The Egyptian And Turkish Foreign Policies (1)


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The Egyptian And Turkish Foreign Policies (1)

  1. 1. The Egyptian and Turkish Foreign Policies A Comparative study Presented by Abdelhamied Hany El-Rafie To Professor Dr. Ana Cristina Peterson For the course of Comparative Foreign Relations At the Master Program of International Relations At Alliant International University Mexico city CampusAbdelhamied El-Rafie 1
  2. 2. Introduction:The foreign policy of any country is a reflection to its internal policy and from myunderstanding of the course I found out that the Foreign policy of every country is builton the country‟s National interest and this element shows the goals of each country andhow every country perceives the outer framework of its network of relations due to itsInternal factors so we can not imagine a country which has a weak economic status toplay a leading role on the International forum or we cant imagine a country which have aweak army would expand its territory on a militant basis .Due to what mentioned above I will divide my Paper into the following elements: 1. The Egyptian Foreign Policy : a. The Internal and Historical background that shaped the Egyptian Foreign policy . b. The Circles of Current Egyptian foreign policy. 2. The Turkish Foreign policy: a. Internal and Historical background. b. Current issues of the Turkish foreign policy. 3. A comparison between both Foreign policies towards the Middle East. 4. Conclusions.The Egyptian Foreign policy: The Internal and historical background: Egypt geographically has what Gamal Hemdan (1) calls the brilliance of place and time, it lies in the center of the old World:Africa-Asia- Europe. This led to either the strength of the country or that the country becomes a target ,and that all the time depended on the existence of a centralized strong government along the valley of the Nile. 1. The Mohamed Aly dynasty:Muhammad Ali is truly considered the founder of Modern Egypt. He encouraged andAbdelhamied El-Rafie 2
  3. 3. sponsored men of learning, scientists and artists. He built a powerful army as well as amilitary academy. He specially attended to the administration of government affairs.During the first half of the 19th Century, a full-scale economic revival was in full swing.Special attention was given to agriculture and irrigation, where barrages, dams and canalswere built. In industry, Muhammad Ali adopted a policy of dispensing with foreign-madeproducts, and creating national factories and plants to meet the needs of the army and thepublic. In trade, he sought to provide security for internal trade routes and create aforeign trade fleet. During his reign, trade flourished.At the same time, Muhammad Ali was enthusiastically interested in spreading educationto cater government manpower needs. Schools of various levels and specialties were builtand educational missions were sent to Europe to transfer modern sciences to Egypt.After his death, Muhammad Alis successors tried their best to follow his suit byattempting to catch up with European civilization. During the reign of Khedive Ismail,Egypt witnessed an awakening administrative reform, while agriculture, industry,construction and architecture prospered. Most notable of his achievements was theestablishment of the Opera House, railroads and the Suez Canal which was opened tointernational navigation in 1869.Thus, the 19th Century was one of enlightenment, rediscovery of the Egyptian powersystem and development of human wealth. By the end of the century, Egypt witnessedmany revolts against the foreign intervention.The nationalist movement grew stronger and several popular revolts took place. However,the Orabi Revolution (1882 AD) ended up with Egypt being occupied and declared aAbdelhamied El-Rafie 3
  4. 4. protectorate by Britain in 1914. Accordingly, Egypt officially broke off from Ottomansuzerainty.Thus, Egypt entered the 20th Century, suffering under the yoke of British colonialist rulethat plundered its resources. Popular resistance and national movements soon escalatedunder the nationalist leaders: Mostafa Kamel, Muhammad Fareed and Saad Zaghloul,leading the 1919 Revolution calling for independence. The British occupation of Egyptcame to an end and the country was declared as an independent state in 1922. The firstEgyptian Constitution was issued in 1923.Later, there ensued a period of economic revival led by the great nationalist economistTalaat Harb, leading to the establishment of an industrial, productive and services base inall sectors of the economy. (2) 2. The Era of revolution : The national movement for independence was at a very high tone during the 30s 40 of the late century and it varied from working within the system or against the system to the extend of political assassinations and confronting the occupier all the indications specially by the end of Farouk‟s era (the last king of Egypt) the country was on the burning spot and more specially for the defeat of the army in Palestine in 1948 (Nakba) plus the high rate of corruption even by the king himself , Due to this a secret organization in the Army worked until it seized power in 23rd of July 1952 it was a coup at the beginning but it was so welcomed by the people and turned into a revolution in which had its real leader Gamal Abdelnasser who tried to build the country and in order to this he tried to find a source for electricity so he had the project of the High dam of Aswan ,at the beginning he had the support of the USAbdelhamied El-Rafie 4
