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War and global security
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War and global security

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Sociological Perspective

Sociological Perspective

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  • 1. War and Global Insecurity
  • 2. Terrorism, Global and Domestic Terrorism involves the unlawful use of force and violence against person, property to intimidate or coerce a government to achieve political or social objectives Narcoterrorism - use of violence in the trafficking of drugs State terrorism refers to the terrorism of the government against their own people Revolutionary terrorism - to bring about total political change
  • 3. Measuring Terrorism in the United States There are domestic and international terrorist groups. Within the domestic category, there are left-wing and right-wing terrorists Between 2005 and 2006, the number of terrorist incidents increased dramatically, although much of the increase was accounted for by increased acts of terrorism in Iraq and Afghanistan Critics claim that the U.S. invasion of Iraq has stimulated the growth of Al Qaeda and other terrorist groups
  • 4. Origins of Terrorist Groups Many terrorist groups have originated out of troubled areas of the world • Middle East • Northern Ireland Political radicalism is a source of terrorism Terrorism can have its origin in cults Terrorism can originate out of the State to maintain power
  • 5. Origins of Terrorist Groups Characteristics of terrorist recruits • Well educated • Young • Upper-middle class or middle-class background Terrorism emerges out of the despair bred by the economic deprivation in parts of the world Terrorists operate on a belief system based on salvation through violence
  • 6. Terrorism and Religion Terrorists groups are often motivated by deep religious convictions • Totalitarian belief systems Violence is often committed against known and unknown victims • Random victims • Select targets because of their prominence in society
  • 7. Terrorism’s Impact on Society The primary impact of terrorism on society are: • Increased fear and heightened security • Erosion of civil liberties • Economic consequences • Health consequences • Political consequences
  • 8. War and Its Effects Between 1100 and 1925, about 35 million soldiers were killed in 862 wars During World War II, 17 million soldiers and 35 million civilians were killed In 2006, about 2 million veterans were receiving compensation from the U.S. government for war- related disabilities War takes a psychological toll on soldiers • Posttraumatic stress disorder
  • 9. Indirect Effects of War War is a major factor in mass migration of populations • Between 1986 and 1999, over 1.3 million refugees were granted asylum in the United States Government policy during war has also forced population migration • WW II and German relocation policy
  • 10. Indirect Effects of War War and economic devastation Impact of war on culture and the psychology of people
  • 11. Effects of Nuclear War Technology has made warfare more lethal • Human consequences • Ecological consequences Rogue States and Weapons of Mass Destruction • North Korea • Iraq under Saddam Hussein • Afghanistan under the Taliban • Zimbabwe under Robert Mugabe
  • 12. Effects of Nuclear War The prospect of a global nuclear war has lessened Nuclear proliferation and threat of nuclear war in unstable parts of the world is still a problem
  • 13. Controlling Warfare The increase in the destructiveness in warfare has lead to progress in controlling war The Bush administration has claimed that a war on terrorism means that rules of conventional warfare do not apply In 2004 the Supreme Court rejected the U.S. government’s attempt to detain an American citizen indefinitely without trial
  • 14. Controlling Warfare The concept of a just war emanated out of the culture of Greek and Roman civilization • Justification for going to war • Justifiable acts in wartime The rules of warfare are difficult to enforce • War crimes
  • 15. Theories About War and Its Origins Ethological and Sociobiological theories Aggression and violence as a genetic trait to enhance survival of the human species Konrad Lorenz Aggression as an instinct in humans Aggression is linked to territoriality Edward O. Wilson • Genetic predisposition to aggression • Aggression channeled through culture
  • 16. Theories About War and Its Origins Ethological and Sociobiological theories Critics argue • Research contrasting humans to other animals is flawed • Human motivation to fight is learned in response to symbols
  • 17. Theories About War and Its Origins Clausewitz: War as State Policy War occurs in a social context The monarch was the major force behind war • War as an alternative to diplomacy • Interest of the monarch and military were seen as the same • Military were to serve the interest of the monarch
  • 18. Theories About War and Its Origins Marx and Lenin on War Karl Marx - war was based on the interests of the economic elites to acquire raw materials and to expand capitalism Vladimir Lenin - saw warfare as stemming from competition among capitalist nations for the expansion of global economic dominance • Colonialism
  • 19. Theories About War and Its Origins Institutional and International Perspectives Institutional Forces within Nations Influence of military leaders on government policy Harold Lasswell and the Garrison State • Military leaders impose dictatorial power on society • Channel state resources for military use • Control public support through propaganda
  • 20. Theories About War and Its Origins Institutional Forces within Nations C.W. Mills and the Power Elite Economic institutions and the military elite have come to shape economic life around their view of the world and the interests of the military Politics and the forging of public opinion in support of war • Nationalism and warfare
  • 21. Theories About War and Its Origins The International Context of War and Peace League of Nations and later the United Nations are examples of attempts to arrive at global cooperation among nations Global conflicts and the U.S. as peacekeepers • Less than successful International trade and the economic incentive for peace International peacekeeping institutions and international law
  • 22. Social Policy The war in Iraq, a growing crisis over North Korea, Iran’s threats to renew their production of nuclear weapons, and other events have made the world situation increasingly gloomy There has been a rise of negative feelings about the United States in that the country is not exerting positive leadership in seeking world peace
  • 23. Social Policy Arms Control: A Promise Unfulfilled United Nations • International Atomic Energy Commission was formed in 1945 to ban nuclear weapons Nuclear test ban treaties Nuclear anti-proliferation policies Controlling the arms merchants
  • 24. Social Policy Dealing with Terrorism Policy of no-concessions to terrorist groups Public awareness in controlling terrorism Homeland Security Act of 2002 International diplomacy and economic development