The Implications of Inter-language Analysis in the Development of
                 Materials for Teaching Speaking
       ...
Introduction
This paper is looking at a triangulation and application of three knowledge
  areas in the process of materia...
Our Contexts

                                                     Expanding Circle




                                  ...
Our contexts
 
     Outer Circle (Nigeria)                      Expanding Circle (S. Korea)
 
     English is the langua...
Literature Review Inter-language



Vernacular style                                             Careful style
(more pidgi...
Literature Review.
                                                     'Sensitive Period Hypothesis'
Selinker (1972 cited...
Literature Review.

                                                          Needs classified for ease of
 
     Needs A...
Literature Review.
 
     Speaking skill in context
 Speaking overlaps with many areas of              We believe that th...
Literature Review.
 
     Materials Design                             Tomlinson(2005)citing Jolly and Bolitho
          ...
Literature Review.



 We find this framework most useful because it is systematic, coherent purposeful and
   flexible. T...
Research Analysis


 
     The Learners' Background                    The Research Tasks
 
      Korean(Lee) an Enginee...
Research Analysis
 
     Aims                                   Data Collection
 
     Ascertain their linguistic       ...
Research Analysis (Research Methodology)




  
      Data Analysis                           Results were classified und...
Findings
 
     Phonology                              In one instance, he correctly
                                    ...
Findings
 
     Grammar                                      Vocabulary
 Nkiru's mastery of sentence formation is        ...
Findings
                                                    He is able to express his feelings about
 
     Pragmatics  ...
Implications
 We believe that ILA has implications for
   material development in the following           Needs Analysis.
...
Implications
 Needs Analysis
In view of the scientific and pragmatic nature of IL, we believe that it may be used to
    ...
IL strengthens data gathering processes in Needs Analysis




                     STEP 1.....         Set Speech Context
...
IL strengthens data gathering processes in Needs Analysis



 
     Step 1: Determined by the                         Ste...
Implications
 Types of materials                                Usability
 Input from ILA will help in raising teachers'  ...
Implications
 This evaluation will simply ascertain            Contextual focus
    whether or not the speaking material i...
Implications
 These are summarized thus;                       8.Surveys of English proficiency levels are
               ...
Conclusion
This paper has looked at the influence of ILA on
 materials development based on studies carried
 out in two co...
References/Bibliography

BENESCH, S (2001) Critical English for Academic purposes:           HUGHES, R (2002) Teaching and...
References/Bibliography


RICHTERICH, R & J-L Chancerel, (1980) Identifying the      TOMLINSON, B (2005) ‘Developing Princ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Implications of Inter-language Analysis in the Development of Materials for Teaching Speaking (Matsda, LeedsMet Uni.2010)

3,200 views

Published on

What has Inter Language Analysis to offer materials development

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,200
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
55
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Implications of Inter-language Analysis in the Development of Materials for Teaching Speaking (Matsda, LeedsMet Uni.2010)

