Dr. Anna Evely. Looking at conservation projects that engage with volunteers


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • American mink
  • Animals of conservation interest
  • Game/commercial interests
  • Humans/aliens …. To involve in the project – need to understand their motivations in order to ensure sustainable control of mink into the future
  • In environmental management, much emphasis is now being placed on understanding social processes and phenomena, and in linking the work of natural and social science researchers. However, despite many early calls, there has been little integration of the social sciences with natural sciences (e.g. Soule 1985). The reason I have put this diagram here is to demonstrate that there are fundamentally different forms of knowledge out there, there are really different systems of knowing and understanding the world and this is really what this talk is about – the different Philosophies that underpin the way the world is understood. They have their own inherent methodologies for saying knowledge is correct, they have their own vocabulary and they have their own outcomes.
  • Old lady/young lady – depends on how you look at it.
  • Hand outs
  • Hand outs
  • Hand outs
  • Dr. Anna Evely. Looking at conservation projects that engage with volunteers

    1. 1. Anna Evely 28/01/09 looking at conservation projects that engage with volunteers
    2. 2. overview <ul><li>what are conservation projects that involve volunteers? </li></ul><ul><li>why look at conservation projects that involve volunteers? </li></ul><ul><li>choosing methods when crossing disciplines: taking an integrative approach </li></ul><ul><li>how might participation be linked to attitudes? </li></ul><ul><li>how might participation be linked to social learning? </li></ul>
    3. 3. what is participation? <ul><li>“ participation is about social and political equality by giving power to those who do not have power” </li></ul><ul><li>Arnstein 1969 </li></ul>
    4. 4. Projects involving participation <ul><li>co-management </li></ul><ul><li>adaptive co-management </li></ul>
    5. 5. participatory projects/ co-management Pomeroy & Berkes 1997 Level of government influence on decisions centralised consultative co-operative delegated de-centralised Co-management
    6. 6. Adaptive co-management
    7. 7. why is researching volunteer participation important? <ul><li>sustainability in a changing world </li></ul><ul><li>ecological and social systems are integrated </li></ul><ul><li>we need to promote resilience </li></ul><ul><li>a paradigm shift? </li></ul>Further reading at Resilience Alliance web page: http://rs.resalliance.org/
    8. 8. Sustainability in a changing world? <ul><li>most environmental planning assumes the future will be like the past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster preparedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>in this context, sustainability is a relatively straightforward concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The reference state is well known </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT--how do we sustain systems in a directionally changing world? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Chapin et al. 2006 If external controls change substantially, social-ecological systems will inevitably change
    10. 10. <ul><li>close connection between ecology and culture </li></ul><ul><li>If we change ecology, what happens to culture? </li></ul>Mimi Chapin Athabascan Inuit Taiga Tundra Coastal forest Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian Yupik Vegetation Map Native Peoples Aleut
    11. 11. Forest loss 1990 -2000 Wood/paper imports 2002 Human poverty 2002 Absolute wealth 2002
    12. 12. resilience From Panarchy
    13. 13. Buzz…. <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XX5qJaJDjSs </li></ul>
    14. 14. a new management paradigm? Biodiversity, livelihoods, & adaptive capacity Species composition & ecosystem structure Resources of concern Incorporate disturbance in management Minimize disturbance probability and impact Disturbance response Actor who responds to and shapes social-ecological change Decision maker who sets course of sustainable management Role of manager Actions maximize flexibility to adapt to an uncertain future Research reduces uncertainty before taking action Role of uncertainty Social-ecological benefits Ecological integrity Central goal Trajectory of change Historic condition Reference point Ecosystem Stewardship Steady-State Ecosystem Management Characteristic
    15. 16. For example… <ul><li>The Cairngorms Water Vole Project </li></ul>
    16. 17. taking a transdisciplinary approach Tress, Tress & Fry, 2005
    17. 19. local stewards of the Cairngorms National Park
    18. 20. local stewards of the Cairngorms National Park
    19. 21. local stewards of the Cairngorms National Park
    20. 22. local stewards of the Cairngorms National Park
    21. 23. what method suits social-ecological research? <ul><li>philosophy/epistemology </li></ul><ul><li>different methods of the social sciences… </li></ul>Evely et al. 2008
    22. 24. domains of knowledge social scientific natural scientific community
    23. 26. world depending on media portrayal
    24. 27. a framework for social science methodology <ul><li>philosophical assumptions and stances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assumptions about: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the nature of the social world (ontology) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the nature of social knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>objectivity and subjectivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the role of values, context and contingency (uncertainty) in social knowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the “mental model” of the inquirer (Denis Phillips, 1995) </li></ul></ul>
