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ESEconf2011 - Schwaber Ken: "Scrum: Necessary but not sufficient for agility" ESEconf2011 - Schwaber Ken: "Scrum: Necessary but not sufficient for agility" Presentation Transcript

  • Scrum! Neccesary but not
 sufficient for Agility! I  am  a  firm  believer  in  the  people.  If  given  the  truth,  they   can  be  depended  upon  to  meet  any  [so;ware  development]   crisis.  The  great  point  is  to  bring  them  the  real  facts.                                          -­‐   Abraham  Lincoln   Slide  1  
  • Agenda   •  Agility: what is it? •  Agility: how do we do it? •  Scrum is a tool to become Agile •  Path to Agility 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1993-­‐2011  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  2  
  • Agility  (a·∙gil·∙i·∙ty)   –noun 1. flexibility, the capacity and capability of rapidly and efficiently adapting to change. 2. ability to take advantage of opportunities and responding to challenges while controlling risk. 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1993-­‐2011  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  3  
  • Why  is  Agility  important?   •  Complex business organizations •  Complex marketplaces •  Internationalization •  Complex Applications •  Riskier Applications •  Competitive advantage •  Competitive survival 13  April  2011   © ADM 1983-2010 All Rights Reserved Slide  4  
  • Agenda   •  Agility: what is it? •  Agility: how do we do it? •  Scrum is a tool to become Agile •  Path to Agility 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1993-­‐2011  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  5  
  • The  first  thing  that  Agility  requires  is  empiricism   Empirical - Derived from or guided by experience or experiment 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1993-­‐2011  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  6  
  • A  thermostat  for  soOware  development   5  MINS   Time   People   Event   Purpose:  Understand  the  power  of  empiricism   7:00  -­‐  8:00 5 Room  setup Situa-on:  You  are  in  charge  of  keeping  a  20  x   8:00  -­‐  9:00 50 Breakfast,  Connental  buffet   style,  Lyzure  Amalgamated 40  room  in  this  building  at  a  constant  22C   temperature  through  the  day.    The  room  does  not   9:00-­‐  10:30 55 Meeng  -­‐  Lyzure   have  a  thermostat.   Amalgamated 10:30-­‐  11:00 55 Coffee  break At  the  start  of  the  day,  8:00  am,  you  have  to  set  the   heang,  air  condioning,  venng,  and  blinds  so  that   11:00-­‐  12:30 55 Meeng  -­‐  Lyzure   Amalgamated they  will  adjust  themselves  at  the  appropriate  mes   12:30-­‐  1:00 5-­‐20 Setup  and  next  meeng   to  maintain  this  temperature  throughout  the  day.   arriving 1:00-­‐  3:00 50 Meeng  -­‐  Rexxus  Ltd. Ques-on:  What  variables  will  you  have  to  take   3:00-­‐  3:30 50 Coffee  break into  account  to  know  the  se^ngs?  (hint:  number  of   people  in  the  room  will  be  one  variable).   3:30-­‐  5:30 70 Meeng  -­‐  Rexxus  Ltd. 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1993-­‐2011  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  7  
  • Controlling  temperature  isn’t  that  complex,  but  there  are  a  lot  of  things  to  plan  for!   Variables  might  include,  for  any  me  during  the  day:   •  number  of  people  in  room   •  metabolism  of  each  person   •  acvity  of  each  person   •  opening/closing  of  doors   •  weather:  including  sun,  clouds,  and  outside  temperature   •  temperature  of  adjoining  rooms   •  construcon  material  of  the  building   •  floor  of  the  room   •  will  food  be  served,  when,  what  type,  and  how  much   •  temperature  of  food  brought  into  room   13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1993-­‐2011  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  8  
  • Dimensions  Of  Complexity   Source:  Ralph  Stacey,  University  of  Herfordshire   13  April  2011   © ADM 1983-2010 All Rights Reserved 9  
  • Empirical  processes  adapt  to  the  future   •  Variables  are  ignored.   Actual  temperature  drives   se^ng  of  air  condioning,   heang,  blinds.     •  Frequent  inspecon  &   adaptaon  (JIT)  rather  than   predicve  planning     •  Based  on  “actuals”  rather   than  predicons   •  Requires  transparency  13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   10  
  • Empirical  Processes  Plan  Frequently   P   Planning   D   Doing   Predictive: Empirical: •  All planning is done •  Just-in-time at beginning planning and re- planning based on frequent inspection P   D   P   D   P   D   P   D   P   D   13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   11  
  • Empiricism  Requires  Transparency   Transparency (adjective) 1.Easily seen through, recognized, or understood. 2.All aspects are equally and commonly understood by all observers. Issue:  Most  organizaons  struggle  with   transparency,  which  requires  trust  and   safety.     13  April  2011   © ADM 1983-2010 All Rights Reserved Slide  12  
  • Exercise  (5  Minutes  w/3  Ppl  Near  You)   The Situation: The Assignment: •  You are a developer at xyz co, •  What work would you have to building life-critical products. do to turn the requirements •  Your Scrum team is one of into a “done” increment? seven working on a new •  If you were developing a release of one product. “done”, potentially shippable •  Your team is going to select increment, what would your product backlog to turn into definition of “done” be? Would something done (no more work it include, for example, remains, potentially shippable) refactoring? What else? within a two-week iteration. •  Each team has all the skills to fully develop the requirements into a “done increment.” 13  April  2011   © ADM 1983-2010 All Rights Reserved 13  