  1. 1. The Implications of Inter-language Analysis in the Development of Materials for Teaching Speaking BY Abdulmalik Y. Ofemile & Choonmi Kim MA (TESOL& ICT) MA (TESOL) School of Education, University Of Leeds, UK Presented at the 8th Materials Development/MATSDA Postgraduate Research Conference 2010 Building Bridges: Research, Materials, Classroom Practice and Beyond Saturday 15th May, 2010 09:30am – 16:30pm Leeds Metropolitan University Leslie Silver International Faculty Caedmon Hall, Headingley Campus, Leeds
  2. 2. Introduction This paper is looking at a triangulation and application of three knowledge areas in the process of materials development for teaching and learning speaking skills in a second language acquisition context. The knowledge areas include, Inter Language Analysis (ILA), Speaking skills, and Language materials design. The concepts of Needs Analysis (NA) and content development will be subsumed under these broad areas as the implications of triangulation become manifest. We will focus on our contexts, summary of our research work, brief discussion of basic concepts from literature, the implications for materials development and our concluding thoughts on the work done.
  3. 3. Our Contexts Expanding Circle Outer circle Inner circle UK, USA Canada India, Nigeria Singapore South Korea, China Russia TheThree Circles(Kachru, 1985) Fig. 1 Adapted fromCrystal, (2010 :107) 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 3
  4. 4. Our contexts  Outer Circle (Nigeria) Expanding Circle (S. Korea)  English is the language of government, The 6th National curriculum (Mar.1995 to politics, business, education, Feb.2002) made English a compulsory communication and national unity. subject for students from the third grade of primary school until graduating from high  Nigerian varieties: Pidgin & Educated school (Kim, 2010) Nigerian English, Popular Nigerian English language is a requirement for English (Ofemile, 2010 citing Odumuh, admission into the best Universities and for 1987; Jowitt, 1991) getting the best jobs.  Failure in the secondary school Learners do not get to use the language certificate examination in English is adequately outside the classroom. rising.(Wedell, 2010 citing Bomgbose, $15.3 billion expended on private lessons in 2001) The result for 2010 shows that 2005 (Guardian Weekly cited in Wedell, less than 2% of candidates 2010) passed(Ofemile, 2010) 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 4
  5. 5. Literature Review Inter-language Vernacular style Careful style (more pidgin-like) Style 2 Style 3 Style 4 Style n (more TL/NL like) Unattended Attended Various elicitation tasks: elicited Grammatical speech data speech imitation,sentence-combining,etc intuition data data Inter Language continuum.(Tarone 1983:152) Fig.2
  6. 6. Literature Review. 'Sensitive Period Hypothesis' Selinker (1972 cited in Davies,1989) Inter Language (Henceforth IL) is a learner’s Second Language Acquisition (SLA) is language characterized by permeability, possible at any age but, it is impossible dynamism, and systematicity. Thus, IL is continually evolving with more input to the to achieve native-like competence. learner and revision by the learner (Patwoski, 2006 citing Lennenberg, (Lightbown &Spada, 2006) 1967) Thus, IL is a continuum that represents the learner's development. IL describes the structured system constructed (Fig. 2) above. by the learner at every stage of his As second language speaker sand development. (Ellis, 1985) teachers of English experience shows that Patwoski is right but, we must add that this however depends on several factors like context, the relationship between L1 and the target language, and the learners attitude and background. 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 6
  7. 7. Literature Review. Needs classified for ease of  Needs Analysis identification.  Has been variously defined and described (Munby, 1977; Richterich & Chancerel, McDonough, (1984)Hutchinson and Waters, 1977/1980; Widdowson, 1984; Hutchinson & (1987); Mushare, (1992) and Benesch, Waters, 1987; Queeney, 1995; Jordan, 1997; (2001). Benech, 2001, Ofemile, 2009). For our purpose,'Target needs (what a learner  From the above we deduced that NA has the will do in order to learn). Learning needs following properties. (what the learner will do in a target situation) • It is a learner-centered process Hutchinson and Waters, (1987) will suffice because they help give focus to the paper. • It involves data collection and processing • It provides information on the design, implementation and evaluation of learning experiences. • The learning experiences meet the needs of the learners, Institutions, and Society. 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 7
