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Network Fundamentals: Ch8 - Physical Layer
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Network Fundamentals: Ch8 - Physical Layer

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The physical layer provides the means to transport the bits that make up a Data Link layer frame across the network media through creating signal that represents each frame. …

The physical layer provides the means to transport the bits that make up a Data Link layer frame across the network media through creating signal that represents each frame.
The three fundamental functions of the physical layer are data encoding, signaling, and the physical components.
Signaling bits on the media using NRZ Signaling, and Manchester Encoding.
Data Transfer can be measured in 3 ways Bandwidth, Throughput and Goodput.
The Physical Connectors: Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable, Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable, Coaxial, Single-mode Fiber Cable, Multi-mode Fiber Cable and different types of wireless media and wireless network devices

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  • 1. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Network Fundamentals Abdelkhalik Elsaid Mosa abdu.elsaid@yahoo.com http://abdelkhalik.staff.scuegypt.edu.eg/ Last Update: 20-07-2011
  • 2. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Physical layer - Purpose • Provides the means to transport the bits that make up a Data Link layer frame across the network media through creating signal that represents each frame. • The delivery of frames across the local media requires the following: 1. The physical media and associated connectors. 2. Encoding of data and control information. 3. A representation of bits “type of signal” on the media. 4. Transmitter and receiver circuitry on the network devices.
  • 3. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Physical Layer - Standards • The technologies defined by Standards organizations include four areas of the Physical layer standards: 1. Physical and electrical properties of the media . 2. Mechanical properties (materials, pinouts) of the connectors . 3. Bit representation by the signals. 4. Definition of control information signals.
  • 4. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Physical Layer – Fundamental Principles • The three fundamental functions of the Physical layer are: 1.Data encoding  is a method of converting a stream of data bits into a predefined code.  Codes are groupings of bits used to provide a predictable pattern that can be recognized by both the sender and the receiver. 2.Signaling  Is the method of representing the bits, what type of signal represents a "1" and a "0".  The Physical layer must generate the electrical, optical, or wireless signals that represent the "1" and "0" on the media. 3.The physical components  are the electronic hardware devices, media and connectors that transmit and carry the signals to represent the bits.
  • 5. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Encoding – Grouping Bits • Symbolic grouping of bits prior to being presented to the media. • Encoding improves efficiency at higher speed data transmission.
  • 6. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Encoding – Grouping Bits • A code group: is a consecutive sequence of code bits that are interpreted and mapped as data bit patterns. Ex: code bits 10101 could represent the data bits 0011. • Advantages of using code groups:  Reducing bit level error “By using symbols to ensure that not too many 1s or 0s are used in a row”.  Limiting the effective energy transmitted into the media.  Helping to distinguish data bits from control bits, “Data, Control & Invalid”.  Better media error detection, “Using Invalid symbols”.
  • 7. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy 4B/5B code symbols • 4 bits of data are turned into 5-bit code symbols for transmission over the media system.
  • 8. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Signaling bits on the media: NRZ Signaling • In NRZ, the bit stream is transmitted as a series of voltage values. • A low voltage value represents a logical 0 and a high voltage value represents a logical 1.
  • 9. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Signaling bits on the media: Manchester Encoding • Bit values are represented as voltage transitions. • Low to High voltage represents 1 and High to Low represents 0.
  • 10. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Data Carrying Capacity • Data Transfer can be measured in 3 ways: 1. Bandwidth (Theoretical): The capacity of a medium to carry data in a given amount of time. Usually measured in kbps or Mbps. 2. Throughput (Practical): is the measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time. Throughput <= Bandwidth.  Number of devices affect the throughput. 3. Goodput (Qualitative): is the measure of usable data transferred over a given period of time. Application level throughput. Goodput = Throughput - traffic overhead for establishing sessions, acknowledgements, and encapsulation.
  • 11. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Data Carrying Capacity
  • 12. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Copper media
  • 13. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Copper media - External Signal Interference • Radio waves and electromagnetic devices such as fluorescent lights, electric motors, and other devices are potential sources of noise. • Cable types with shielding or twisting of the pairs of wires are designed to minimize signal degradation due to electronic noise.
  • 14. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable • Consists of four pairs of color-coded wires that have been twisted together and then encased in a flexible plastic sheath. • The twisting cancels unwanted external signals and also helps avoid interference from crosstalk. • Crosstalk is the interference caused by the magnetic field around the adjacent pairs of wires in the cable.
