Working with end users of research
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Working with end users of research

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Presentation by Mark Reed

Presentation by Mark Reed

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  • 1. Working more effectively with end users of research What makes stakeholder participation ustainable Uplands in environmental management work? nvolved Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 2. Delivering impact If “impact” is about delivering economic and social benefits from research, then you have to get your research used by “real” people How can we get these people to use our research? Who are these people anyway?
  • 3. Plan1. What do we know about how best to engage end users with our research?2. How can we systematically identify and engage relevant end users with our research?
  • 4. 1. What do we know about how best to engage end users with our research? ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 5. Levels of engagement with end usersThe ladder of participation (Arnstein, 1969) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 6. Levels of engagement with end usersThe wheel of participation (Wilcox, 2003) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 7. Levels of engagement with end usersCommunication flows (Rowe & Frewer, 2000) Facilitators Stakeholders Communication Facilitators Stakeholders Consultation Facilitators Stakeholders Participation ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 8. Tools vs overall process • Participation is more than a collection of tools and methods for engaging end users in your researchustainable UplandsLearning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 9. ustainable UplandsLearning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 10. 1. Start talking to people as soon as you can• From concept to completion• Make sure there’s something to negotiate• Avoid raising false expectations
  • 11. 2. Make sure you’re talking to the right people• The perceived legitimacy of your research by decision-makers may be influenced by who you do or don’t talk to• Lots of methods available now for “stakeholder analysis”
  • 12. 3. Make sure you know • Identify goals what people want to with stakeholders talk about • Be prepared to negotiate and compromise • Design your research to the goals • Partnerships, ownership and active engagement in the process is more likely
  • 13. • Communicate e.g. information dissemination via leaflets or the mass media, hotlines and public meetings4. Be flexible: • Consult base level of e.g. consultation documents, opinion polls and research-user referendums, focus groups and surveys participation & methods on • Participate e.g. citizen’s juries, consensus your context conferences, task-forces and public meetings with voting & objectives • Tailor your methods to context • Manage power
  • 14. • If you need to engage with a wide range of research users with competing agendas, you may need help...• The outcome of a participatory process is more sensitive to the manner in which it is conducted than the tools that are used• Don’t underestimate the power of investing in a good facilitator to bring people together and deliver high quality outcomes What makes stakeholder participation 5. Get a facilitator in environmental management work? nvolved
  • 15. 6. Put local and scientific knowledge on an equal footing• Science can help people make more informed decisions• Local knowledge can question assumptions, and perhaps lead to more rigorous science What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? nvolved
  • 16. • Decisions based on a combination of local and scientific knowledge may by more robust due to more comprehensive information inputs – and they’re more likely to be relevant to end-user needs/priorities What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? nvolved
  • 17. 2. How can we systematically identify andengage relevant end users with our research? What makes stakeholder participation in environmental management work? nvolved
  • 18. Stakeholder analysis• We all have interests• We have a stake in the things that interest us e.g. what happens to a landscape you walk in• By holding an interest, we hold a stake: we are stakeholders ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 19. Stakeholder analysis• But without power…• We can never drive our points/stakes home and we will never influence the decisions that affect us ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 20. • To affect change, we need interest and power ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 21. Answers key questions:• Who are the interested parties? Who has the power to influence what happens? How do these parties interact? How could they work more effectively together? ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 22. What is stakeholder analysis?“A process that:i) defines aspects of a social and natural phenomenon affected by a decision or actionii) identifies individuals, groups and organisations who are affected by or can affect those parts of the phenomenoniii) prioritises these individuals and groups for involvement in the decision-making process” Reed et al. (2009) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 23. Development of SA• Business management roots – Stakeholders affect business – SA to mobilise, neutralise or defeat stakeholders, to meet strategic objectives• Development studies and natural resource management – Projects that didn’t understand stakeholders were often hijacked or failed – Empowering marginal stakeholders to influence decision-making processes transparently ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 24. Development of SA• Major contributions from development studies and natural resource management: – Recognises that stakeholders and the issues that interest them change over time – Advocates ongoing and evolving involvement of stakeholders to meet needs and priorities – Capturing diversity of potentially conflicting views ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 25. Typology• Three types of methods for stakeholder analysisMethods for:i) Identifying stakeholdersii) Differentiating between and categorising stakeholdersiii)Investigating relationships between stakeholders ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 26. Rationale Normative InstrumentalTypology Identifying stakeholders Differentiating between and Investigating relationships categorising stakeholders between stakeholders Focus Semi- Snowball Analytical Reconstructive Social Network KnowledgeMethods Groups structured sampling categorisation categorisation Analysis Mapping interviews (top-down) (bottom-up) Interest- More Stakeholder-led Q influence complex stakeholder methodology matrices matrices categorisation ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 27. Interest/Influence Matrices High Context setters - highly Key players – must influential, but have little work closely with these interest. Try and work to affect change closely as they could have a significant impactInfluence Crowd – little interest or Subjects – may be affected but influence so may not be lack power. Can become influential worth prioritising, but be by forming alliances with others. aware their interest or Often includes marginalised groups influence may change with you may wish to empower time Low Level of Interest High ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 28. • Size is proportional to influence• Proximity relates to how closely linked they are to each other (in any way) Stakeholder 3 Stakeholder 2 Stakeholder 1 Stakeholder 4 Stakeholder 5 Stakeholder 6 ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 29. Try it yourself• Pairs/groups: choose a familiar issue and think of a research project in which you might want to involve end users• Brainstorm potential end users• Visualise interest/influence or influence/proximity ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 30. More complex matrices• Identify and evaluate stakeholders in turn: – What is the nature of their stake? – Level of interest – H/M/L & explanatory text if needed – Level of influence – as above – The most effective ways to gain their active involvement – Anything else we should know? Conflicts, likely issues etc.• If many stakeholders, categorise in relation to the nature of their stake & select representatives ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 31. CategorisingStakeholder categories from Sustainable Uplands project:• Water companies• Recreational groups• Agriculture• Conservationists• Grouse moor interests (owners/managers and gamekeepers)• Tourism-related enterprises• Foresters• Statutory bodies ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 32. Name/ Nature Interest Influence What would Things AppropriateOrganisation/ of H/M/L H/M/L incentivise we peopleGroup stake (comm- (comm- their should (contact ents?) ents?) involvement? know details) (issues, conflicts etc) ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 33. Stakeholder Area of Sector Perceived Perceived CommentsGroup concern Represented Interest in Influence on arising during/organisation Represented issue issue discussion/individual ...adapt to your own needs
  • 34. Exploring relationships• Who is working with who? Who could be working with who?• Avoid exacerbating conflicts• Work with key people who are well respected and connected• For example: Social Network Analysis with 80- strong Moors for the Future Partnership... ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 35. ustainable UplandsLearning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 36. Recreation AgricultureWater ConservationGrouseDespite apparently And despite the fact that certainpolarised views on groups have little contact withburning, upland each other…stakeholders in thePeak District arehighly connected… ustainable UplandsThe majority of individuals perceive considerable overlap between their views Learning to manage future changeon upland management and the views of those they knowwww.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands from other groups
  • 37. Exploring relationships• Showed roles of individuals played and identified more peripheral stakeholders• These groups were targeted for inclusion to reduce bias, strengthen the legitimacy of the sample group, and include a variety of knowledges relevant to the research process ustainable Uplands Learning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 38. Summaryustainable UplandsLearning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands
  • 39. Find out more… Reed MS, Graves A, Dandy N, Posthumus H, Hubacek K, Morris J, Prell C, Quinn CH, Stringer LC (2009) Who’s in and why? Stakeholder analysis as a prerequisite for sustainable natural resource management. Journal of Environmental Management 90: 1933–1949 Reed MS (2008) Stakeholder participation for environmental management: a literature review. Biological Conservation 141: 2417–2431ustainable UplandsLearning to manage future change www.see.leeds.ac.uk/sustainableuplands