Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

  1. 1. CONTENTS11-1 A vs. an11-2 Count and noncount nouns11-3 Noncount nouns11-4 More noncount nouns11-5 Using several, a lot of, many/much, and ...11-6 Nouns that be count or noncount11-7 Using units of measure with noncount nouns11-8 Guidelines for article usage11-9 Using the or Ø with names11-10 Capitalization 1
  2. 2. 11-1 A vs. ANShe is wearing a bracelet. 2
  3. 3. 11-1 A vs. AN(a) She lives in a cabin.(b) He lives in an apartment.(c) She lives in a large cabin.(d) He lives in an old apartment.a consonants a = “one”an vowels an 3
  4. 4. 11-1 A vs. AN(e) I had an uncle named Spiros.(f) They have an ugly car.(g) The inch is a unit of measure.(h) He saw a unique building. For words beginning with the letter u: a consonant sound an vowel sound 4
  5. 5. 11-1 A vs. AN(i) I will see you in an hour.(j) This is a happy day. For words beginning with the letter h: a pronounced “h” an silent “h” 5
  6. 6. 11-1 LET’S PRACTICE a ___ ear. An an ___ large ear. A ___ enormous ear. An ___ useful ear. A 6
  7. 7. 11-1 LET’S PRACTICE a ___ holiday. A an ___ universal holiday. A ___ unique holiday. A ___ unhappy situation. An 7
  8. 8. 11-1 LET’S PRACTICE a ___ honest mistake. An an ___ hateful comment. A ___ hour of exercise. An ___ unhappy experience. An 8
  9. 9. 11-2 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNSShould we Yes. Let’s buy some buy a tablefurniture? and four chairs. 9
  10. 10. 11-2 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNSCOUNT NOUNSINGULAR PLURAL a table Ø tablesone table five tables some tables can be counted can be preceded by a/an has a plural form (-s or -es) 10
  11. 11. 11-2 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNSNONCOUNT NOUN one furnitureSINGULAR PLURALØ furniture Ø a furnituresome furniture Ø furnitures cannot be counted is not preceded by a/an does not have a plural form 11
  12. 12. 11-2 LET’S PRACTICE NOUN ? We love to see movies. ? count noncount 12
  13. 13. 11-2 LET’S PRACTICE NOUN ? I need some new jewelry. ? count noncount 13
  14. 14. 11-2 LET’S PRACTICE NOUN ? Which utensil do you want? ? noncount count 14
  15. 15. 11-3 NONCOUNT NOUNS The river is so beautiful.All the scenery is beautiful. 15
  16. 16. 11-3 NONCOUNT NOUNS INDIVIDUAL PARTS = THE WHOLE (Count Nouns) (Noncount Nouns)(a) letters postcards bills mail advertisements etc. 16
  17. 17. 11-3 NONCOUNT NOUNS INDIVIDUAL PARTS = THE WHOLE (Count Nouns) (Noncount Nouns)(b) grapes bananas apples fruit oranges etc. 17
  18. 18. 11-3 NONCOUNT NOUNS INDIVIDUAL PARTS = THE WHOLE (Count Nouns) (Noncount Nouns)(c) necklaces rings bracelets jewelry pins etc. 18
  19. 19. 11-3 LET’S PRACTICE -s /We have really old furniture__. -es / 19
  20. 20. 11-3 LET’S PRACTICE -sShe loves these pearl earring__. s -es / 20
  21. 21. 11-3 LET’S PRACTICE -s /I keep all the information__ on -esmy PDA. / 21
  22. 22. 11-4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS The oil refinery creates lots of air pollution. 22
  23. 23. 11-4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS(a) LIQUIDS soda juice oil lemonade 23
  24. 24. 11-4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS(a) LIQUIDS soda juice oil lemonade SOLIDS & SEMI-SOLIDS copper cement silver gold 24
  25. 25. 11-4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS(a) LIQUIDS soda juice oil lemonade SOLIDS & SEMI-SOLIDS copper cement silver gold GASES helium smoke oxygen 25
  26. 26. 11-4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS(b) THINGS THAT OCCUR IN NATURE moonlight sleet fog(c) ABSTRACTIONS joy enthusiasm danger 26
  27. 27. 11-4 LET’S PRACTICE -s -es / / /Health __ and happiness __ often gotogether. 27
  28. 28. 11-4 LET’S PRACTICE /Ginny has all the luck__. -sThing__ always go well for her. s -es / 28
  29. 29. 11-4 LET’S PRACTICE -s -es /The project is going well. /We have made a lot of progress __. /Having patience __ has paid off. 29
  30. 30. 11-5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / A LITTLE We have new furniture.We have a table and many chairs. 30
  31. 31. 11-5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / A LITTLE COUNT NONCOUNT(a) several apples Ø several count nouns 31
  32. 32. 11-5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / A LITTLE COUNT NONCOUNT(a) several apples Ø(b) a lot of apples a lot of fruit a lot count/noncount 32
  33. 33. 11-5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / A LITTLE COUNT NONCOUNT(a) several apples Ø(b) a lot of apples a lot of fruit(c) many apples much fruit many count much noncount 33
