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literature review


literature review

literature review

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  • 1. Educational Research: Research Problems and the Research Plan ELT-713 Educational Research Dr. Hasan BEDİR
  • 2. The review of the literature...  The systematic identification, location, and analysis of documents containing information related to the research problem
  • 3. … identifies research already completed of significance to the research topic … points out research strategies and specific procedures that have not been found to be productive in investigating the research topic … facilitates interpretation of study results
  • 4. Why Review the Literature?
    • to identify gaps in the literature
    • to avoid reinventing the wheel (at the very least this will save time and it can stop you from making the same mistakes as others)
    • to carry on from where others have already reached (reviewing the field allows you to build on the platform of existing knowledge and ideas)
  • 5. Why Review the Literature?
    • to identify other people working in the same fields (a researcher network is a valuable resource)
    • to increase your breadth of knowledge of your subject area
    • to identify seminal works in your area
    • to provide the intellectual context for your own work, enabling you to position your project relative to other work
  • 6. Why Review the Literature?
    • to identify opposing views
    • to put your work into perspective
    • to demonstrate that you can access previous work in an area
    • to identify information and ideas that may be relevant to your project
    • to identify methods that could be relevant to your project
  • 7. Functions of a Review of Literature
    • A literature review is more than a summary--”it is a critique of the status of knowledge of a carefully defined topic.”
    • Many sources are available for literature reviews: documents, dissertations, reports, books, monographs, journal articles both in paper and in electronic formats.
    • Some topics do not have resources on the direct topic, so related literature that are relevant to the topic are used.
  • 8. Scope of the Literature Review
    • You will not , at undergraduate level, generally be expected to produce a definitive account of the state of research in your selected topic area.
    • You will need to provide evidence that you have read a certain amount of relevant literature, and that you have some awareness of the current state of knowledge on the subject.
  • 9. Purpose of Literature Reviews:
    • Define and limit the problem.
    • Place the study in a historical and relationship perspective.
    • Avoid unintentional and unnecessary replication.
    • Select promising methods and measures.
    • Relate the findings to previous knowledge and suggest further research.
  • 10. Cautions from experience...  bigger does not mean better  heavily researched topics provide best primary sources  less-researched topics require the review of any study meaningfully related to the topic in order to formulate a logical framework for the study and a sound rationale for the research hypothesis
  • 11. Era 1 in Literature Reviews
    • Go to the library, look in paper indexes, locate the journal and read it
  • 12. Era 2 in Literature Reviews
    • Go to the library, use computer-based indexes, locate the journal and read it
  • 13. Literature Review Steps:
    • Analyze the problem statement
    • Search and read the secondary literature
    • Select the appropriate index for a search
    • Transform the problem statement into search language
    • Conduct a manual and/or computer search
    • Read the pertinent primary literature
    • Organize notes
    • Write the review
  • 14. Sources for Reviews Literature
    • Quarterly and annual reviews
      • Review of Educational Research
      • Review of Research in Education
    • Professional Books
      • textbooks
    • Encyclopedias
      • Encyclopedia of Educational Research
    • Specialized Handbooks and Yearbooks
      • Handbook of Research in Educational Administration
      • Handbook of Research in Teaching
    • Other specialized References
      • ERIC Digest
  • 15. Literature sources...  primary  secondary  tertiary
  • 16.  primary … a published study written by the researcher(s) who conducted the study
  • 17.  secondary (“cited in”) … contain complete bibliographic information in the references section that can direct the researcher(s) to relevant primary sources … an excellent source indicating significant research studies that have influenced the research
  • 18.  tertiary … reports what others have summarized about a particular research topic in a convenient format … oftentimes not a reputable source for the breadth and depth of research into a particular topic
  • 19. Cautions from experience...  carefully evaluate sources  keep careful notes of the literature reviewed  build correctly formatted bibliography during the literature review process  write abstract for each entry which includes key words
  • 20. Writing a review of the literature…  involves a technical form of writing that requires clarity in definitions and consistency in the use of terms  in the social sciences, the normative guide is the Manual of Style of the American Psychological Association
  • 21. The five elements of a review of the literature… 2. Analyze/organize references (in reverse chronological order) 3. Compare/contrast like references 4. Arrange references (“ V ” form) 1. Outline 5. Summarizes literature and identifies implications
  • 22. Review of the literature … … provides an overview of the topic and references related to what is currently known (unknown) about the topic … indicates the need for further research
  • 23. What a Literature Review Is Not
    • It is not a list of all the books and papers that you have read (Bell, 1999).
    • It must not simply dedicate a paragraph or page to each article in turn, just reporting on their content (Haywood & Wragg, 1982).
  • 24. Organizing Your Literature Review
    • After one writes the problem statement section, one may start the literature review.
    • The literature review has:
    • an introduction to the topic, the organization of the review, an explanation of how studies were obtained, and the purpose of the review
    • a critical review that is organized logically around key topics in the research problem. Studies are compared and contrasted as well as evaluated.
    • a summary stating the status of knowledge on the topic, gaps in current knowledge, and an explanation ho w the review relates to your study, its significance, and the research questions or hypotheses .
  • 25. Abstracting and Organizing Your References
    • 1. After skimming the article and deciding that you want to use it in your paper, type the reference in correct APA style in a database or on separate cards, pages, etc.
    • 2. Keep note-taking brief on your first round. Note keys points: problems, procedures, findings, and implications. Note any promising techniques or major problems and limits to the studies.