  • 15. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy UTP Cable Types
  • 16. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Coaxial Cable • Coaxial cable consists of a copper conductor surrounded by a layer of flexible insulation. • Coax is used in wireless, used to attach antennas to wireless devices, and cable access technologies.
  • 17. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable • STP uses two pairs of wires that are wrapped in an overall metallic braid or foil. • STP provides better noise protection than UTP cabling, however at a significantly higher price. • STP was the cabling structure specified for use in Token Ring network installations.
  • 18. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Fiber Media • Fiber-optic cabling uses either glass or plastic fibers to guide light impulses from source to destination. • The bits are encoded as light impulses. • Is immune to electromagnetic interference. • Can be operated at much greater lengths than copper media. • Primarily used as backbone cabling for high-traffic point-to-point connections.
  • 19. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Fiber Media - Cable Construction • Because light can only travel in one direction over optical fiber, two fibers are required to support full duplex operation. • Fiber-optic patch cables bundle together two optical fiber cables and terminate them with a pair of standard fiber connectors. • Optical fiber media implementation issues include: 1.More expensive than copper but with higher capacity. 2.Different skills and equipment required to terminate and splice the cable infrastructure. 3.More careful handling than copper media.
  • 20. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Generating and Detecting the Optical Signal • Either lasers or LEDs generate the light pulses that are used to represent the transmitted data as bits on the media. • Photodiodes detect the light pulses and convert them to voltages that can then be reconstructed into data frames. • OTDR used to test each fiber-optic cable segment.
  • 21. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Single-mode Fiber Cable • Single-mode optical fiber carries a single ray of light, usually emitted from a laser. • As the laser light is uni-directional and travels down the center of the fiber, it can transmit optical pulses for very long distances.
  • 22. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Multi-mode Fiber Cable • Multimode fiber typically uses LED emitters that do not create a single coherent light wave. • Modal dispersion, limits the length of multimode fiber segments.
  • 23. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Wireless media • Carry electromagnetic signals at radio and microwave frequencies • Is not restricted to pathways, as are copper and fiber. • Susceptible to interference and can be disrupted by some types of fluorescent lights, microwave ovens, and other wireless communications. • Security is a major component of wireless network admin.
  • 24. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Types of Wireless Networks • IEEE 802.11 “Wi-Fi”: is a WLAN technology that uses CSMA/CA media access process. • IEEE 802.15 "Bluetooth": WPAN standard, uses a device pairing process to communicate over distances from 1 to 100 m. • IEEE 802.16 “WiMAX” Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access: provides wireless broadband access. • GSM: Includes Physical layer specifications that enable the implementation of the Layer 2 GPRS.
  • 25. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy The Wireless LAN • WLAN requires the following network devices: 1. Wireless Access Point (AP): Concentrates the wireless signals from users and connects to the existing copper-based network infrastructure. 2. Wireless NIC: Provides wireless communication capability to each network host.
  • 26. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy WLAN Standards include 1.IEEE 802.11a: Operates in the 5 GHz frequency. • Speed up to 54 Mbps. • Smaller coverage area and less effective at penetrating buildings. • Not interoperable with the 802.11b and 802.11g. 2. IEEE 802.11b: Operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency. • Speed up to 11 Mbps. • Have a longer range and are better able to penetrate building structures than devices based on 802.11a. 3. IEEE 802.11g: Operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency. • Speed up to 54 Mbps. 4. IEEE 802.11n: The newest, defines frequency of 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz. • The typical expected data rates are 100 Mbps to 210 Mbps with a distance range of up to 70 meters.
  • 27. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Media Connectors - Common Copper Media Connectors • Standards specify the mechanical dimensions of the connectors and the acceptable electrical properties of each type. • The ISO 8877 specified RJ-45 being used for Ethernet. • EIA-TIA 568, describes the wire color codes to pin assignments (pinouts) for Ethernet straight-through and crossover cables.
  • 28. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Correct Connector Termination • It is essential that all copper media terminations be of high quality to ensure optimum performance with current and future network technologies.
  • 29. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Common Optical Fiber Connectors
  • 30. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
  • 31. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Appendix: Hubs • L1, Network access device. • A hub accepts electronic signals from one port and regenerates (or repeats) the same message out all of the other ports. • A shared-bandwidth device.
  • 32. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Appendix: Hubs • Half duplex device
  • 33. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Appendix: Switch • L2, Network access device. • Full duplex

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