The study of literary movements


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The study of literary movements

  1. 1. Module (1)
  2. 2. Which is “Literary criticism” and “ Literary theory”?  The study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.  The systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature.
  3. 3.  Do you agree:  Literary criticism is the practical application of literary theory.  Criticism deals directly with particular literary works.  Theory is more general or abstract.  Literary Theory is Old.  Literary Theory is Modern.  There is one clear definition for literature.
  4. 4. Literary criticism is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Some critics consider literary criticism a practical application of literary theory, because criticism always deals directly with particular literary works, while theory may be more general or abstract.
  5. 5. Literary theory is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature. The word "theory" has become an umbrella term for a variety of scholarly approaches to reading texts.
  6. 6.  The practice of literary theory became a profession in the 20th century, but it has historical roots that run as far back as ancient Greece, ancient India, ancient Rome and medieval Iraq. The modern sense of "literary theory," however, dates only to approximately the 1950s.
  7. 7.  One of the fundamental questions of literary theory is "what is literature?" Many contemporary theorists and literary scholars believe either that "literature" cannot be defined or that it can refer to any use of language. Specific theories are distinguished not only by their methods and conclusions, but even by how they define a "text".
  8. 8. Differences among schools:
  9. 9. Schools and movements differ in  Countries.  Political commitment.  Moral Commitment.  Religions.  People.  Idea of Literature.  Nature of literature
  10. 10. Do you agree: The distinction between literary and non-literary texts is clear. The way we analyze Literary texts cannot be used for other texts and phenomena. I cannot read a text without knowing the writer and why he wrote it (intention).
  11. 11. Interpretive and Epistemological perspectives.Literary and non-literary.Intentionality.
  12. 12.  The different interpretive and epistemological perspectives of different schools of theory often arise from, and so give support to, different moral and political commitments.
  13. 13.  A New Critic might read a poem by T. S. Eliot or Gerard Manley Hopkins for its degree of honesty in expressing the torment and contradiction of a serious search for belief in the modern world. A Marxist critic might find such judgments merely ideological rather than critical. A post-structuralist critic might simply avoid the issue by understanding the religious meaning of a poem as an allegory of meaning. A critic using Darwinian literary studies might use arguments from the evolutionary psychology of religion.
  14. 14.  For some theories of literature (especially certain kinds of formalism), the distinction between "literary" and other sorts of texts is of paramount importance. Other schools (particularly post-structuralism in its various forms: new historicism, deconstruction, some strains of Marxism and feminism) have sought to break down distinctions between the two and have applied the tools of textual interpretation to a wide range of "texts", including film, non-fiction, historical writing, and even cultural events.
  15. 15.  Another crucial distinction among the various theories of literary interpretation is intentionality, the amount of weight given to the authors own opinions about and intentions for a work. For most pre-20th century approaches, the authors intentions are a guiding factor and an important determiner of the "correct" interpretation of texts. The New Criticism was the first school to disavow the role of the author in interpreting texts, preferring to focus on "the text itself" in a close reading.
  16. 16. The Main Cultural Movements in the West:
  17. 17. THE RENAISSANCE.Age of Enlightenment.Modernism.Postmodernism.
  18. 18.  The Renaissance is a French word which means re- birth, revival or re-awakening. The Renaissance was both a revival of ancient classical mythology, literature and culture as well as a re- awakening of the human mind, after the long sleep of the dark Middle Ages. It began in Italy as early as the 14th century with the works of Petrarch and others and was greatly stimulated by the fall of Constantinople in 1453, by the invention of printing in Germany about this very time, and the great discoveries of scientists and navigators which followed.
  19. 19.  The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason) was a cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe and the American colonies. Its purpose was to reform society using reason (rather than tradition, faith and revelation) and advance knowledge through science. Originating about 1650 to 1700, it was sparked by philosophers Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677), John Locke (1632–1704), Pierre Bayle(1647– 1706), physicist Isaac Newton (1643–1727), and philosopher Voltaire (1694–1778).
  20. 20.  Literary Modernism has its origins in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America. Modernism is characterized by a self-conscious break with traditional styles of poetry and verse. Modernists experimented with literary form and expression, adhering to the modernist maxim to "Make it new." The modernist literary movement was driven by a desire to overturn traditional modes of representation and express the new sensibilities of their time.
  21. 21.  The term postmodern literature is used to describe certain characteristics of post–World War II literature (relying heavily, for example, on fragmentation, paradox, questionable narrators, etc.) and a reaction against Enlightenment ideas implicit in Modernist literature.