  5. 5. in financing the project but due to his policies of non Alignment and due to a conract of Soviet weapons done with Czechoslovakia in 1955 the US understood that it‟s a move towards the USSR so it withdrew its proposal of finance so he decided to build the Dam from our own resources then He Nationalized the Suez canal . This lead to the Suez war which changed the map of middle east and made Nasser the leader not only of the Arab World but his power was international and he raised the concept of Arab nationalist then came the Unification with Syria in 1958 as an indication that Nasser has a regional project that extends its borders and leads to confrontation with the west and against Israel with a fact of having a closer tendency to have ties with the Eastern Bloc than the west . The Nationalist movement was very serious issue in the Arab countries and also in the Northern eastern borders with Egypt this lead to the losing Sinai in 1967 war (Naksa) this lead Nasser to resign but the people refused and he dedicated himself to the process of rebuilding the Army then he died in 1970. 3. Anwar ElSadat : Sadat was one of the officers who lead the revolution and he was a Vice President to Nasser he found himself facing the situation of an occupied land plus public anger of this plus the existence of political rivals that lead to what is called sawrat eltasheeh in which he put all his rivals in jail due to their high interference in his policies and to prevent them from their trials to overthrow him . He was a Strange figure for the Americans and he gave a signal to them by expelling the Russian military experts in 1972 Kissinger said that Sadat never asked the price of that decision and that they were willing to payAbdelhamied El-Rafie 5
  6. 6. He astonished the World which was not expecting the movement of the Egyptian Army across the Suez canal but he had a clear decision of moving the political situation by a military action not a very long one which was 1973 October war .As he astonished the World by war he did the same with his Peace initiative which lead to the Peace agreement with Israel in 1979. but this lead to the freezing of relations with the Arab World anger from some parties inside Egypt and another implications lead to his assassination in 1981. 4. The Mubarak Era: President Mubarak reached power after the assassination of President Sadat he faced a challenges of instability on the internal spectrum and the absence of the relations with the most important dimension which is the Arab dimension of the Egyptian foreign policy adding to all this a frustrating economic situation due to the fact that the country has been involved in 4 wars between the period 1948-1973. So He was eager on returning back to the Arab World and he convinced a large part of the Arab countries with the real need for moving through the Peace path in order to return back the Arab occupied lands He also started a long process of Economic reform that shifted the economy into better situation and he spent a lot of resources in rebuilding the infrastructure and due to these policies he started a new dimension of economic work which is the process of attracting investments in which Egyapt has become the first country which attracts investments in Africa and the Second in the Arab World.Abdelhamied El-Rafie 6
  7. 7. Circles of Egyptian Foreign Policy: 1. Arab circle. 2. African circle. 3. Islamic circle. 4. Mediterranean Circle. 5. Developing Nations circle. 6. Middle Eastern Circle. 7. The World.(3) Goals of the Egyptian Foreign policy :  Stability and peace in the Middle East.  Economic growth.  Searching for new markets .  Expanding the network of International relations.  Attracting Investment.  Enhancing trade . The basic sectors of movement of the Egyptian diplomacy bilaterally ,regionally and Internationally : 1-Strenghthning Arab solidarity and supporting the security and stability in the Middle east : a. Supporting the building of Palestinian state . b. Solidarity with Iraq and working on its stability and the unity of itslands. c. Support of the Lebanese case. d. Enhaning the Integration wit Sudan and working on its unity,security and stability . 2. Support of Egyptian African Relations: a. support of the Bilateral cooperation and relations and searching fornew areas of cooperation in the fields of agriculture, industry and trade. b. Working on enhancing the Multilateral cooperation through the framework of NEPAD ,COMESA and AU c. Presenting technical support to countries of nile valley. 3. . enhancing and improving the relations with the US. 4..Deepining the cooperation with the EUAbdelhamied El-Rafie 7