  34. 34. 11-5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / A LITTLE COUNT NONCOUNT(a) several apples Ø(b) a lot of apples a lot of fruit(c) many apples much fruit(d) a few apples a little fruita few count a little noncount 34
  35. 35. 11-5 LET’S PRACTICE CORRECT INCORRECTI hope to get several jewelries for my birthday. INCORRECTI hope to get some jewelry for my birthday. CORRECT 35
  36. 36. 11-5 LET’S PRACTICE CORRECT INCORRECTThat store has a few couches that I like. CORRECTWe need many furnitures for our new house. INCORRECTWe need a lot of furniture for our new house. CORRECT 36
  37. 37. 11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNTHe did a lot of work today. 37
  38. 38. 11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNTUSED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN(a) The jar is made of glass.USED AS A COUNT NOUN(b) Do you want a glass of milk?(c) Barb has new glasses. 38
  39. 39. 11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNTUSED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN(d) Jenn has blue hair !USED AS A COUNT NOUN(e) There is a hair in your food! 39
  40. 40. 11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNTUSED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN(f) These beams are made of iron.USED AS A COUNT NOUN(g) He bought a new iron. 40
  41. 41. 11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNTUSED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN(h) That bulb produces a lot of light.USED AS A COUNT NOUN (i) Please turn on the light. 41
  42. 42. 11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNTUSED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN(j) May I borrow some paper ?USED AS A COUNT NOUN(k) I wrote a long paper for my PhD.(l) He reads the paperevery morning. 42
  43. 43. 11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNTUSED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN(m) This homework is taking so much time.USED AS A COUNT NOUN(n) She’s been sick many times. 43
  44. 44. 11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNTUSED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN(o) He only did a little work today.USED AS A COUNT NOUN(p) Cooking for his family is a work of love. 44
  45. 45. 11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNTUSED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN(q) Brazil produces a lot of coffee.USED AS A COUNT NOUN(r) I’d like a coffee with cream. 45
  46. 46. 11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNTUSED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN(s) I eat a lot of chicken and fish.USED AS A COUNT NOUN (t) I bought one chicken and one fish. 46
  47. 47. 11-6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNTUSED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN(u) I have experience writing software.USED AS A COUNT NOUN(v) There are many experiences to enjoywhen traveling. 47
  48. 48. 11-6 LET’S PRACTICE a someTravis has ____ chicken as a pet. a 48
  49. 49. 11-6 LET’S PRACTICE a / /I like to get my hair __ cut once a month. 49
  50. 50. 11-6 LET’S PRACTICE time timesI tried to call my friend six ______. times 50
  51. 51. 11-7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNSShe has a bowl ofcereal, a glass ofmilk, and a piece of fruit for breakfast. 51
  52. 52. 11-7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS(a) He put some oil on the salad. 52
  53. 53. 11-7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS(a) He put some oil on the salad.(b) He had three drops of oil on his salad. 53
  54. 54. 11-7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS(a) He put some oil on the salad.(b) He had three drops of oil on his salad.(c) He eats some toast with fruit every day. 54
  55. 55. 11-7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS(a) He put some oil on the salad.(b) He had three drops of oil on his salad.(c) He eats some toast with fruit every day.(d) He had two pieces of toast with berries. 55
  56. 56. 11-7 LET’S PRACTICE bag bottleI need a _____ of vinegar. bottle box 56
  57. 57. 11-7 LET’S PRACTICE bag containerI have a _________ of spaghetti. bottle container 57
  58. 58. 11-7 LET’S PRACTICE bag bottle container bagI’d like to eat a _____ of tortilla chips. 58
  59. 59. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE Please tell me a story.You tell the best stories. 59
  60. 60. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS(a) A computer can be helpful for homework. 60
