Network Fundamentals: Ch2 - Communicating Over the Network

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Cisco Certificates and CCNA Course and Exams. …

Cisco Certificates and CCNA Course and Exams.
Elements of Communication: Source, Encoder, Transmitter, Transmission Medium and Destination.
Benefits and downsides of segmentation and multiplexing.
Computer network definition, end devices «hosts», intermediary «network » devices and Peripherals.
General categories of network media, wired, wireless, fiber, coaxial, STP and UTP.
Network Types according to size: LAN, MAN, and WAN.
Network Interface Card (NIC)
Protocol, Protocol Suites and Industry Standards.
The benefits of using a layered model.
Difference between Protocol (TCP/IP) and Reference Models (OSI).
OSI Layers and Corresponding Functions.
Difference between L2, L3, nad L4 addresses

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  • 1. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Network Fundamentals Abdelkhalik Elsaid Mosa Last Update: 20/9/2010 abdu.elsaid@yahoo.com http://abdelkhalik.staff.scuegypt.edu.eg/
  • 2. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy General Certifications
  • 3. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy General Certifications Certification Path Entry Associate Professional Expert Design CCENT CCNA & CCDA CCDP CCDE Routing & Switching CCENT CCNA CCNP CCIE R&S Security CCENT CCNA Security CCSP – CCNP Security CCIE Security Storage Networking CCENT CCNA CCNP CCIE SAN Service Provider CCENT CCNA CCIP CCIE SP SP Operations CCENT CCNA SP Ops CCNA SP Ops CCIE SP Ops Voice CCENT CCNA Voice CCVP - CCNP Voice CCIE Voice Wireless CCENT CCNA Wireless CCNP Wireless CCIE Wireless In addition to Specialist Certifications in: Advanced Routing and Switching , Collaborations, Data Center , Security, Wireless LAN, Video, and Foundation for Channel Partners
  • 4. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy CCNA Course and Exams • The CCNA certification validates the ability to install, configure, operate, and troubleshoot medium-size routed and switched networks. • Required Exam(s) 640-802 (CCNA). 640-822 (ICND1)+ 640-816 (ICND2). • CCNA Academy 1.Network Fundamentals. 2.Routing Protocols and Concepts. 3.Switching and wireless LAN. 4.WAN.
  • 5. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Elements of Communication 1.Message source: is the sender. 2. Encoder: transforms data from one form to another. 3. Transmitter: transmits signals across the transmission medium. 4.Transmission Medium: is the communication channel. 5.Destination: is the receiver.
  • 6. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Communicating the Messages • In theory, data could be sent as one massive continuous stream of bits.  Problems: 1. No other device on the same network can send while there is one sending. 2. If a link failed, the complete message must be retransmitted. • Actually, data is divided into smaller pieces “Segmentation”  Benefits of segmentation: 1. Multiplexing: Multiple digital data streams are combined into one signal. 2. Reliability: only the missing parts need to be retransmitted.
  • 7. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Communicating the Messages Downsides of Segmentation and Multiplexing: 1. Complexity. 2. Time-consumption.
  • 8. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Computer network • Group of devices which are connected together to give the user a certain service.  These devices can be either End devices “Hosts", Intermediary “Network devices”, or Peripherals.
  • 9. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy End Devices «Hosts» • are also called Hosts. • can act as client or server or both. • are either the source or destination of a message. • must have logical address (Ex: IP address) • Ex: computers, network printers, VOIP phones, mobile devices.
  • 10. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Intermediary «Network » Devices • Connect computers and networks together. • Manages data flow through the network. • Classify and direct messages according to QoS priorities. • Regenerate and retransmit data signals. • Permit or deny the flow of data, based on security settings. • Notify other devices of errors and communication failures Network Access Devices Internetworking Devices Security Devices Modems
  • 11. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Peripherals • Don’t have logical address. • Don’t communicate directly in the network. • Rely on their connected host to perform all network operations. • Ex: Attached webcam, local printer, scanner
  • 12. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Network Media • Provides the channel for message transmission. • Types of network media Metallic wires “Copper”: data is encoded into electrical impulses. Fiber optics: data is encoded into pulses of light. Wireless: data is encoded into electromagnetic waves. • Criteria for choosing media Distance, environment, bandwidth, cost of medium and installation, and cost of connectors and equipment
  • 13. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Importance of Networks • Software and file sharing • Hardware sharing • Modern Technologies (IP Telephony, Video Conferencing)
