Network Fundamentals: Ch6 - Addressing the Network IP v4
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Different types of addresses in IP v4 networks: ...

Different types of addresses in IP v4 networks:
1. Network Address
2. Broadcast Address
3. Network Address
Unicat, Multicast, and Broadcast (directed and limited) addresses.
Multicast Addresses:
1. Reserved link local addresses.
2. Globally scoped addresses.
3. Administratively scoped addresses.
Public addresses: designated for use in networks that are accessible on the Internet.
Private addresses: used for internal networks and not routable on the Internet.
Classful and classless addressing, VLSM (subnetting a subnet)
Overview of IP v6

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Network Fundamentals: Ch6 - Addressing the Network IP v4 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Network Fundamentals Abdelkhalik Elsaid Mosa abdu.elsaid@yahoo.com http://abdelkhalik.staff.scuegypt.edu.eg/
  • 2. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy IP v4
  • 3. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy IP v4 32 Bits 255 255 255 255 Dotted Decimal Network Host 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111 192 168 171 221 11000000 10101000 10101011 11011101 Maximum Binary Ex. Decimal Ex. Binary
  • 4. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Types of addresses in IP v4 network
  • 5. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Types of addresses in IP v4 network • Network address: The address by which we refer to the network, all host bits are “0”. • Broadcast address: A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network, all host bits are “1”. • Host addresses: The addresses assigned to the end devices in the network “values between network and broadcast”. 192 168 171 0 11000000 10101000 10101011 00000000 192 168 171 255 11000000 10101000 10101011 11111111 192 168 171 From 1 to 254 11000000 10101000 10101011 00000001 to11111110
  • 6. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Types of addresses in IP v4 network • Prefix Length: the number of bits in the address that gives us the network portion. Ex: 192.168.171.221/24 • Subnet Mask: consists of 32 bits and uses 1s to represent network portion and 0s to represent host portion. Ex: 255.255.255.0
  • 7. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast – Types of Communication • Unicast: the process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host “One-to-One”. • Multicast: the process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts “One-to-Many”. Multicast clients: Hosts that wish to receive multicast data, and must subscribe to a Multicast Group. • Broadcast: the process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network “One-to-All”. 1.Directed Broadcast: is sent to all hosts on a specific network. Ex: 192.168.171.255/24 2.Limited Broadcast: is used for communication that is limited to the hosts on the local network. Ex: 255.255.255.255
  • 8. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Reserved IP v4 address range •Host Addresses: 0.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.255 Within this range there are many addresses that are already reserved for special purposes. •Multicast Addresses (224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255): 1.Reserved link local addresses: 224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255. Used for multicast groups on a local network. 2.Globally scoped addresses: 224.0.1.0 to 238.255.255.255. Used to multicast data across the Internet. 3.Administratively scoped addresses: 239.0.0.0/8 (limited scope). Used by ISPs to send multicast data to their subscribers. •Experimental Addresses: 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.254 (RFC 3330).
  • 9. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Public and Private addresses • Public addresses: designated for use in networks that are accessible on the Internet. • Private addresses: used for internal networks and not routable on the Internet. The private address blocks are: 1. 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 (10.0.0.0 /8) 2. 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 (172.16.0.0 /12) 3. 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 (192.168.0.0 /16) NAT allows the hosts in the network to "borrow" a public address for communicating to outside networks. http://whatismyipaddress.com/ http://show-ip.net/ http://www.whatismyip.com/
  • 10. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Public and Private addresses
  • 11. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Special IP v4 Addresses • Network and Broadcast Addresses: Within each network the first and last addresses cannot be assigned to hosts. • Default Route: 0.0.0.0, all (0.0.0.0 /8) address block is reserved. The default route is used as a "catch all" route when a more specific route is not available. • Loopback: 127.0.0.0 - to - 127.255.255.255. Hosts use loopback to direct traffic to themselves. • Link-Local Addresses: 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255 Automatically assigned by OS where no IP config. is available. • TEST-NET Addresses: 192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255 (192.0.2.0 /24). is set aside for teaching and learning purposes.
  • 12. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Special IP v4 Addresses
  • 13. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Classful Addressing Classful allocation of address space often wasted many addresses, which exhausted the availability of IPv4 addresses. Classless Addressing solves this problem
  • 14. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Fill in the information… 1. 192.168.1.3 Class ------- Default Mask: --------------- Network: ------------------- Broadcast: ------------------- Hosts: ----------------------through----------------------- 2. 1.12.100.31 Class ------- Default Mask: --------------- Network: ------------------- Broadcast: -------------------- Hosts: ----------------------through----------------------- 3. 172.30.77.5 Class ------- Default Mask: --------------- Network: ------------------- Broadcast: ------------------- Hosts: ----------------------through-----------------------
  • 15. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Who assigns the different addresses? • Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), www.iana.net. • IANA is the master holder of the IP addresses • Registration companies, called Regional Internet Registries (RIRs), manage the IP address space.
  • 16. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy ISPs • Tier 1 ISPs provides reliability and speed. • Tier 2 ISPs generally focus on business customers. • Tier 3 ISPs is the retail and home markets in a specific locale.
  • 17. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Overview of IP v6 • IPv6 is not merely a new Layer 3 protocol - it is a new protocol suite, ICMPv6, and new routing protocols.  Large address space  No need for NAT/PAT  Improved Packet Handling through header simplification.  QoS Mechanisms.  Security
  • 18. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Overview of IP v6
  • 19. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy ANDing- What is our network? • The IPv4 host address is logically ANDed with its subnet mask to determine the network address to which the host is associated.
  • 20. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Basic Subnetting • Subnetting: Creating multiple logical networks from a single address block. • No. of subnets: 2n where n = the number of bits borrowed. Dividing networks based on: 1. geographic location 2. Purposes 3. ownership
  • 21. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Basic Subnetting – Borrowing 2 bits (4-Subnets)
  • 22. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Basic Subnetting – Borrowing 3 bits (8-Subnets)
  • 23. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy VLSM – Subnetting a subnet • was designed to maximize addressing efficiency.
  • 24. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Testing the local stack • Ping: is a utility for testing IP connectivity between hosts. Uses ICMP. If the host Echo request, The destination responds with an ICMP Echo Reply datagram.
  • 25. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Traceroute (tracert) – Testing the path • tracert: utility that allows us to observe the path between source and destination. generates a list of hops that were successfully reached along the path. • RTT (Round Trip Time): is the time a packet takes to reach the remote host and for the response from the host to return. An asterisk (*) is used to indicate a lost packet. • If TTL=0 then The router drops the packet and sends an ICMP Time Exceeded message addressed to the originating host.
  • 26. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy ICMP v4 • ICMP is the messaging protocol for the TCP/IP suite. • ICMP provides control and error messages and is used by the ping and traceroute utilities. • ICMP messages that may be sent include: Host confirmation Unreachable Destination or Service 0 = net unreachable, 1 = host unreachable, 2 = protocol unreachable, 3 = port unreachable Time exceeded Route redirection Source quench
  • 27. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy