Educational Research: Research Problems and the Research Plan ELT-713 Educational Research Dr. Hasan BEDİR
The review of the literature... The systematic identification, location, and analysis of documents containing information related to the research problem
… identifies research already completed of significance to the research topic … points out research strategies and specific procedures that have not been found to be productive in investigating the research topic … facilitates interpretation of study results
Place the study in a historical and relationship perspective.
Avoid unintentional and unnecessary replication.
Select promising methods and measures.
Relate the findings to previous knowledge and suggest further research.
Cautions from experience... bigger does not mean better heavily researched topics provide best primary sources less-researched topics require the review of any study meaningfully related to the topic in order to formulate a logical framework for the study and a sound rationale for the research hypothesis
Handbook of Research in Educational Administration
Handbook of Research in Teaching
Other specialized References
Literature sources... primary secondary tertiary
primary … a published study written by the researcher(s) who conducted the study
secondary (“cited in”) … contain complete bibliographic information in the references section that can direct the researcher(s) to relevant primary sources … an excellent source indicating significant research studies that have influenced the research
tertiary … reports what others have summarized about a particular research topic in a convenient format … oftentimes not a reputable source for the breadth and depth of research into a particular topic
Cautions from experience... carefully evaluate sources keep careful notes of the literature reviewed build correctly formatted bibliography during the literature review process write abstract for each entry which includes key words
Writing a review of the literature… involves a technical form of writing that requires clarity in definitions and consistency in the use of terms in the social sciences, the normative guide is the Manual of Style of the American Psychological Association
The five elements of a review of the literature… 2. Analyze/organize references (in reverse chronological order) 3. Compare/contrast like references 4. Arrange references (“ V ” form) 1. Outline 5. Summarizes literature and identifies implications
Review of the literature … … provides an overview of the topic and references related to what is currently known (unknown) about the topic … indicates the need for further research
After one writes the problem statement section, one may start the literature review.
The literature review has:
an introduction to the topic, the organization of the review, an explanation of how studies were obtained, and the purpose of the review
a critical review that is organized logically around key topics in the research problem. Studies are compared and contrasted as well as evaluated.
a summary stating the status of knowledge on the topic, gaps in current knowledge, and an explanation ho w the review relates to your study, its significance, and the research questions or hypotheses .
"The big picture is about knowledge building: each piece of reported research adds to the collective construction of knowledge . Research serves as the foundation on which new contributions to knowledge are built . Without citation, there is no reliable and organized system for knowledge building, no mortar for securing the foundation“ (Walker and Taylor, 1998, p. 9).
Walker and Taylor (1998, p. 9) emphasize that the real reason why we cite sources we have consulted is to contribute to the creation of shared knowledge . The research of others is the base on which new understanding is established . If we did not cite the work of others, there would be no accepted method " for knowledge building ".
"The big picture is about knowledge building: each piece of reported research adds to the collective construction of knowledge . Research serves as the foundation on which new contributions to knowledge are built . Without citation, there is no reliable and organized system for knowledge building, no mortar for securing the foundation" (Walker and Taylor, 1998, p 9.).
Walker and Taylor (1998) point out that the real purpose of citation is to create a shared knowledge base.
This example is taken from an introduction because most thesis literature reviews tend to be too long for us to easily look at.
Although your literature review will probably be much longer than the one below, it is useful to look at the principles the writers have used.
Language learning strategies employed by the high school students attending EFL/ESL classes
The theoretical assumption of language learning strategies is derived from two ideas which are diametrically oppose to each other: (1) good language learners are those who consciously utilise the language learning strategies since the development of proficiency in a foreign/second language largely depends on the conscious effort of the learners, which is a cognitive process (Mc Laughlin, 1978, Baars and McGovern 1996); (2) conscious language learning strategies do not work in the development of the language because it is not possible to be consciously proficient in language learning rather it is only acquired through natural communication (Krashen, 1976, 1985).
Attempting to define “good language learner” Neiman et al. (1976) claimed that “good” language learners are those who use a larger and range repertoire of strategies than “poor” language learners. This claim seems to be a turning point in the role of learning strategies in language learning because the implications of the research in this area have seemed increasingly important.
In addition, social and cognitivists learning theorist have come to an agreement stating that effective learning is a process which includes self motivation, goal setting, planning, applying the appropriate learning strategies, monitoring the progress, and evaluating the outcome of the task (Paris and Cunningham, 1996; Mayer, 1996b; Zimmerman and Risemberg, 1997; Winne, 1995a; Butler and Winne, 1995; Chamot et al. 1999).
Although there have been a great number of studies focusing on the role of language learning strategies in foreign and second language learning strategies, there has been little research devoted to the students attending intensive language learning classes to learn English as a foreign language. The purpose of the current study, then, is to explore the language learning strategies with respect to the classification suggested by Oxford (1990).