to control and share product- related data as part of product design and development efforts and to support supply chain operations. Chapter 8 46
  47. 47. Phases of PLM• Conceive – Imagine, specify, plan, innovate• Design – Describe, define, develop, test, analyze, validate Chapter 8 47
  48. 48. -cont….• Realize – Manufacture, make, build, procure, produce, sell, deliver• Service – Use, operate, maintain, support, sustain, phase- out, retire, recycle, dispose. Chapter 8 48
  49. 49. Business value of PLM• Significant beneficial impact on: – Engineering change – Cycle time – Design reuse – Engineering productivity – Reduce costs – Speedy sharing of information Chapter 8 49
  50. 50. Customer Relationship Management (CRM)•CRM recognizes that customers are the core of abusiness and that a company’s success depends oneffectively managing relationships with them.• It focuses on building long–term and sustainablecustomer relationships that add value both for thecustomer and the company.•An enterprise wide effort to acquire and retainprofitable customers. Chapter 8 50
  51. 51. Types of CRM• Operational CRM: related to typical business functions involving customer services, management, invoice/billing & sales/marketing automation & management.• Analytical CRM: involves activities that capture, store, extract, process, interpret & report customer data to a corporate user for analysis.• Collaborative CRM: deals with all the necessary communication, co-ordination and collaboration between vendors & customers. Chapter 8 51
  52. 52. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) (Continued) Chapter 8 52
  53. 53. Classification of CRM Applications• Customer-facing applications• Customer-touching applications• Customer-centric intelligence applications• Online networking applications Chapter 8 53
  54. 54. THE SCOPE OF E-CRM Foundational service. This includes the minimum necessary services such as Website responsiveness (e.g., how quickly and accurately the service is provided), site effectiveness, and order fulfillment. Customer-centered services. These services include order tracking, product configuration and customization, and security/trust. These are the services that matter the most to customers. Value-added services. These are extra services such as online auctions and online training and education. Chapter 8 54
  55. 55. Customer Relationship Management CRM Activities• Customer Service on the Web – Search and Comparison Capabilities – Free Products and Services – Technical and Other Information and Service – Allowing Customers to Order Products and Services Online – Letting Customers Track Accounts or Order Status Chapter 8 55
  56. 56. Tools for Customer Service– Personalized Web Pages– FAQs– Chat Rooms– E-Mail and Automated Response– Call Centers– Troubleshooting Tools– Wireless CRM Chapter 8 56
  57. 57. CRM Failures• Measurement difficulty• Failure in identification of business problems• Lack of management support• Poor user acceptance• Automating poorly defined process Chapter 8 57