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The physical layer provides the means to transport the bits that make up a Data Link layer frame across the network media through creating signal that represents each frame.
The three fundamental functions of the physical layer are data encoding, signaling, and the physical components.
Signaling bits on the media using NRZ Signaling, and Manchester Encoding.
Data Transfer can be measured in 3 ways Bandwidth, Throughput and Goodput.
The Physical Connectors: Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable, Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable, Coaxial, Single-mode Fiber Cable, Multi-mode Fiber Cable and different types of wireless media and wireless network devices