  • Exercise  (Cont.)   Did your definition of “done” include these? Why not? •  Performance testing •  Stability testing •  Refactoring •  Immunological response testing •  Integration with the work of the other six teams •  Integration testing with the work of the other six teams so the increment is the totality of all seven teams •  Release notes •  Internationalization to the six markets where the product will be sold •  User acceptance testing •  Regression testing •  Code reviews 13  April  2011   © ADM 1983-2010 All Rights Reserved 14  
  • The  Increment  Is  Scrum’s  Transparency   •  The increment is inspected every iteration. •  It must be transparent to be inspected; Increment   •  To be transparent, it must be “done,” and, •  An “undone” or opaque increment is the equivalent of putting a wet washcloth over a thermostat. 13  April  2011   © ADM 1983-2010 All Rights Reserved 15  
  • Agenda   •  Agility: what is it? •  Agility: how do we do it? •  Scrum is a tool to become Agile •  Path to Agility 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1993-­‐2011  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  16  
  • First,  What  Is  Scrum?   Scrum  (n.)     1.  An  iterave,  incremental  process   framework  that  helps  teams  manage   complexity  and  maximize  value  as   they  translate  business  needs  into   working  soOware.     2.  A  tool  for  becoming  Agile.   13  April  2011   © ADM 1983-2010 All Rights Reserved Slide  17  
  • First,  what  is  Scrum?   Scrum (n): a tool you use to become Agile Image  source:  codecentric.de   13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1993-­‐2011  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  18  
  • The  usual  things  take  a  long  me,  and  more  …   Plan   Analyze   Design   Code   Test   Release   Waterfall!Plan for the entire project up-front, includingrequirements of all value. Nothing can beused until project is over. 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   19  
  • Agile  is  the  usual  things  done  more  quickly   Waterfall! Plan   Analyze   Design   Code   Test   Release   Scrum! Short, high value iterations that The same work, but Analyze   deliver valuable, Design   processed differently Plan   Plan   opportunistic Code   Test   and on fewer pieces of Release   requirements.! functionality.! 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   20  
  • Oh,  with  I2  and  self-­‐organizing,  x-­‐funconal  teams   Scrum! Short, high value iterations that Analyze   deliver valuable, Design   Scrum  Team   Plan   Plan   opportunistic Code   Test   pieces of Release   Work done by self-organizing, functionality.! cross-functional teams that are highly productive, creative, and build high quality product.! 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   21  
  • How  Does  Scrum  Work?   Done   Iterave,  incremental  development  with    self-­‐organizing,  cross-­‐funconal  teams.   13  April  2011   © ADM 1983-2010 All Rights Reserved Slide  22  
  • 5  ps  for  ge^ng  more  for  less   •  Optimize productivity •  Only build valuable stuff •  Don’t build low value stuff •  Weave around development constraints •  Weave around customer constraints 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1991-­‐2011  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  23  
  • Low  hanging  fruit   1.  Collocated, self-organizing teams are 100% more productive 2.  Don’t build low value functionality 3.  Don’t sustain or maintain low value functionality and 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1991-­‐2011  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  24  
  • Agenda   •  Agility: what is it? •  Agility: how do we do it? •  Scrum is a tool to become Agile •  Path to Agility 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1993-­‐2011  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  25  
  • Where  Are  We  With  Agility?   •  Scrum is in its third decade. •  VS 2010 is solid with an excellent repository and template capability. •  Modern engineering practices facilitate self- organizing, cross-functional teams. •  Training and coaching programs are in place. •  Scrum is widely used to improve agility. •  Necessary culture change is difficult. 13  April  2011   © ADM 1983-2010 All Rights Reserved Slide  26  
  • Agility  Requires  Organizaonal  Change   •  An organization’s culture isCulture finely tuned to produce its currentThe set of shared problems.attitudes, values, •  Agility is an entirely new state.goals, and practicesthat characterizes an •  The culture must be changed inorganization. order to achieve Agility.“The way we do •  Organizational change is athings here.” difficult multi-step process that requires leadership.13  April  2011   © ADM 1983-2010 All Rights Reserved 27  
  • Types  of  Change  Scrum  Requires  •  Empirical management replaces predictive management.•  Transparency is value neutral.•  Authority moves down the organization.•  More attention and hard choices are required. 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  28  