  8. 8. Literature Review.  Speaking skill in context Speaking overlaps with many areas of We believe that these are the qualities and language. It can be seen as an aspect functions of spoken discourse. Just as of production or from the social aspects in writing, learners learn to speak and ie attitudes towards productive skills. speak to learn and we believe that (Hughes, 2002) there is a parallel here with 'competence and performance'. our understanding of Hughes goes thus: The first refers to skill acquisition while the As an aspect of production, spoken second refers to the ability to use the discourse is context dependent, usually skill in the 'target situation'. A unplanned, transient, uses oral/aural combination of the two provide what media and is dynamic. Harmer, (2007) calls 'rehearsal opportunities' to use the language for a  From the social aspect, spoken purpose and as a skill. discourse is perceived as an inter- personal locus of change, that is informal, rhetorical, stigmatized and a primary form of language. 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 8
  9. 9. Literature Review.  Materials Design Tomlinson(2005)citing Jolly and Bolitho (1998:97-8) presents a framework that It is a process that begins with focuses on procedures for developing identification of competences or needs materials thus: assessment, then determining goals and objectives, conceptualizing Identification of need for materials content, and finally, selecting and developing materials and activities. Exploration of need (Graves, 1996) Contextual realization of materials This view sees material development as Pedagogical realization of materials an integral part of course development. Production of materials Student use of materials Evaluation of materials against agreed objectives 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 9
  10. 10. Literature Review. We find this framework most useful because it is systematic, coherent purposeful and flexible. This review has given a mulch-dimensional insights to this paper.  We will now go further to give a comparative analysis of our researches in IL. 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 10
  11. 11. Research Analysis  The Learners' Background The Research Tasks  Korean(Lee) an Engineer and a The subjects were expected to: Nigerian (Nkiru) a teacher. We are using Pseudonyms Talk about themselves  Lee speaks Korean and English. He Narrate or re-tell a story learned English in Korea and Canada, Relate an experience that is of rarely uses English at work but his significance to them. composition skills are good.  Nkiru speaks Igbo,a smattering of Yoruba, pidgin English, Popular Nigerian English, and Standard British English. She is a post-graduate student in the UK. 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 11
  12. 12. Research Analysis  Aims Data Collection  Ascertain their linguistic We used unstructured competences in the use of interviews recorded English language in using Skype over three interaction. interview sessions.  Ascertain their Listening and speaking skills.  Identify areas of deficiencies 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 12
  13. 13. Research Analysis (Research Methodology)  Data Analysis Results were classified under: Phonology  Recorded interviews Grammar were converted into transcripts using voice Vocabulary walker. pragmatics  We analyzed data obtained using Canale's (1983) framework of communicative competence. 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 13
  14. 14. Findings  Phonology In one instance, he correctly articulates and distinguishes  Nkiru's pronunciation was between the sounds /r/ and good with an intermediate /l/ in words like 'generally'. level of fluency. However, when these  However, she commits local sounds occur in individual errors attributable to words, he switches them as transfers from L1 e.g. in 'actualy' articulated as /ri:/. Omission of sounds like /t/ in Other sounds include /v/ 'least'. as /b/ and /z/ as /dz/. These sounds do not exist in  Lee also has good Korean. pronunciation but, he displays a mixed grill of abilities. 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 14
  15. 15. Findings  Grammar Vocabulary Nkiru's mastery of sentence formation is Nkiru code mixes registers (e.g. 'eba' very good. She was able to place 'fufu') with English language. She uses morphemes in their proper positions to interjections and discourse particles make sentences. like 'aho' (what do I care or how do I know) from Nigerian languages in her  Lee on the other hand, displayed a expressions. Her choice of words are good level of competence in the use of varied and her repertoire of words very present tense but, his use of past tense high. and articles (a, the) were inaccurate while copula and regular 'be' forms Lee shows a limited choice of words which were ommited. Examples include 'Ah, maybe an indication of the level of his he style very strong'; 'I think he development in the language. increase economy better now' 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 15
  16. 16. Findings He is able to express his feelings about  Pragmatics issues albeit in a confusing manner. Nkiru displayed an appreciable level of For example, he calls a 'puppy' 'baby dog'. proficiency in pragmatic skills. She was This is a transfer from a Korean near able to employ formulaic expressions equivalent expression 'kae saeki'. This without depending on them, interpret is an attempt (Harmer,2007)that has requests, recognize and respond to pragmatic implications. The expression conversation starters,employ co- is considered a solecism in Korean constructions to complete clauses as culture and it is to an extent well as use a mixture and shift in tense nonsensical in English. 'complicating action'.(Ofemile, 2009, 2010)  Lee used and relied on formulaic expressions like 'I studied...' but, his discourse skills are good which can be attributed to a positive transfer from Korean. 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 16