    25. 28. Qualitative vs. Quantitative <ul><li>quantitative methods are associated with empirical, positivist research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>statistical analysis, describing pop. samples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>qualitative research is associated with ‘anti-positivist’ philosophies, such as subjectivism, nominalism, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>textual records </li></ul></ul>Get a research method: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WDo7jwikqqI
    26. 29. choice of Method <ul><li>a researcher must have awareness of philosophical approach (e.g. positivist or subjectivist) within which to work, and must then determine which method is most appropriate for the kind of data they wish to collect </li></ul>
    27. 30. co-authorship network for sustainability science Resilience (from ecology) Adaptation (from anthropology) Vulnerability (from geography) Janssen et al. 2006
    28. 31. <ul><li>Activity to select methodology using Evely et al.. 2008 framework……… </li></ul>
    29. 32. how might participation be linked to attitudes? <ul><li>“ attitudes” are both cognitive and emotional elements that allow personal evaluation </li></ul>
    30. 33. working Definition of Social Learning …. <ul><li>increased awareness and understanding of multiple perspectives leading to an increase in connections and negotiation for joint action in the sustainable use and management of resources, including natural resources, within catchments </li></ul><ul><li>implies: </li></ul><ul><li>transformation of multiple cognitive systems into a shared cognitive system </li></ul><ul><li>an iterative process of knowledge co-production between actors involved in social interactions </li></ul><ul><li>working with and actively exploring multiple perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>a dynamic process </li></ul>
    31. 34. Pahl-Wostl et al. 2006
    32. 35. simply …. Be Skinny Be a crook like Tony Soprano Be a Jackass
    33. 36. how might participation be linked to social learning? <ul><li>stakeholders learn from each other through the development of new relationships, building on existing relationships and transforming relationships with those of different views. Individuals build trust in one another. </li></ul><ul><li>this increases the likelihood of finding solutions to complex problems and working together in the future </li></ul>Reed 2008
    34. 37. Review <ul><li>what are conservation projects that involve volunteers? </li></ul><ul><li>Co-management/adaptive co-management </li></ul><ul><li>why look at conservation projects that involve volunteers? </li></ul><ul><li>For sustainability and resilience </li></ul><ul><li>choosing methods when crossing disciplines: taking an integrative approach… </li></ul><ul><li>involve philosophies and different methods </li></ul><ul><li>how might participation be linked to attitudes? </li></ul><ul><li>attitudes and participation are likely to be linked to one another, understanding attitudes may help us get to resilience </li></ul><ul><li>how might participation be linked to social learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Through co-management conflict may be reduced and projects may be more resilient </li></ul>
    35. 38. Cited Articles <ul><li>Arnstein, S., (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners 35 216–224 </li></ul><ul><li>Chapin, F.S., Zavaleta, E.S., Eviner, V.T., Naylor, R.L., Vitousek, P.M., Reynolds, H.L. et al. (2000). Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature , 405 , 234–242. </li></ul><ul><li>Evely, A. C., I. Fazey, M. Pinard, and X. Lambin. 2008. The influence of philosophical perspectives in integrative research: a conservation case study in the Cairngorms National Park. Ecology and Society 13(2): 52. </li></ul><ul><li>Gunderson L, Holling CS, editors. 2001. Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Washington(DC): Island Press </li></ul><ul><li>Janssen, M.A., Schoon, M.L., Ke, W., Börner, K., 2006. Scholarly networks on resilience, vulnerability and adaptation within the human dimensions of global environmental change. Global Environmental Change 16, in press, doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.04.001 . </li></ul><ul><li>Pahl-Wostl, C., M. Craps, A. Dewulf, E. Mostert, D. Tabara, and T. Taillieu. 2007. Social learning and water resources management. Ecology and Society 12 (2): 5. </li></ul><ul><li>Phillips, D. C. (1995). The good, the bad, and the ugly: The many faces of constructivism. Educational Researcher, 24(7), 5-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Pomeroy R.S. and F. Berkes, Two to tango: the role of government in fisheries co-management, Marine Policy 21 (1997), pp. 465–480 </li></ul><ul><li>Reed, M. S. 2008. Stakeholder participation for environmental management: A literature review. Biological Conservation Vol. 141 , Issue 10, pp. 2417-2668 </li></ul><ul><li>Tress, G., Tress, B., Fry, G. (2005) &quot;Clarifying integrative research concepts in landscape ecology&quot; Landscape Ecol. 20: 479-493 </li></ul>
    36. 39. Other reading <ul><li>A useful handbook on community participation is by Evans, K. et al. Field Guide to the Future: Four ways for communities to think ahead. [online] URL: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BCronkleton0601.pdf </li></ul>A useful book to help illustrate other ways of thinking: The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time (Paperback) by Mark Haddon (Author )
    37. 40. Some good online talks <ul><li>Co-management/adaptive co-management </li></ul><ul><li>Fikret Berkes on adaptive co-management: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y_2yJ89QoZ8 </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Buzz Holling on Resilience: http://www.stockholmresilience.org/seminarandevents/seminarandeventvideos/buzzhollingresiliencedynamics.5.30c78e2811e644991e780006770.html </li></ul><ul><li>philosophies and different methods </li></ul><ul><li>Neil Adger on social science in resilience: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WMWY0oyJ4JQ </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Varied speakers on social learning: http://resilience.qbrick.com/view.aspx?id=24 </li></ul>