  8. 8. 5. Strenghthning the Egyptian Russian relations 6. Improving relations with China. 7. Improving Relations with Japan. 8. Support of cooperation relation with rising economic powers and developing countries in Asia and Latin America. 9. Enlarging the role of Egyptian diplomacy In International Political and Economic Organizations and forums.(4) The Turkish Foreign policy : The Internal and Historical Background:Mustafa Kemal,:a Turkish World War I hero later known as "Ataturk" or "father oftheTurks," founded the Republic of Turkey in 1923 after the collapse of the 600-year-oldOttoman Empire. The empire, which at its peak controlled vast stretches of northernAfrica, southeastern Europe, and western Asia, had failed to keep pace with Europeansocial and technological developments. The rise of nationalism impelled several ethnicgroups to seek independence, leading to the empires fragmentation. This processculminated in the disastrous Ottoman participation in World War I as a German ally.Defeated, shorn of much of its former territory, and partly occupied by forces of thevictorious European states, the Ottoman structure was repudiated by Turkish nationalistswho rallied under Ataturks leadership. The nationalists expelled invading Greek forcesfrom Anatolia after a bitter war. The temporal and religious ruling institutions of the oldempire (the sultanate and caliphate) were abolished. The new republic concentrated on"Westernizing" the empires Turkish core, Anatolia, and a small part of Thrace. Social,political, linguistic and economic reforms and attitudes introduced by Ataturk before hisdeath in 1938 continue to form the ideological base of modern Turkey.Abdelhamied El-Rafie 8
  9. 9. Turkey entered World War II on the Allied side shortly before the war ended and becamea charter member of the United Nations. Difficulties faced by Greece after World War IIin quelling a communist rebellion and demands by the Soviet Union for military bases inthe Turkish Straits caused the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. Thedoctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece,and resulted in large-scale U.S. military and economic aid. After participating withUnited Nations forces in the Korean conflict, Turkey joined the North Atlantic TreatyOrganization in 1952.The 1960s to 1980:Political agitation surfaced in 1968 and increased as left- and right-wing extremists tookto the streets. In March 1971, senior military leaders grew dissatisfied with the JusticePartys inability to cope with domestic violence. In a so-called "coup by memorandum,"they called for the JPs replacement by a more effective government. Demirelsgovernment resigned and was replaced by a succession of "above party" governments,which ruled until the October 1973 general elections. Those elections saw the CHP re-emerge as the largest party and its chairman, Bülent Ecevit, become prime minister of acoalition government composed of the CHP and the conservative, religiously oriented,National Salvat on Party. In 1974, the coalition faltered. Ecevit resigned, early electionswere called, and a prolonged government crisis ensued.From 1975 to 1980, unstable coalition governments ruled, led alternately by Demirel andEcevit. By the end of 1979, an accelerating decline in the economy, coupled withmounting violence from the extreme left and right, led to increasing instability. DemirelsAbdelhamied El-Rafie 9
  10. 10. government began an economic stabilization program in early 1980; however, by summer,political violence was claiming more than 20 victims daily. A severely divided GNA wasunable to elect a new president or to pass other legislation to cope with the crisis.The 1980s:On Sept. 12, 1980, the Council of National Security, or CNS, led by General KenanEvren, moved to restore public order. Thousands of terrorists were captured, along withlarge caches of weapons and ammunition. While political activity was banned and theformer political parties dissolved, the CNS initiated steps to restore democratic civilianrule by 1983. These measures included a national referendum on Nov. 7, 1982, whichresulted in overwhelming public approval (91 percent) of a new constitution drawn up bythe 160-member Consultative Assembly and modified by the CNS. The referendumsimultaneously approved General Evren as president for a seven-year term. A temporarylaw banning former political party leaders from politics for 10 years also went intoeffect..The Motherland Party, or ANAP, was founded by Turgut Ozal, Deputy Prime Ministerfrom 1980 until 1982 and architect of Turkeys successful economic austerity programunder the military government. In the 1983 elections, ANAP won an absolute majority inthe then 400-member Grand National Assembly. The Populist Party came in second; theNationalist Democracy Party third. The new government took office in December 1983.The Ozal administration, the first civilian government since the early 1970s to rulewithout coalition partners, made economic reform its priority.The 1990s:Early elections were held in October 1991. Former Prime Minister Suleyman DemirelsAbdelhamied El-Rafie 10
