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  • 1. research proposals Josef Schmied 2 ICE-EA culture: Parliament style + matatu ICE- Kenya DAAD Scholars Association Conference: S1B058HK <I> <#/>MOTIONS The contribution of English Studies to <h> <#/>REVISION OF WAGE GUIDELINES </h> <#/>REVISION Re-Invigorating the University Mandate <#/>Mr. Anyona: <#/>Mr. Speaker, Sir, I beg Anyona: <#/>Mr. to move the following Motion:- Motion:- in a globalising environment : <#/>THAT, in view of the recent economic changes which have affected prices of basic consumer goods, services and rents, and in view of the effects of liberalization process of the economy,Linguistic Issues of Research Proposals …. this House resolves that:- that:- <#/>Mr. Speaker, Sir, the liberalization of the economy has set in motion a very high rate of inflation. <#/>The prices of all basic commodities like sugar, maize, meal, bread, and milk have soared. <#/>The house rents and transportation charges have also soared. <#/>If Josef Schmied you look around town in the morning and Chair English Language & Linguistics afternoon, you would find that almost the entire population of this town walk to and from their Chemnitz University of Technology places of work. <#/>This is because they are www.tu-chemnitz.de/phil/english/linguistics www.tu- chemnitz.de/phil/english/ not able to afford the cost of transportation. <#/>They cannot afford the <ea/>Matatu <ea/>Matatu and Bus fares, so they can only walk to work. research proposals Josef Schmied 4 Contextualisation: DAAD: funding opportunities Hassanali: intellectual dependency, funds Hassanali: Abdulrasak: writing research proposals Abdulrasak: Mungai: e-learning Mungai: e- research proposals Josef Schmied 5 research proposals Josef Schmied 6 1. Context: academic writing The basic proposal outline Introduction1.1. definition Topic area Research question Significance to knowledge Literature review: previous research others & ownresearch proposal = a text-type (genre) in academic writing text- Interlocking findings and Unanswered questions Own preliminary work on the topic The remaining questions and inter-locking logic inter-type of abstract, relational, i.e. a pro-text, abstract, relational, pro- Reprise of own research question(s) in this context question(s) Methodology which stands in place of a larger text and helps the readers to decide, Approach whether they want to support, fund or publish the proposed larger larger Data needs work, whether it will be worth reading the related article or book, etc. book, Analytic techniques Plan for interpreting results Expected results Budget Bibliography (or References) 1
  • 2. research proposals Josef Schmied 7 research proposals Josef Schmied 8The basic thesis outline (minor changes, but on a larger scale) 1. Context: academic writing Introduction Topic area 1.1. definition Research question (finding?) Significance to knowledge Literature review Previous research others & yours research proposal = a text-type (genre) in academic writing text- Interlocking findings and Unanswered questions Your preliminary work on the topic type of abstract, relational, i.e. a pro-text, abstract, pro- The remaining questions and inter-locking logic Reprise of your research question(s) in this context which stands in place of a larger text and helps the readers to decide, Methodology Approach Data needs whether they want to support, fund or publish the proposed larger larger Analytic techniques work, whether it will be worth reading the related article or book, etc. book, Plan for interpreting results Results Discussion and Conclusions Bibliography research proposals Josef Schmied 9 research proposals Josef Schmied 10 1.3. functions of research proposals1.2. types of abstract• a proposal abstract (research/book proposal) = force applicants to concentrate on the core areas, likea draft of an intended scholarly work, either a conference relevance of issue, methodology, data, processing,contribution or a book proposal or a dissertation / PhD proposalwritten by the author before the academic work! results, interpretation and implications of their writing and• a summary abstract = explain it to a general non-specialist academic reader, non-usually occurs in front of a scholarly article and comprises the most make the comparison of applications more transparentimportant points, usually written after the scientific work and evaluations easier,• an independent abstract = can serve as models for young researchers and theirthe independent short version of a book, usually dissertation, thesisor monograph, published even without the larger reference work, networking in various fields (e.g. in alumni associations).usu. not by author research proposals Josef Schmied 11 research proposals Josef Schmied 121.4. English as an academic lingua franca 2. Text-linguistic issues Text- a special language in the context of globalisation 2.1. coherence/cohesion raises text-linguistic and sociolinguistic issues 2.2. redundancy – explification 2.3. causativity & logic 2