  17. 17. Implications We believe that ILA has implications for material development in the following Needs Analysis. areas: ILA employs approaches that are • Needs analysis systematic and empirically established by a careful accumulation and analysis • Types of materials ie classification of data e.g. Canale's framework. These approaches are universally acceptable, • Usability they account for variations across IL • Contextual focus sub-systems (phonology, grammar, vocabulary & pragmatics), and they are internally consistent, parsimonious and elegant, (Tarone, 1989). NA tries to get information about the learners' perceptions of their needs and how others perceive them 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 17
  18. 18. Implications  Needs Analysis In view of the scientific and pragmatic nature of IL, we believe that it may be used to strengthen the process of identification and elaboration of needs in materials development. Errors or language variations identified will now become the learners' needs. For example, our studies observed that the subjects need more pragmatic knowledge of English language to function and communicate effectively, thus, content design will include politeness, turn taking in conversation, or even elements of interaction in English language discourse. Apart from that IL can be used as a lead on to other aspects of NA in materials development using the steps recommended below, (Fig 3). 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 18
  19. 19. IL strengthens data gathering processes in Needs Analysis STEP 1..... Set Speech Context STEP 2..... Set Interaction Objectives STEP 3....... Frame specific Questions STEP 4....... Administration (Interviews) STEP 5...... Analysis STEP 6...... Needs Identification & Evaluation Fig 3 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 19
  20. 20. IL strengthens data gathering processes in Needs Analysis  Step 1: Determined by the Step 4: spontaneous recordings of communicative function of the language speech by researcher, unstructured bearing in various contexts (Tarone, 1988) interviews, pre-planned sociolinguistic interactions to check 'observer paradox'  Step 2:the purpose of the study (Labov, 1972 cited in Tarone, 1988; Ellis,2009) should be set in a favourable linguistic environment.e.g. assessing the extent of linguistic competence in spoken English. Step 5:Focused analysis of transcribed (Ofemile, 2010, Kim 2010; Schumann, spoken data using accepted theoretical 1978b, Ellis, 1984a) standards e.g. Canale's four aspects of communicative competence.  Step 3: Frame interview questions bearing in mind socio-situational factors like Step 6: NA strategies are used in Tarone's (1988) social and pedagogical assessing linguistic competences or norms that may or may not conflict with the incompetence identified. Such strategies will learner's background. (See Ellis, 1992 include comparing the learner's linguistic citing Lardiere, 2007) performance with the accepted expected standard. A variance analysis will yield further the learner's needs at the evaluation stage. 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 20
  21. 21. Implications Types of materials Usability Input from ILA will help in raising teachers' We are of the opinion that ILA input can and learners' awareness about ESL help in evaluating these materials in an settings, methods and materials empirical manner. This idea becomes development. This will help in the relevant here since materials now inclusion of contextualized learning include electronic resources like activities, strategies and exercises in podcast, voice recorders, voice chats, classroom speaking materials and video chats, CD/DVD, mp3, mp4 and resources that can promote interaction other web based resources. ILA is in the target language. (Ofemile,2010; used to identify learner needs and citing Jianda, 2008; Ellis, !987; Kim, these materials and resources will be 2010). employed to give tasks that will remedy deficiencies. This implies that ILA input can aid the decision about the the type and Thus, materials will be assessed for function of speaking material to be 'learnability, Efficiency, Memorability, developed e.g paper based or Errors and satisfaction' electronic; classwork, examination, or (Nielson,1993:26) which specific learner need to meet. 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 21
  22. 22. Implications This evaluation will simply ascertain Contextual focus whether or not the speaking material is easy to learn, efficient to use, easy to Finally, we believe that the role of ILA in remember, allows the learner to the future development of English commit only a few errors, and is language as an international language pleasant to use.(Nielson, 1993). will become more pronounced. This belief is based upon the striking From experience, we find that these similarities that occurred in the results factors to a large extent determine the of our independent researches of level of interaction that can be learners that represent the outer circle generated in the classroom. Thus, a and expanding circle. positive result implies high interaction between the learner and the material Secondly, Graddol's (2010) futuristic and a negative indicates poor axioms about India, which we find in interaction with no learning taking view of the results above to be place. increasingly relevant to our research contexts 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 22