  • Scrum  Adopon  Profile  –  Retreat  from  Excellence   •  The group that led leaves the organization. •  Prevailing culture reasserts itself, bit by bit. •  Excellence is lost. Agile ScrumBut Scrum 13  April  2011   29  
  • Four  necessary  condions  for  become  Agile   Mindset  Change   Compelling  Story   Reinforcing   Capability   Role  Modeling     mechanisms   Building             It  needs  to  make  sense   Incenves  must  be   Employees  must  have   Respected  models  must   (to  the  employees).     aligned.    The   the  skills;  they  must   lead.    Employees  must   Employees  will  alter   surrounding  structures   actually  be  able  to  do   see  people  they  respect   their  mind-­‐sets  only  if   (reward  and  recognion   what  you  want  them  to   modeling  it  acvely   they  see  the  point  of  the   systems,  for  example)   do   change  and  agree  with  it must  be  in  tune  with  the   —at  least  enough  to   new  behavior   give  it  a  try.   Source:  The  Psychology  of  Change  Management,  Lawson  and  Price,  McKinsey  Quarterly,  June  2003   13  April  2011   ©  Scrum.org  2010  All  Rights  Reserved   30  
  • Engagement  model:  The  Path  to  Agility   •  We have developed an engagement model to guide you to achieve Agility. •  Based on: –  Twenty years of experience. –  “CxO Playbook” first used in 2005 and updated after engagements. –  In collaboration with John Kotter’s*, adoption of his model for organizational change. *  Harvard  professor  internaonally  recognized  as   leading  expert  on  organizaonal  change.     13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1993-­‐2011  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  31  
  • Wrapped  in  an  organizaonal  change  program  13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  32  
  • Before  We  Start:  Pre-­‐engagement  Assessment   •  Assess organization •  Formulate test projects •  Establish productivity and waste metrics •  Start projects and capture metrics •  Value stream mapping •  Identify possible ROI and organizational value 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1993-­‐2011  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  33  
  • Eight  stage  process  for  creang  culture  change  1. Establish a sense of urgency (what willhappen if we stay the same?).   13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   34  
  • Eight  stage  process  for  creang  culture  change  2. Create a guiding coalition (group is a Teamwith adequate power and influence).   13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   35  
  • Eight  stage  process  for  creang  culture  change  3. Develop a vision and strategy (what will itbe like when we are changed?).   13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   36  
  • Eight  stage  process  for  creang  culture  change  4. Communicate the change vision (use everypossible vehicle and ensure leaders exemplifyvision). 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   37  
  • Eight  stage  process  for  creang  culture  change  5. Empower broad-based action (eliminateobstacles and encourage risk-taking).   13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   38  
  • Eight  stage  process  for  creang  culture  change  6. Generate short-term wins (immediate,visible success that is celebrated). 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   39  
  • Eight  stage  process  for  creang  culture  change  7. Consolidate gains and produce morechange (promote advocates and leaders). 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   40  
  • Eight  stage  process  for  creang  culture  change  8. Anchor new approaches into the culture(change disappears if not continually fostered). 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   41  
  • Path  to  Agility:  Playbook   Play   Descrip-on   1.  Iniaon   Set  baselines,  form  leadership  team,  establish  vision  and  urgency,   begin  communicang,  determine  metrics,  idenfy  pilots   2.  Pilots   Create  wins,  communicate,  remove  impediments,  start  change,   gather  inial  metrics  and  dashboards,  provide  inial  training.   3.  Organizaonal   Expand  usage  of  Scrum,  inspect  metrics  and  adapt  accordingly,   Expansion   remove  impediments  to  agility  for  organizaon  and  customers,   remediate  products  and  systems,  communicaon  internally  and   externally,  more  training  and  coaching.  Create  anchor  points.   4.  Achieve   Restructure  relaonships,  processes,  management,  organizaonal   Impact   structure,  career  paths,  cultural  values,  and  everything  required  to   opmize  producvity  and  remove  waste.  Start  managing  results  of   change.   5.  Anchor   Review  all  pracces,  structures,  and  processes  in  organizaon.  Anchor   change  into  them  so  new  culture  is  created.   13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  42  
  • Filling  In  Scrum’s  Holes   Professional   Scrum  Programs   Scrum   Product   Master   Owner   Developer   Scrum   Foundaons   ©  1993-­‐2011  ADM,  All  Rights  Reserved   Slide  43   13  April  2011  
  • Scrum.org  programs   •  Every Program consists of: –  Partners –  Trainers and coaches –  Body of knowledge –  Assessments •  Every Program is monitored and its quality assured by Scrum.org, 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1993-­‐2011  All  Rights  Reserved  v2.0   Slide  44  
  • Thank  you!   Ken Schwaber ken.schwaber@scrum.org @kschwaber kenschwaber.wordpress.com www.scrum.org 13  April  2011   ©  ADM  1983-­‐2010  All  Rights  Reserved   Slide  45