GE6533 Language Learning Strategies Instruction
5 Factors Affecting
Abdul Jalil Bin Abdul Rahim
• Motivation is a significant factor affecting the choice and
the use of LLSs (Khamkien, 2010)
• Students who are highly motivated used more LLSs and
more often than less motivated students. (Okada et al.
• Oxford et al. (1993) found that high motivation and the
frequent use of LLSs significantly predicted success on a
language achievement test.
• With Japanese students in England, instrumental and
integrative motivation had significant effect on choice of LLs
• Park’s (1997) study on 332 Korean students showed a significant
relationship between language (English) proficiency and LLSs.
• Students from all level of proficiency incorporated LLSs in their
learning, but what differentiated effective learners from less effective
learners are the range and the way in which strategies were used
(Chamot & Kupper, 1989; Van & Abraham, 1990)
• high-proficiency learners tended to use a wider range of strategies
more frequently than low-proficiency learners (Khamkien, 2010)
• Higher proficiency level students used more metacognitive
strategies (Nisbett et al. 2005)
• Lower proficiency level students used more phonetic decoding
strategies (Chamot et al. 1999)
• Females were reported to use wider range of LLSs than males
(Taguchi, 2002; Razak et al. 2012)
• However, in some studies, it was found that males used more
language learning strategies than females (Tercanlioglu, 2004)
• Cultural context play a role in determining the use of LLSs
• Females in conservative society may not be able to socialize
with native speakers, but the males can which make them to
select naturalistic strategies (El-Dib, 2004)
• Learning styles influence the LLSs choice of a learner (Oxford,
• (Cheng and Banya, 1998, p. 82)
• Students who preferred kinesthetic learning have more
confidence as well as more positive attitudes and beliefs about
foreign language learning than students with other perceptual
learning style preferences.
• Students with the individual preference style use more
language learning strategies, and they are less tolerant of
• Students who identified themselves as Tactile learners seemed
to be more anxious about learning English.
• Students with an Auditory preference like to make friends with
and speak with foreign language speakers (in this case, English
Degree of awareness
• Better learners have more metacognitive awareness,
which helps them to select suitable strategies for learning
• Students who have learned how and when to use learning
strategies become more self-reliant and better able to
• Self-knowledge can be either an important facilitator or a
constraint in learning (Pintrich, 2002)
• Grenfell & Harris’ (1999) statement that
• “Methodology alone can never be a solution to language
learning. Rather it is an aid and suggestion”
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