  23. 23. Implications These are summarized thus; 8.Surveys of English proficiency levels are needed. (Graddol 2010,14-15). • There is a major shift towards English Material developers will continually • There are three main drivers for English have to bear in mind this ever widening contexts and ILA has the potential of • English has escaped from the library presenting critical data for those • Sustained economic growth requires designers who desire to promote more English speakers mutually intelligible materials for teaching and learning speaking or oral • National Improvement in English is too communication in English language slow internationally. • English is a casualty of wider problems in Indian(Nigerian, Korean) education • There is a huge shortage of English teachers, and 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 23
  24. 24. Conclusion This paper has looked at the influence of ILA on materials development based on studies carried out in two contexts. We must quickly add that, we interviewed only one subject each and in three events and to these extents can the results be generalized. However, we think that more of these studies are needed in other contexts with other specifications to build a body of knowledge in preparation for a future which is very near. 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 24
  25. 25. References/Bibliography BENESCH, S (2001) Critical English for Academic purposes: HUGHES, R (2002) Teaching and Researching Speaking. London: Theory, politics, and practice. Mawah: Lawrence Erlbaum Longman. pp 5-25 Associates, Publishers. HUTCHINSON, T & A.T. Waters (1987) English For Specific CRYSTAL, D (2010). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of English Purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Language. Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press p 107. JOWITT, D (1991) Nigerian English Usage. An Introduction. Ikeja: Longman (Nig) Limited. Part1 ELLIS (1994) ‘Differences between L1 and L2 acquisition (based on Bley-Vroman 1988)’ KIM, C (2010)' Second assignment: Investigating Language for EDUC 5902 Submitted to School of Education, ELLIS , R (1997) SLA Research and Language Teaching. London: University of Leeds. (Unpublished) Oxford University Press. Chps 5&6. MCDONOUGH, J (1984) ESP in Perspective: A practical guide. ELLIS , R (2009) The study of second language acquisition. London: Collins ELT Second Edition. London: Oxford University Press. Chps 5&6. MUNBY, J (1976). Communicative Syllabus Design. Cambridge: ELLIS, R (1987) ‘Contextual variability in Second Language Cambridge University Press. Acquisition and the relevancy of language teaching’ In R, Ellis (Ed) Second Language Acquisition in context. London: NIELSON, J (1993) Usability Engineering New York: Academic Prentice Hall International. Pp 179-195. press. P26. GRADDOL, D (2010) English Next India: The future of English in OFEMILE, A.C (2009) ‘First assignment: Investigating Language India. India: British Council. Pp14-15 for EDUC 5902 Submitted to School of Education, University of Leeds. (Unpublished) GRAVES, K (1996) ‘A framework of course development processes’ In K. Graves (Ed). Teachers as course OFEMILE, A.C (2010)Second assignment: Investigating Language Developers. Cambridge: Cambridge University press. for EDUC 5902 Submitted to School of Education, University of Leeds. (Unpublished) HARMER, J (2007) The Practice of English Language Teaching. Fourth Edition. London. Pearson Longman. 05/18/10 Abdulmalik Ofemile & Choonmi Kim 25
  26. 26. References/Bibliography RICHTERICH, R & J-L Chancerel, (1980) Identifying the TOMLINSON, B (2005) ‘Developing Principled Needs of Adults Learning a Foreign Language. frameworks for materials development’ In Council of Europe Modern Languages project. B,Tomlinson (Ed) Developing Materials For Oxford: Pergamon press Language Teaching. London. Continuum. pp107- 129 TARONE, E. (1983) ‘Variability in Interlanguage use: a study of style- shifting in morphology and syntax’ In Voice Walker download from Language Learning. 35/3. 373-404 http://www.linguistics.ucsb.edu/projects/transcription/tools TARONE, E. (1983). ‘On the variability of Interlanguage Systems’ In Applied Linguistics 4/2 pp143 – 163 TARONE, E. (2008). ‘A Sociolinguistic Perspective on Interaction in SLA1’ In A. Mackey & C. Polio (Eds.), Multiple Perspectives on Interaction. in SLA. Routledge Publishers. TARONE, E.& Liu, G. (1995).Situational context, variation, and second language acquisition theory* In G. Cook & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principle and Practice in Applied Linguistics: Studies in honour of H.G. Widdowson. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 107-124.

×