  • 3. research proposals Josef Schmied 13 research proposals Josef Schmied 14Coherence and cohesion in texts (Halliday/Hasan 1985) 1 A crucial event in the historical evolution if scientific English was the birth of English the scientific journal. 2 This event, and its early rhetorical consequences, have consequences,- coherence = extralinguistic factors contributing to the been well described in recent research. 3 In contrast, few details are known details concerning subsequent developments in scientific writing from the eighteenth the creation of texture century onward. 4 In this paper, the changing language and rhetoric of medical rhetoric- cohesion = linguistic means which create texture research reporting over the last 250 years are characterized and the underlying causes of these changes investigated. e.g. anaphoric reference: this (that) 5 Research articles from the Edinburgh Medical Journal, the oldest continuing oldest substitution of NP by personal pronouns: he/she medical journal in English, constitute the corpus in this study. 6 Sampling took place at seven intervals between 1735 and 1985, with two types of data analysis of conjunctions: but, while being performed: rhetorical text analysis focusing on the broad genre adverbs: first, then, finally characteristics of article; and linguistic analysis of these articles registral articles lexical repetition: features using Bibers system of text analysis. incl. synonyms: problem – difficulty - issue 7 Results indicate that the linguistic/rhetorical evolution of medical research medical hypernyms/hyponyms: theory - concept writing can be accounted for on the basis of the changing epistemological norms epistemological of medical knowledge, the growth of a professional medical community, and the community, periodic redefinition of medicine vis-à-vis the non-medical sciences. vis- non- research proposals Josef Schmied 15 research proposals Josef Schmied 161 A crucial event in the historical evolution if scientific English was the birth ofthe scientific journal. 2 This event, and its early rhetorical consequences, have event,been well described in recent research. 3 In contrast, few details are known detailsconcerning subsequent developments in scientific writing from the eighteenth the Living in the information society requires for new kinds of skills in the skillscentury onward. 4 In this paper, the changing language and rhetoric of medical rhetoric cultural sector. The ability to create and read different kinds of mediaresearch reporting over the last 250 years are characterized and the underlying products is seen as an important skill for citizenship. In Finland media Finlandcauses of these changes investigated. education (in communicational education) has recently been taken into5 Research articles from the Edinburgh Medical Journal, the oldest continuing oldest the official curriculum as a cross-curriculum subject at the primary cross-medical journal in English, constitute the corpus in this study. 6 Sampling took school level. In primary school teacher education, visual mediaplace at seven intervals between 1735 and 1985, with two types of data analysis of education has begun as an experiment with ministerial funding.being performed: rhetorical text analysis focusing on the broad genre Effectiveness in this course is measured from the learning point: what point:characteristics of article; and linguistic analysis of these articles registral articles kind of understanding do these students themselves acquire about mediafeatures using Bibers system of text analysis. literacy and media pedagogy? (Educational) media lifestudy is the main7 Results indicate that the linguistic/rhetorical evolution of medical research medical means to evaluate the students development during and after the course.writing can be accounted for on the basis of the changing epistemological norms epistemologicalof medical knowledge, the growth of a professional medical community, and the community,periodic redefinition of medicine vis-à-vis the non-medical sciences. vis- non- research proposals Josef Schmied 17 research proposals Josef Schmied 18 Media education for Primary School Teachers Measuring the effectiveness by Educational Media Lifestudy functional parts of research abstracts: 1 Living in the information society requires for new kinds of skills in the cultural sector. 2 The ability to create and read different kinds of decontextualisation: focus on a specific issue within a decontextualisation: media products is seen as an important skill for citizenship. 3 In Finland larger field media education (in communicational education) has recently been taken into the official curriculum as a cross-curriculum subject at the cross- discussion of relevant methodologies primary school level. 4 In primary school teacher education, visual education, previous research findings media education has begun as an experiment with ministerial funding. 5 funding. description possible analysis, results and interpretation Effectiveness in this course is measured from the learning point: what kind of understanding do these students themselves acquire about media literacy and media pedagogy? 6 (Educational) media lifestudy is the recontextualisation: consequences for further research in recontextualisation: main means to evaluate the students development during and after the after the field course. 3