  • 14. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Network Types 1. According to Size • LAN “Local Area Network” • MAN “Metropolitan Area Network” • WAN “Wide Area Network” 2. According to Media • Wired • Wireless
  • 15. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy LAN • Usually spans a single geographical area. • Provides services to people within a common organization. • Characterized by high data speeds. • Administered by a single organization • May be a single local network or interconnected local networks.
  • 16. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy WAN • Groups of LANs interconnected within large area. • TSP interconnects theses geographical spanned networks. • Characterized by slow data speeds Ismailia Cairo
  • 17. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy The Internet • Is a global mesh of interconnected networks • The most well known publicly accessible internetwork. • Is created by the interconnection of networks belonging to ISPs.
  • 18. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Intranet and Extranet • Intranet  Private connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an organization.  Accessible only by organization’s members, or others with authorization. • Extranet  Internal network in an organization that also connects to agents outside of the organization (suppliers, and clients).  Accessible to authorized outsiders.  A way for business partners to share information.
  • 19. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Network Representations • Common data network symbols. Activity
  • 20. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy NIC • NIC “Network Interface Card”, LAN adapter  is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer or other host device.  The media plugs directly into the NIC.
  • 21. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Protocol, Protocol Suites and Industry Standards • Protocol: set of rules that govern communication between devices. • Protocol Suite: a group of interrelated protocols that are necessary to perform a communication function. • A Standard: is a process that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified by a standards organization, such as IEEE, and IETF. • Protocols describe only what functions are required of a particular communication rule but not how they are to be carried out
  • 22. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy The benefits of using a layered model 1. Assist in protocol design. 2. Fosters competition. 3. Prevents technology changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below. 4. Provides a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities.
  • 23. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Protocol and Reference Models • Protocol Model: provides a model that closely matches the structure of a particular protocol suite. Ex. TCP/IP model. • Reference Model: a common reference for maintaining consistency with all types of network protocols and services.  Aid in clearer understanding of the functions involved.  Used for network design, and troubleshooting.  Ex. OSI model. All People Seem To Need Data Processing
  • 24. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy OSI Layers and Corresponding Functions S/W represents an interface to the network. Everything at this layer is application-specific. Ex: E-mail(SMTP, POP), Web Browser(HTTP), FTP, Telnet Application Presents the data in the proper format . Encoding, decoding, compression, decompression, encryption and decryption. Ex: ASCII, AVI, JPG Presentation Syntax Establishes, manages and terminates sessions “connections” between applications. Controls dialogs between computers. Session Provides reliable/ unreliable transfer of data between end users. Segmentation, sequencing, flow control and error detection. Ex: TCP & UDP Transport End-to-end delivery, Logical addressing EX: IPNetwork Hop-to hop data delivery, Hop-to-hop addressing, Hop-to-hop error detection, and Hop-to-hop flow control. Ex: Ethernet, FR, DSL, ATM Data Link Signaling and Encoding, Physical properties of the network such as Cable length, Cable type, Bit rate, H/W interface types. Physical
  • 25. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Protocol Data Units and Encapsulation • Encapsulation: is the process of adding information to the application data at each layer. • PDU: is the form that a piece of data takes at any layer • A PDU has different names to reflect its new appearance. Data: Application layer PDU. Segment/ Datagram: Transport Layer PDU Packet: Internet layer PDU. Frame: Network Access layer PDU. Bits: Data actually transmitted over the medium.
  • 26. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Encapsulation
  • 27. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy The sending and receiving process
  • 28. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Addressing in the network • L2 Address “MAC”: Communicate between devices on a single network • L3 Add. “IP” “Logical Address”: move data from network to another. • L4 Add. “Port No.: Identify the applications or services running on hosts. • Ipconfig, Ipconfig /all
  • 29. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy Network Devices
  • 30. Suez Canal University – Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy