01 lecture dpt 4 introduction and organization of the nervois system by abdul ghafoor sajjad

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Neuro anatomy lectures for the students of Doctor of Physical Therapy

01 lecture dpt 4 introduction and organization of the nervois system by abdul ghafoor sajjad

  1. 1. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  2. 2. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  3. 3. DPT ANATOMY IV NEURO ANATOMY CREDIT HOURS 3(2-1) Dr Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor RCRS,RIU
  4. 4. DETAILED COURSE OUTLINE • Central Nervous System: Disposition, Parts and Functions • Brain stem (Pons, Medulla, and Mid Brain) • Cerebrum • Cerebellum • Thalamus • Hypothalamus Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  5. 5. DETAILED COURSE OUTLINE • • • • • • Internal Capsule Blood Supply of Brain Stroke and its types Ventricles of Brain CSF circulation and Hydrocephalus Meninges of Brain Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  6. 6. DETAILED COURSE OUTLINE • Neural pathways (Neural Tracts) • Pyramidal and Extra pyramidal System (Ascending and Descending tracts) • Functional significance of Spinal cord level • Cranial Nerves with special emphasis upon IV, V, VII, XI, XII (their course, distribution, and palsies). • Autonomic nervous system, its components • Nerve receptors Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  7. 7. DETAILED COURSE OUTLINE • • • • • • • SPINAL CORD Gross appearance Structure of spinal cord Grey and white matter (brief description) Meninges of spinal cord Blood supply of spinal cord Autonomic Nervous system Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  8. 8. Recommended Text Books: • Gray’s Anatomy by Prof. Susan Standring 39th Ed., Elsevier. • CLINICAL NEUROANATOMY BY RICHARD S.SNELL 7TH EDITION. • Clinically Oriented Anatomy by Keith Moore. • Clinical Anatomy by R.J. Last, Latest Ed. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  9. 9. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  10. 10. Lecture No 01 INTRODUCTION AND ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  11. 11. LECTURE OBJECTIVES • To understand the basic organization of the main structure that form the nervous system. • To gain the Three-dimensional appreciation of the parts of the brain and their relative position to one. another Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  12. 12. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  13. 13. NERVOUS SYSTEM • A regulatory system of the body that consists of neurons and neuroglial cells. OR • The body’s primary communication and control system. • Can be divided according to: – Structural categories – Functional categories. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  14. 14. Nervous System Structural Organization Structural subdivisions of the nervous system: • Central nervous system (CNS) – Brain and Spinal cord • Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – Cranial nerves (nerves that extend from the brain) – Spinal nerves (nerves that extend from the spinal cord) – ganglia (clusters of neuron cell bodies (somas) located outside the CNS) Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  15. 15. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  16. 16. Nervous System Functional Organization Functional divisions of the nervous system: • Sensory afferent division: – receives sensory information (input) from receptors – transmits this information to the CNS. • Motor efferent division: – transmits motor impulses (output) from the CNS – to muscles or glands (effector organs). Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  17. 17. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  18. 18. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  19. 19. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  20. 20. Central Nervous System BRAIN Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  21. 21. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  22. 22. Brain • An adult brain weighs between 1.35 and 1.4 kilograms (kg) (around 3 pounds) and has a volume of about 1200 cubic centimeters (cc). • Brain size is not directly correlated with intelligence • It is not the physical size of the brain that determines intelligence—it is the number of active synapses. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  23. 23. Support and Protection of the Brain • The brain is protected and isolated by multiple structures: 1. Bony cranium 2. Meninges: • Protective connective tissue membranes • Surround and partition portions of the brain. 1. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) • acts as a cushioning fluid. 1. Blood-brain barrier: • prevents entry of harmful materials from the bloodstream. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  24. 24. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  25. 25. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  26. 26. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  27. 27. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  28. 28. Organization of Brain Tissue • Gray matter: – Motor neuron and interneuron cell bodies, dendrites, axon terminals – Unmyelinated axons. • White matter: – composed primarily of Myelinated axons. