Moroccan music variety content *Introduction1 - Berber music2 - Gharnati music3 - Gnawa, mystical4 -Jajouka music * Conclusion
IntroductionThanks to its strategic position in Africa (North-West), and Being close to Europe, Morocco has benefited a lot from culture variety throughout its history. This culture variety has deeply stressed its character on the Moroccan identity, if we look into music character in Morocco; we notice that amalgam depicts culture variety in Morocco. In this humble presentation, we are going to talk about four music varieties that are widely known in Morocco namely: Berber music, Gharnati music, Gnawa Mystical, and Jajouka music. i want before dealing with this , to shed light on the specificity of each variety of music in Morocco. Berber music in Atlas mountains, Gharnati in the East of Morocco, Gnawa in the south, and Jajouka in the North of Morocco.
Berber musicThere are three varieties of Berber music: village and ritual music, and the music performed byprofessional musicians.Village music is performed collectively for dancing, including ahidus and ahouach dances. Instrumentsinclude flutes and drums. These dances begin with a chanted prayer. Ritual music is performed atregular ceremonies to celebrate marriages and other important life events. Ritual music is also usedas protection against evil spirits. Professional musicians (imdyazn) travel in groups of four, led by apoet (amydaz). The amydaz performs improvised poems, often accompanied by drums and rabab (aone-stringed fiddle ), along with a bou oughanim who plays a double clarinetand acts as a clown for the group.The Chleuh Berbers have professional musicians called rwais who play in groups consisting of flutes,rababs and cymbals, with any number of vocalists. The leader, or rayes, leads the choreography andmusic of the group. These performances begin with an instrumental astara on rabab, which also givesthe notes of the melody which follows. The next phase is the amarg, or sung poetry, and thenammussu, a danced overture, tammust, an energetic song, aberdag, a dance, and finally therhythmically swift tabbayt. There is some variation in the presentation of the order, but the astaraalways begins, and the tabbayt always ends.
Gharnati musicGharnati refers to a variety of Moroccan and Algerian music originating in Al-Andalus. Its nameis related, being derived from the Arabic name of the Spanish city of Granada.Gharnati was preserved at Oujda and Tlemcen the latter of which was considered as the Africantwin of Granada much like Fes was a twin city of Córdoba.This variety of Andalusian classical music has been established in others towns like Oran andSidi-Bel-Abbès in Algeria, Rabat and Oujda in MoroccoIf the term Gharnati refers in current Algeria, especially in the region of Tlemcen, the entiredirectory Andalusian scholar, in Morocco it designates a distinct musical style of the Andalusianin addition to the much larger directory of "Tab Al Ala" style as confirmed by the authors RachidAous, Mohammed Habib Samrakandi in their book " Music of Algeria "The North African cities have inherited particularly Andalusian musical style of Grenada are alsomentioned in the book "The Literature of Al-Andalus" (freely available on the net)The Nuba of Morocco have been identified in the eighteenth century by the musician Al Haïkfrom TetuanBy way of hint, we consider clear difference between Gharnati, Melhoun, and Andalusi music.
Gnawa mysticalGnawa music is considered a Mystical (spiritual) music. It was gradually brought to Morocco bySub-Saharan Africans and later became part of the Moroccan-musical-perfomance customs. Theritual of the gnawa (or gnaoua) follow rules, that are part from the muslim sufi tradition andpartly of African animistic ( inter-relation between mental, physical, and spiritual worlds) originsimilar to the traditions that are found in the african diaspora, Brazil, Cuba, Haiti and so forth.The centre of the ritual is the so-called "leelah" (the night), also called "derdeba", the night oftrance. Here the seven spirits are evoked through around 100 chants. Especially in the Muslimmonth of Shaaban, which is just before Ramadan, there are "leelahs" held in the gnawacommunity.Here are some of the most famous music rock bands, who visited Morocco to acknowledge theGnawa music: Jimi hendrix the best guitar Player, visited Essaouira in the summer of 1969 and recorded asong with Maalem ,Mohammed Gania.Brahim belkan He played with the famous english rock band , Led Zeppelin in 1973 ,RobertPlant, Adam Rudolph, Randy Weston, and Jimmy Page. He says that "there are many colours onearth: red, green, blue, yellow. You have to find these when you play, to be bright like the sun.“
Jajouka music Jajouka, Joujouka or Zahjoukah is a village in the Ahl-Shrif mountains in the northern Rif, Morocco. The mountains are named after the Ahl-Shrif tribe who populate the region.Jajouka or Zahjouka is well known as home to two Sufi (Boutchichi & Darkawi ).Trancemusicians groups, The Master Musicians of Jajouka led by Bachir Attar and the MasterMusicians of Joujouka managed by Frank Rynne. The music from Jajouka attracted theattention of writers Paul Bowles, and William S. Burroughs in the 1950s because the Sufitrance musicians there appeared to still celebrate the rites of the God Pan. Brion Gysin,who had been introduced to the master musicians by Mohamed Hamri, propagated thisidea. Gysin linked the villages Boujloud festival, where a boy sew in goat skins dancedwith sticks while the musicians play to keep him at bay, to the ancient "Rites of Pan“. In1967 and 1968 Brian Jones, lead guitarist with The Rolling Stones, visited the village; atthe end of his stay, he recorded the musicians for the LP Brian Jones Presents the Pipes ofPan at Joujouka. The LP was released on Rolling Stones Records in 1971, some two yearsafter Jones death. The record was reissued in 1995 by Point Music. The music from thisvillage attracted an influx of westerners, including some who later recorded there, such asOrnette Coleman and Bill Laswell.
ConclusionIn sum, i would like to stress one important idea. Moroccan music varieties tend to shape a unique identity to Moroccan culture. Those different tends of music, as we have dealt with above, stress cultural understanding in Morocco. In this age, hand in hand with what the global standards opt for, Morocco is knowingly taken as an example of a land of tolerance and culture permissiveness. Above all, music throughout the world has become a key facet to solve many ethnic problems, and to spread some moral, social, and ethic values in a world seeking unique and universal standards.
Webliographyhttp://www.britannica.com/http://www.wikipedia.org/http://www.copernica.co.uk/Book: The Literature of Al-Andalus