Heamotology and pathology by Abdul Khaliq

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Heamotology and pathology by Abdul Khaliq

  1. 1. Abdul Khaliq Habib Bahawalpur.
  2. 2. Haemotology Chemical Pathology Immulite System
  3. 3. Sampling <ul><li>Three ways of Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>From Vein </li></ul><ul><li>From Finger or Heel </li></ul><ul><li>From Artery </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sysmax Analyzer
  5. 5. Anti-Coagulant <ul><li>Medicines or Chemicals which are used in a specific ratio to stop the natural process of clotting the blood are termed as Anti-Coagulant </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly used medicines or chemicals are </li></ul><ul><li>i-Ammonium Potassium Oxalate </li></ul><ul><li>ii-Tri sodium Citrate </li></ul><ul><li>iii-Heparin </li></ul><ul><li>iv-ACD (Acid Citrate Dextrose) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Principle of Anti-Coagulant Reaction <ul><li>EDTA & Sodium Citrate combine with calcium and due to its absence blood does not clot. </li></ul><ul><li>Heparin </li></ul><ul><li>It makes inactive the activity of clotting factor </li></ul>
  7. 7. Labeling <ul><li>Involve three steps </li></ul><ul><li>i-Tube Numbering </li></ul><ul><li>ii-Register Entry </li></ul><ul><li>iii-Report form Filling </li></ul>
  8. 8. Blood Composition <ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma Blood Cells Platelets </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble Proteins Red Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><li>White Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Food Substances </li></ul><ul><li>Execratory products </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul>
  9. 9. Blood Complete Examination <ul><li>WBC </li></ul><ul><li>RBC </li></ul><ul><li>HGB </li></ul><ul><li>Platelets </li></ul><ul><li>ESR </li></ul><ul><li>MCV = PCV / TRBC </li></ul><ul><li>MCH = HGB% / TRBC ×10 </li></ul><ul><li>MCHC = HB% / PCV </li></ul>
  10. 10. White Blood Cells (Leucocytes) <ul><li>White blood cells are irregular in shape & contain a nucleus. These keep the body healthy by fighting against diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Total RBC Counts </li></ul><ul><li>Through WBC Chamber </li></ul><ul><li>Through Neubar Chamber </li></ul>
  11. 11. Differential Leucocytes Counts (DLC) <ul><li>Polymorph or Neutrophil </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphocyte </li></ul><ul><li>Monocyte </li></ul><ul><li>Eosinophil </li></ul><ul><li>Basophil </li></ul>
  12. 12. Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) <ul><li>These are circular, flattened, biconcave disc making the centre of cell thinner than its edges </li></ul><ul><li>Total RBC Counts </li></ul><ul><li>RBC Chamber </li></ul><ul><li>Neubar Chamber </li></ul>
  13. 13. Haemoglobin <ul><li>Red Colour Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Its deficiency is known as Anemia </li></ul><ul><li>This pigment enables red blood cells to transport oxygen to all cells </li></ul><ul><li>Haemoglobin </li></ul>Iron released stored in liver Bile pigment excreted into gut
  14. 14. Platelets (Thrombocytes) <ul><li>These are not true cells but fragment of cytoplasm from certain Bone Marrow cells </li></ul><ul><li>They play a vital role in clotting of Blood </li></ul><ul><li>How to Count Platelets </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Counter </li></ul><ul><li>Neubar Chamber </li></ul>
  15. 15. ESR <ul><li>It stands for Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate </li></ul><ul><li>Two Methods of Taking ESR </li></ul><ul><li>Westergrens Method </li></ul><ul><li>Wintrobe Method </li></ul>
  16. 16. Westergrens Method
  17. 17. Wintrobe Method
  18. 18. Chemical Pathology <ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Bilirubin </li></ul><ul><li>SGPT </li></ul><ul><li>Alkaline Phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>LDH </li></ul><ul><li>Urea </li></ul><ul><li>Cretinine </li></ul>
  19. 19. Semi Automatic Bio Chemistry Analyzer
  20. 20. Glucose <ul><li>Patients having the symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus are advised for this test. </li></ul><ul><li>This test is advised by two ways </li></ul><ul><li>OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Glucose Estimation Test </li></ul>
  21. 21. OGTT Test Procedure <ul><li>Patient is advised to take normal diet with out any care. </li></ul><ul><li>Ten hours fasting sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Now patient should be given 75 grams water dissolved glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>Now after every one hour sample taken & tested. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample taking time & result of glucose is plotted. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal people have normal glucose result after two hours while Diabetes Patients have high level of Glucose </li></ul>
  22. 22. Blood Glucose Estimation <ul><li>Following are the Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose Oxidase Method </li></ul><ul><li>Orthotoludine Method </li></ul><ul><li>Hexokinase Method </li></ul><ul><li>Ferricyanide Method </li></ul><ul><li>Folin wu Method </li></ul>
  23. 23. Glucose Oxidase Method <ul><li>All the laboratories use this method to measure Glucose. It is modern, sensitive and error free method. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Sr. Bilirubin Estimation <ul><li>Conjugated Bilirubin rapidly combine with Diazotized Sulphanilic Acid & convert it into Azobilirubin. </li></ul><ul><li>Its colour intensity is measured in the photometer at wave length 530. </li></ul><ul><li>Total Bil= ( Ab of Test / Ab of Standard) × Conc. Of Standard </li></ul>
  25. 25. High Values of Bilirubin <ul><li>These are in following cases </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Gilbert disease </li></ul><ul><li>Criglar Najjar Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Liver Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Hindrance in path of Bile </li></ul>
  26. 26. Alanine Transminase (ALT) <ul><li>As much pyruvic acid is produced in the body. Alt also increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Following are the cases </li></ul><ul><li>Viral Hepatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Liver Necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory Failure due to Shock & Hypoxia </li></ul><ul><li>Liver Cirrhosis </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol jaundice </li></ul><ul><li>Liver congestion secondary to cardiac failure </li></ul><ul><li>Infection mononuclosis </li></ul>
  27. 27. Sr. Alkaline Phosphate <ul><li>It converts 4-Nitrophenyl Phosphate enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>into 4-Nitro Phenol & its colour is reddish </li></ul><ul><li>which is measured at 405 wave length of </li></ul><ul><li>photo meter. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Urea <ul><li>Method to measure Urea from serum. </li></ul><ul><li>Urease Berthelot Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Diacetyle Monoxime Method </li></ul><ul><li>Urease Nesslerrization Method </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sr. Cretinine Estimation <ul><li>Jaffe method </li></ul><ul><li>Serum is added to Alkaline Picric Acid & its colour intensity is measured at wave length of 520 nm. </li></ul><ul><li>Sr. Cretinine= Ab of Test / Ab of Standard × Conc. Of Standard </li></ul>
  30. 30. Immulite System
  31. 31. Thank You

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