  11. 11. True Path Party won 179 seats in the parliamentary elections and formed a coalitiongovernment with the Social Democratic Populist Party, which had won 99 seats. In 1993,Demirel was elected president after Turgut Ozal died, and Tansu Çiller became Turkeysfirst female prime minister. In the March 1994 local elections, the "Refah," also known asthe Islamist Welfare Party or RP, emerged as the big winner, capturing the mayorships ofAnkara and Istanbul and most municipalities in Turkeys southeast, even though the TruePath Party received the largest percentage of the vote. Originally dismissed as a protestvote, the Welfare Party emerged as a real force, signaling further changes in Turkeysgovernment system. The Republican Peoples Party, or CHP, absorbed the SocialDemocratic Populist Party and thus became a part of the ruling coalition. At theSeptember 1995 CHP party convention, Deniz Baykal was elected party leader. Baykaland Çiller failed to conclude an agreement to continue the coalition, forcing thegovernment to resign on Sept. 20, and leading to a 45-day parliamentary "crisis."President Demirel then asked Çiller to try to form a new government. Çiller established aTrue Path Party-only minority government in late September, but was defeated by amotion of no confidence in October. Demirel gave Çiller a second chance to form agovernment, and she again turned to Baykal. They formed a new True Path Party-Republican Peoples Party coalition that won a confidence vote on Nov. 5, 1995. The twoparties cooperated in passing a new election law and set general elections for December.In the December 1995 elections, three parties emerged with nearly identical electoralsupport of around 20 percent: the Islamist Welfare Party ,"also known as Refah" or RP,of Necmettin Erbakan; the moderate center-right Motherland Party, or ANAP, of MesutYilmaz; and Çillers moderate center-right True Path Party, also called DYP. A scrambleAbdelhamied El-Rafie 11
  12. 12. to form some sort of coalition ensued. The True Path Party and the Motherland Partyeventually formed a government in which the position of prime minister would alternatebetween çiller and Yilmaz. These two parties represented the secular Turkish mainstream,but as a result of animosity between their two leaders, they were unable to successfullyforge a lasting coalition that would have precluded a role in government for the WelfareParty. The True Path Party-Motherland Party coalition lasted only a few months,collapsing in May 1996.In July 1996, the True Path Party entered into a coalition with Necmettin ErbakansIslamist Welfare Party. Çiller and Erbakan agreed to form a government in whichErbakan, because his party had garnered more votes, was the senior partner. Thus,Erbakan became the first Islamist prime minister of Turkey; çiller was to take over theposition in January 1998.The coalition was no more successful than the previous one. The Erbakan governmentattempted to "reach out" to a new group of international partners; challenge the militaryspolitical role; and chip away at secularism. In response, the military, throughout thespring and summer of 1997, supported a growing popular movement of business, labor,and community groups calling for the governments resignation.The military also demanded compliance with several measures to ensure a secular state,including the removal of all Islamists from the government. More than 70 officers weredismissed from the military for links to Islamist organizations, and enforcement of theban on Islamic dress in public buildings was pushed by the military. Both of these movesresulted in mass demonstrations lasting until 1998.In June, mass defection in the True Path Party cost the government its parliamentaryAbdelhamied El-Rafie 12