    • 3. Theory or conceptual framework articles need information on propositions of theory, key points, etc.
    • 4. Organize all references through some classification system by TOPIC or KEY IDEA.
  • 26. Steps in Conducting an Integrative Review: Problem Formulation Data Collection: informal, primary, secondary channels Data Evaluation Data Analysis/ Interpretation Public Presentation
  • 27. Standards of Adequacy of Literature Reviews
    • Selection of the Literature
      • 6 questions
    • Criticism of the Literature
      • 6 questions
    • Summary and Interpretation
      • 3 questions
  • 28. Questions your literature review should answer (1)
    • What do we already know in the immediate area concerned?
    • What are the characteristics of the key concepts or the main factors or variables?
    • What are the relationships between these key concepts, factors or variables?
    • What are the existing theories?
    • Where are the inconsistencies or other shortcomings in our knowledge and understanding?
  • 29. Questions your literature review should answer (2)
    • What views need to be (further) tested?
    • What evidence is lacking, inconclusive, contradictory or too limited?
    • Why study (further) the research problem?
    • What contribution can the present study be expected to make?
    • What research designs or methods seem unsatisfactory? 
  • 30.
    • Original
    • "The big picture is about knowledge building: each piece of reported research adds to the collective construction of knowledge . Research serves as the foundation on which new contributions to knowledge are built . Without citation, there is no reliable and organized system for knowledge building, no mortar for securing the foundation“ (Walker and Taylor, 1998, p. 9).
    • Paraphrase
    • Walker and Taylor (1998, p. 9) emphasize that the real reason why we cite sources we have consulted is to contribute to the creation of shared knowledge . The research of others is the base on which new understanding is established . If we did not cite the work of others, there would be no accepted method " for knowledge building ".
  • 31.
    • Original
    • "The big picture is about knowledge building: each piece of reported research adds to the collective construction of knowledge . Research serves as the foundation on which new contributions to knowledge are built . Without citation, there is no reliable and organized system for knowledge building, no mortar for securing the foundation" (Walker and Taylor, 1998, p 9.).
    • Summary
    • Walker and Taylor (1998) point out that the real purpose of citation is to create a shared knowledge base.
  • 32. Citing Sources in your Papers:
    • APA uses the author-date method of citation
    • Cite sources when you 
      • quote
      • paraphrase
      • use another author's  ideas or findings
    • Every source cited in your essay must have an accompanying entry in the Reference List
    • Every entry in your Reference List must be cited at least once in your essay
  • 33. Paraphrasing Sources:
    • You must cite sources whenever you take ideas or findings from them, even if you don't actually quote them
    • Paraphrasing means putting the ideas found in your sources into your own words
    • All paraphrases require citation:  in parentheses, provide the following:
      • the surname of the author or authors
      • the year of publication
      • the page number is not required, but is encouraged
  • 34. Writing Resources on Plagiarism and Citation
    • The Graduate Calendar:
    • see the section on Academic Misconduct and Plagiarism
    • Wilfrid Laurier Writing Centre
    • Why we cite sources in academic papers
    • How to use sources and avoid plagiarism: Summary, Paraphrase, Quotation, Integration of sources, and Examples of plagiarism
    • APA Web Site
    • University of Toronto Health Sciences
    • University of Wisconsin
  • 35. Literature Review: An Example
    • This example is taken from an introduction because most thesis literature reviews tend to be too long for us to easily look at.
    • Although your literature review will probably be much longer than the one below, it is useful to look at the principles the writers have used.
  • 36. Language learning strategies employed by the high school students attending EFL/ESL classes
    • The theoretical assumption of language learning strategies is derived from two ideas which are diametrically oppose to each other: (1) good language learners are those who consciously utilise the language learning strategies since the development of proficiency in a foreign/second language largely depends on the conscious effort of the learners, which is a cognitive process (Mc Laughlin, 1978, Baars and McGovern 1996); (2) conscious language learning strategies do not work in the development of the language because it is not possible to be consciously proficient in language learning rather it is only acquired through natural communication (Krashen, 1976, 1985).
  • 37.
    • Attempting to define “good language learner” Neiman et al. (1976) claimed that “good” language learners are those who use a larger and range repertoire of strategies than “poor” language learners. This claim seems to be a turning point in the role of learning strategies in language learning because the implications of the research in this area have seemed increasingly important.
  • 38.
    • In addition, social and cognitivists learning theorist have come to an agreement stating that effective learning is a process which includes self motivation, goal setting, planning, applying the appropriate learning strategies, monitoring the progress, and evaluating the outcome of the task (Paris and Cunningham, 1996; Mayer, 1996b; Zimmerman and Risemberg, 1997; Winne, 1995a; Butler and Winne, 1995; Chamot et al. 1999).
  • 39.
    • Although there have been a great number of studies focusing on the role of language learning strategies in foreign and second language learning strategies, there has been little research devoted to the students attending intensive language learning classes to learn English as a foreign language. The purpose of the current study, then, is to explore the language learning strategies with respect to the classification suggested by Oxford (1990).
  • 40. Mini-Quiz…
    • True or false…
    … the worth of a research topic is a function of the amount of literature available on the topic false
  • 41.
    • True or false…
    … abstracting the references involves locating, reviewing, summarizing, and classifying the references true
  • 42.
    • True or false…
    … the majority of research findings contribute to the body of human knowledge false
  • 43.
    • True or false…
    … time spent in the library after formulating the research topic will save time in the long run true
  • 44.
    • True or false…
    … the hypothesis is formulated from a theory or the review of the related literature before the study is executed true
  • 45.
    • True or false…
    … the review of the literature provides a rationale for the research hypothesis true