  • 4. research proposals Josef Schmied 19 research proposals Josef Schmied 203. Sociolinguistic issues of English Kachru “outer circle”? "I assume that the concepts and procedures of scientific inquiry constitute a secondary cultural system which is Phillipson “linguistic imperialism”? independent of primary cultural systems associated with critical contrastive rhetoric? different societies; so although, for example, a Japanese and a Frenchman, have very different ways of life, believes and conceptions and so on, deriving from the primary cultures of the societies they are members of, as scientists they have a common culture. In the same way, I take it that the discourse conventions which I used to communicate this common culture are independent of particular linguistic means which are used to realise it." (Widdowson 1979:51) (Widdowson research proposals Josef Schmied 21 research proposals Josef Schmied 22 4. Practical issues "Knowledge is idealised in the German tradition; consequently texts by Germans are less designed to be easy 4.1. quality criteria for evaluators to read. Their emphasis is on providing readers with 4.2. intelligibility, good language & naturalness knowledge, theory and stimulus for thought [...]. Can the WWW replace the native speaker? In English speaking countries, most of the onus falls on writers to make their text readable. In German-speaking countries, the readers have to make the German- 4.3. Teaching EAP? extra effort, so that they can understand the text, especially if the author is academic. Just as it is the readers responsibility to understand the German text (to gain Verständnis) rather than of the writer Verstä ndnis) to make it understandable (Verständlichkeit)" (Clyne (Verständlichkeit)" (Clyne 1987:238) research proposals Josef Schmied 23 research proposals Josef Schmied 244.1. Quality criteria for research abstracts completeness, i.e. whether the abstract covers all the important aspects relevant for the reader conciseness, i.e. whether the abstract does not include irrelevant or superfluous information 4.2. Can the WWW replace the native speaker? accuracy, i.e. whether the abstract is a true short version of the (expected) larger reference work objectivity, i.e. whether the abstract does not include any subjective changes with reference to the major reference work reliability, i.e. whether the abstract is free of any distortions and intelligibility, i.e. whether the abstract can be understood and evaluated by the reader. 4
  • 5. research proposals Josef Schmied 25 research proposals Josef Schmied 26 4.2.1. language problems – internet solutions? word explanations for culture-specific words and culture- phrases are often inadequate e.g. explain matatu to the “non-initiated” msungu “non- learning grammar rules is boring, i-grammar is a conception in the head, not in the book; but how do I get it in? e.g. use expanded form for progessive meaning in English my dictionary is too small to give me good examples how words are used in context by specific language communities, how can I find out what are more usual usages than others? e.g. do you say different from or different to or does it depend on the meaning? research proposals Josef Schmied 27 research proposals Josef Schmied 28 4.2.2. learning usage: the www as a dictionary Phrasecount software: WPC using Google internal output, but new screen presentation presenting KWIC + URL specified search using domain names (e.g. co.ke) co.ke) rough statistics as a basis for user decisions, esp. for ESP and ESL speakers: e.g. different from, to, than?? research proposals Josef Schmied 29 research proposals Josef Schmied 30 PhD PhD MA BA BA dissertation dissertation MA thesis dissertation thesis thesis uk abs. 2,070 25,200 1,760 1,350 624 35530,1M rel. 0.007 % 0.084 % 0.006 % 0.004 % 0.002 % 0.001 % us abs. 479 462 15 674 5 375,15M rel. 0.009 % 0.009 % 0% 0.013 % 0% 0.001 % ca abs. 1,870 7,420 222 3,810 11 27610,3M rel. 0.018 % 0.072 % 0.002 % 0.037 % 0% 0.003 % au abs. 994 12,400 89 1,190 16 1695,15M rel. 0.019 % 0.241 % 0.002 % 0.023 % 0% 0.003 % ke abs. 6 17 2 9 2 112,300 rel. 0.049 % 0.138 % 0.016 % 0.073 % 0.016 % 0.008 % 5
  • 6. research proposals Josef Schmied 31 research proposals Josef Schmied 32 4.3. Teaching EAP?old language questions – new internet solutions! http://www.english.vt.edu/~dubinsky/3984_Proposals/home.htmlnew recognition for an old subject? In English 3984: Report and Proposal Writing, you will learn how to write effective proposals and reports. If you have a good idea, you need to find a way to bring it to life, which means you need to learn multimedia in culture teaching how to persuade others of your ideas value. Usually you also need to find funding, and people who need money must compete for scarce resources. To web-enhanced language learning (WELL) web- succeed, you have to interpret rhetorical situations and anticipate the needs of the www as an information resource clients and funding agencies. In this course, you’ll get valuable experience and learn how to interpret those situations and meet those needs by writing language tools as subject-based service to the subject- proposals & reports for non-profit organizations in our community. academic community as a whole Objectives: In this course, you will learn to-- new challenges for English Departments, but also * Write clear, coherent prose that meets the needs of your audience / community partner: e-mail, memos, letters, short proposals, progress reports, recognition of language and internet & language short information papers, and grant proposals skills as core requirements for modern graduates in * Work collaboratively general * Plan and manage writing projects * Revise drafts with purpose and understanding of how strategies of organization, style, and format may achieve particular goals research proposals Josef Schmied 33 Asanteni. Asanteni. josef.schmied@phil.tu-chemnitz.de josef.schmied@phil.tu- eap@phil.tu-chemnitz.de eap@phil.tu- 6