  13. 13. majority. Prime Minister Erbakan resigned on June 18. The Turkish Chief Prosecutor,Vural Savas, successfully argued before the Constitutional Court that Erbakans IslamistWelfare Party should be dissolved for threatening the Turkish constitution and secularstate. In addition to the office of the Chief Prosecutor, the politically influential Turkishmilitary was publicly opposed to the Welfare Party. Erbakan and several other membersof the party were banned from participating in the government for five years. ManyWelfare Party members joined the newly formed Virtue Party, or FP.At the request of President Demirel, Mesut Yilmaz of the Motherland Party formed a newcoalition government with Ecevits Democratic Left Party, or DSP, and CindoruksDemocrat Turkey party. These three parties were able to govern with just 223 of 550seats in parliament, because Deniz Baykals Republican Peoples Party, or CHP,supported the coalition (at least on a case-by-case basis) without being a formal member.In June 1998, Prime Minister Yilmaz announced that he would resign at the end of theyear and hand over power to an interim government until new elections in April 1999.In November 1998, Baykals Republican Peoples Party withdrew its support of theminority government after government officials, including Prime Minister Yilmaz, wereaccused of corrupt practices during the privatization of a state bank, and also of links toelements of Turkish organized crime.Although Yilmaz denied these allegations, his government fell on November 25 of thatyear in an opposition-sponsored vote of no confidence. In early December, PresidentSuleyman Demirel asked Bülent Ecevit of the Democratic Left Party, or DSP, to form agovernment to succeed that of Prime Minister Yilmaz. Although the president had helddiscussions with the then largest party in parliament, the Islamist Virtue Party (theAbdelhamied El-Rafie 13
  14. 14. banned Welfare Partys successor), it was not asked to form a government. This was mostlikely the case because the Virtue Party (as was the Welfare Party) was opposed by boththe secular parties in parliament and by the Turkish military. Ecevits caretakergovernment won a vote of confidence on Jan. 17 and ruled until national elections wereheld on April 18, 1999.(5)The Basic issues of Turkish Foreign policy : 1. Cyprus. 2. Turkey and the EU. 3. Turkey and the NATO. 4. Terrorism. 5. Middle East.(6)Modern Turkey, thanks to her geostrategic location with borders in Europe, the MiddleEast, and the late Soviet Union, has been able to play a role in world politics far greaterthan her size, population, and economic strength would indicate. Historically, Turkey islocated on one of, if not the most, strategic and traditionaly most coveted pieces ofterritory. She controls the historic invasion routes from the Balkans and the Caucasusmountains onto the high Anatolian.It also commands the entire Fertile Crescent down to the oil rich Persian Gulf andthe Red Sea. Moreover, Turkey is also at the crossroads of major air, land, and sea routesof modern times, joining the industrially advanced lands of Europe with the petrollands of the Middle East. Furthermore, she posesses the sources for most of the waterirrigating lands as far as the Persian Gulf. On the other hand, during the Cold War shewas also on the line of conflict between the zones of two military superpowers and theirrespective alliances. And from the north to the south, she was in a rather sensitive part ofAbdelhamied El-Rafie 14
  15. 15. the Mediterranean, where both superpowers have tried to expand their spheres ofinfluence and counterbalance each other.This particular geographical position makesTurkey a Balkan, Mediterranean, and Middle Eastern country, all at the same time. Italso makes Turkey doubly susceptible to international developments near and far and,therefore, greatly sensitive to changes in the international and regional political balance.before anything else, since the various effects of Turkey‟s geographical position, whichinfluence.(7)Comparison between the official positions between Egypt and Turkeytowards the Middle East:Egypt:I quoted this part from the official site of the State information service of Egypt “Egypt,with its geographical location and historical role along with its inalienableprinciples , has been the main power in the region and the hub of the Arab action and itsmain catalyst. Its pivotal role constitutes the underpinning of regional stability, peace,security and development. Building on this firm fact, Egypt has shouldered, acrossvarious epochs, its solemn responsibilities in defense of its Arab nation , in support of itscauses and preserving its rights according to a future far-sighted and objective vision thatmany short-sighted people find hard to discern or feel. Within the context of theseresponsibilities, Egypt had played a major role, during the 1950s and 1960s, in supportingthe liberation movements in the Arab world. As a result of Egypt „s adoption of such apioneering policy aimed at liberating Arab countries from the yoke of foreign occupation,imperial powers collaborated to wage an aggression against Egypt in 1956. However,Abdelhamied El-Rafie 15