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  29. 29. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  30. 30. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  31. 31. A COMMON BRAIN DIVISION Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  32. 32. FOREBRAIN • Telencephalon: Cerebral Cortex, Basal Ganglia. • Diencephalon: Thalamus, Hypothalamus. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  33. 33. Cerebral Cortex • The word "cortex" comes from the Latin word for "bark" (of a tree). • The thickness of the cerebral cortex varies from 2 to 6 mm. • The right and left sides of the cerebral cortex are connected by a thick band of nerve fibers called the "corpus callosum.“  • bulge on the cortex is called gyrus  and a groove is called a sulcus. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  34. 34. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  35. 35. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  36. 36. Basal Ganglia (Part Of Telencaphalon Of Forebrain) Functions: • Movement • The basal ganglia are a group of structures, including the Globus Pallidus, Caudate Nucleus, Subthalamic Nucleus, Putamen And Substantia Nigra, that are important in coordinating movement. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  37. 37. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  38. 38. Thalamus (Part Of Diencephalon Of Forebrain) Functions: • Sensory processing • The thalamus receives sensory information and relays this information to the cerebral cortex. • The cerebral cortex also sends information to the thalamus which then transmits this information to other areas of the brain and spinal cord. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  39. 39. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  40. 40. Hypothalamus (Part Of Diencephalon Of Forebrain) Functions: • Body Temperature (acts as a "thermostat") • Emotions • Hunger • Thirst • Circadian Rhythms Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  41. 41. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  42. 42. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  43. 43. MIDBRAIN Mesencephalon: tectum (inferior and superior colliculi) and tegmentum BASIC FUNCTIONS: • Vision • Hearing • Eye movement • Motor control Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  44. 44. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  45. 45. HINDBRAIN 1. Metencephalon: Pons and Cerebellum 2. Metencephalon: Medulla BASIC FUNCTIONS: • Monitoring And Controlling Body Movements • Homeostasis Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  46. 46. The Pons The pons are situated on the anterior surface of the cerebellum, inferior to the mid brain and superior to the medulla oblongata. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  47. 47. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  48. 48. The Medulla Oblongata • The medulla is the most inferior part of the brain stem. The cell bodies of several cranial nerves are found there. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  49. 49. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  50. 50. Cerebellum • The word "cerebellum" comes from the Latin word for "little brain." The cerebellum is located behind the brain stem. In some ways, the cerebellum is similar to the cerebral cortex: the cerebellum is divided into hemispheres and has a cortex that surrounds these hemispheres. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  51. 51. Cerebellum Functions: • Movement • Balance • Posture Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  52. 52. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  53. 53. Brain stem • The brain stem is a general term for the area of the brain between the thalamus and spinal cord. Structures within the brain stem include the Medulla, Pons, Tectum, Reticular Formation And Tegmentum. Some of these areas are responsible for the most basic functions of life such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  54. 54. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  55. 55. CLINICAL NOTES • Head injuries – Fracture of skull • Pond Fracture – Brain Injuries • Contrecoup injuries • TBI (Explosion or Blast) Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  56. 56. CLINICAL NOTES – Intracranial Hemorrhage 1. Epidural (anterior division of middle meningeal artery) 2. Subdural ( superior cerebral veins) 3. Subarachnoid ( non traumatic leakage or rupture of congenital aneurysm on circle of willis) 4. Cerebral {most common in HTN pt. due to rupture of lenticulostraite artery ( branch of Middle Cerebral Artery), involve descending nerve fiber in the internal capsule, produce hemiplegia of opposite side of the body} Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  57. 57. CLINICAL NOTES • Shaken baby syndrome • Space occupying lesions{ SOL (tumor, hematoma, and abscess)} • Diagnosis – CT – MRI – PET Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  58. 58. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences
  59. 59. Abdul Ghafoor Sajjad Assistant Professor Riphah Collage of Rehabilitation Sciences

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