  16. 16. this has never weakened Egypts will or resolve to forge ahead with its policy.Egypt „s adherence and commitment to the Palestinian cause is firm and permanent,dictated by its Egyptian national security considerations along with geographic, historicaland blood bonds with the Palestinian people.Before the July 23rd Revolution, occurrences in Palestine have been the focus of interestof the Egyptian national movement. Egypt was a key party to the pre-1948 war events aswell as to the war itself ,as the Egyptian army was in the vanguard of this war..Moreover,Egypt helped in establishing Fatah movement and then the Palestine LiberationOrganization PLO. (Reference is made to the draft resolution submitted by thePalestinian leader Ahmad al-Qushairi to Alexandria Summit in September 1964, wherethe PLO was approved and endorsed, with a strong support by Egypt, as therepresentative of the Palestinian people.)Egypt has mobilized its full potentials in every phase of the conflict for the sake ofPalestine: during the phase of military confrontations (1948-74) Egypt was the forefrontfighter; allocating all its resources and sacrificing scores of thousands of its best youngmen in five consecutive wars :1948, 1956 tripartite aggression, 1967 war and the war ofattrition and the liberation war of October 1973.Following the October 1973 victory, Egypt was busily engaged into a peaceful settlementbased on the United Nations resolutions. The peace battle was no less ferocious. In all itsphases, Egypts goal has been to achieve a comprehensive settlement .The fair and justand solution has been the core of any comprehensive solution . Egypt invited all Arabparties, including the Palestinians, to Mina House negotiations and the Camp Davidframework on peace in the Middle East included full provisions on the phases ofAbdelhamied El-Rafie 16
  17. 17. settlement of the Palestinian cause.Under President Mubarak, Egypt has maintained unwavering commitment to fullysupport the Palestinian cause especially after the liberation of the Egyptian territories andmost of the Egyptian diplomatic action was channeled into supporting the Palestinianstance. Egypt had helped in the evacuation of the Palestinian leadership following itsordeal in Lebanon (1982). Egypt has also supported the struggle of the Palestinian peopleduring the first Intifada (1987) and backed the declaration of the state of Palestinian(1988).Egypt has also backed the Palestinian side at Madrid peace conference (1991) and then itsupported Oslo agreement approved by the Palestinians in 1993 along with othersupplementary agreements. . Egypt sponsored Taba talks in 2000, where both sidesreached a formula that is close to a final solution. Egypt also backed the Palestinianstance at all regional and international levels and made strenuous efforts for theliberation of the Palestinian territories and the establishment of the state of Palestine withal-Quds al Sharif as its capital.It is an established fact that Egypts international relations are based on several bedrocksatop of which comes international stances on the Palestinian cause, to the extent thatthese relations are being positively or negatively determined depending on the stances bythe international groups and powers on the Palestinian cause.In this context, there comes the intensified large-scale activity by President Mubarak andthe Egyptian diplomacy in various international forums in defense of the Palestinianpeoples rights.” (8)Abdelhamied El-Rafie 17
  18. 18. Turkey:According to the website of the Turkish ministry of foreign affairs I Quoted thefollowing:” The establishment of a lasting and comprehensive peace in the Middle Eastas well as the evolution of this geography into a stable and prosperous region is theshared desire and goal of the international community. In fact, this is what is essentiallyand primarily needed for the security of all countries of the region. Turkey believes thatdialogue and cooperation must be the major tools to this end. It is evident that othermethods do not contribute to bringing desired peace, security and stability the region. Onthe contrary, they make the ongoing chaos and conflict even worse.Within this context, Turkey, from the very beginning, has been a strong supporter of theMiddle East peace process, viewing it as a golden opportunity. Accordingly, Turkey hasnot only tried to develop bilateral relations in the region, but also deployed efforts for thecreation of an atmosphere conducive to regional cooperation.Turkey desires earnestly a just and lasting settlement to the Israel-Palestine conflict,which lies beneath the problems in the Middle East, through mutual negotiations on thebasis of a vision of two states living side by side within secure and recognized borders,and in the framework of the relevant Resolutions of the UN Security Council (242, 338,1397, 1515), the principle of land for peace, the Road Map and the Arab Peace Initiative.Moreover, Turkey wishes the completion of the Middle East Peace Process throughconcurrent revitalization of peace talks in other tracks, such as Israel-Syria and Israel-Lebanon.Our country, as a facilitator in the search for peace, remains at equal distance to bothparties with regard to the conflict. This is mainly why Turkey enjoys the confidence ofAbdelhamied El-Rafie 18
  19. 19. both Israelis and Palestinians.Turkey is convinced that what lies beneath the current crisis between Palestine and Israelis the crisis of confidence. Turkey avails herself of her good relationships with bothparties of the conflict and strives for building confidence between the sides. Turkey isnot only among the first group of countries that recognized the Palestinian Stateestablished in exile in 1988, but she is also the first country with a Muslim poopulationthat recognized the State of Israel in 1949 following its foundation.In the aftermath of the end of the Cold War, Turkey welcomed the first and the secondOslo arrangements of 1993 and 1995 that followed the 1991 Madrid Conference whichopened a new page in the Middle East Peace Process. In this framework, Turkey hasgiven her full support to the efforts for the success of the process since 1991, while, inaccordance with her historical mission, she maintains her good relationships that arepredicated on the principle of good will with not only Israel, but also Palestine and theother Arab countries. Turkey‟s good ties with all sides represent a versatile tool for afuture accomplishment of endeavours to establish an environment of confidence betweenthe parties.The negotiation process which was interrupted by the Second Intifada in Palestine in2000 was re-launched by the conference that was gathered in Annapolis, USA, on 26-27November 2007. The conference took place with the participation of 46 countries and anumber of international organizations. Turkey was represented by Foreign Minister Mr.Ali Babacan at the conference, who paid a series of visits in October to Syria, Israel,Palestine, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait respectively, in the run-upto the conference.Abdelhamied El-Rafie 19
  20. 20. Turkey continues to make contributions in the political arena as well, to the endeavoursfor the establishment of peace. Within this framework, Turkey supported the conventionof and the political process started by the Annapolis Conference. At Annapolis, acompromise between Israel and Palestine was reached on the “Common Understanding”document, the text of which was read by President Bush. In that agreement, it is aspiredto start at once the bilateral negotiations with good will to ensure the conclusion of apeace agreement that would achieve the settlement without exception of any unresolvedissue including all the fundamental matters in the context of advancing the target of twostates living side by side in peace and security.Turkey supported this meeting as an opportunity for peace from the date it was offered.Turkey also announced that we were ready to make the necessary contribution to thepost-conference process.Turkey is convinced that completion of the steps taken in the political field is solelypossible through the implementation of the context of the economic dimension of theMiddle East Peace Process. Therefore, Turkey attaches utmost importance to theestablishment of the economic and institutional infrastructure of the future PalestinianState. “(9).Conclusions:  Both countries are major regional powers in the Middle East.  Both Countries Have strong relations with the US but Turkey is more involved with US through the NATO pact.  Due to the fact of that Turkey is a member in the NATO and has direct military relations with the US they have direct and indirect normalized relations with Israel and the clear example of that the recent Turkish mediation for indirect negotiations between Israel and Syria.  The case is different with Egypt, despite the fact that Egypt has diplomatic relations with Israel but there is an official and public opinion resistanceAbdelhamied El-Rafie 20
  21. 21. in the direction of normalizing relations with Israel that is to say that Egypt is more involved as a defender of the Palestinian and Arab rights.  Although Turkey is an Islamic country and that the public opinion is against Israel aggression towards the Palestinians but the situation that shapes Turkish foreign policy in the Middle East is a bit different than the Egyptian one because Turkey as mentioned above is not a direct actor in the Middle East peace process on the contrary Egypt is the super direct actor and the clear example is what happened in Gaza recently at the beginning of this year plus the direct mediation the Egypt leads between the two rivals Fath and Hamas and on the other hand the Security mediation between the Palestinians and the Israelis. ‫ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Refrences: 1. Gamal Hemdan ,The Genious of Place and time (source is in Arabic. 2. 3. Arab Strategic report , Ahram center for Political and Strategic Studies 2006-2007 (source in Arabic). 4. A1ACBD9F1731/3307/report.pdf . (source in Arabic). 5. http://0- jid=W0X&site=ehost-live 6. 7. 8. 9. El-Rafie 21
  22. 22. Abdelhamied El-Rafie 22