  61. 61. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS(a) A computer can be helpful for homework.(b) An orange is orange. 61
  62. 62. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS(a) A computer can be helpful for homework.(b) An orange is orange.(c) A tornado can be dangerous. 62
  63. 63. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS (a) A computer is helpful for doing homework. (b) An orange is orange. (c) A tornado can be dangerous.a + singular count noun generalization any, all, in general 63
  64. 64. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) PLURAL COUNT NOUNS(d) Computers can be helpful for homework. 64
  65. 65. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS(d) Computers can be helpful for homework.(e) Oranges are orange. 65
  66. 66. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS(d) Computers can be helpful for homework.(e) Oranges are orange.(f) Tornadoes can be dangerous. 66
  67. 67. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS(d) Computers can helpful for homework.(e) Oranges are orange.(f) Tornadoes can be dangerous. no article (Ø) with plural count noun generalization 67
  68. 68. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) NONCOUNT NOUNS(g) Ø Exercise increases energy.(h) Ø Fruit contains vitamins.(i) Children need Ø attention. no article (Ø) with noncount noun generalization 68
  69. 69. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING A OR SOMESINGULAR COUNT NOUNS(j) I bought a computer to help with homework.(k) I brought an orange for desert.(l) There was a tornado in Kansas last week. a + singular count noun one thing (not specific) 69
  70. 70. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING A OR SOME PLURAL COUNT NOUNS(m) There are some computers in the lab.(n) I’d love to have some oranges.(o) There are some tornadoes every year.some + plural count noun things (not specific) 70
  71. 71. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING A OR SOME NONCOUNT NOUNS(p) I need some exercise.(q) The children would like some fruit.(r) I think the cat needs some attention. some (Ø) with noncount noun something not specific 71
  72. 72. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING THE SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS (s) Do you like the computer you bought? (t) I enjoyed the orange you gave me. (u) The tornado that hit yesterday was awful. (v) The moon is full. (w) The window is open. (x) Are you in the garage?the + noun specific person(s) or thing(s) 72
  73. 73. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING THEPLURAL COUNT NOUNS(y) The computers were expensive.(z) I enjoyed the oranges you gave me.(aa) The tornadoes that hit Mexico were awful.(bb) The moons of Saturn are beautiful.the + noun specific person(s) or thing(s) 73
  74. 74. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS(cc) The mail came early today. 74
  75. 75. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS(cc) The mail came early today.(dd) The fruit wasn’t ripe yet. 75
  76. 76. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS(cc) The mail came early today.(dd) The fruit wasn’t ripe yet.(ee) The love of a mother is very strong. 76
  77. 77. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS(cc) The mail came early today.(dd) The fruit wasn’t ripe yet.(ee) The love of a mother is very strong.(ff) The smog is bad this year. 77
  78. 78. 11-8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGEUSING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS(cc) The mail came early today.(dd) The fruit wasn’t ripe yet.(ee) The love of a mother is very strong.(ff) The smog is bad this year. the with noncount noun something specific 78
  79. 79. 11-8 LET’S PRACTICE a Do you have an ____ recipe for thethe Mom’s lasagna? 79
  80. 80. 11-8 LET’S PRACTICE a an theNo, but Ihave ___ arecipefrom amagazine. 80
  81. 81. 11-8 LET’S PRACTICE a an Too bad.the Mom makes ___ the best lasagna. 81
  82. 82. 11-8 LET’S PRACTICE a anthe I do have ___ an extra special spaghetti recipe that you might like. 82
  83. 83. 11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMESThe Himalayas are in Asia. 83
  84. 84. 11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES(a) Ø Ms. Albert is on the phone. She is waiting to speak to Ø Dr. Simmons. 84
  85. 85. 11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES(a) Ø Ms. Albert is on the phone. She is waiting to speak to Ø Dr. Simmons. Ø Prime Minister Thompson was re-elected. The titled names. 85
  86. 86. 11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES(b) I taught English in Ø Asia. 86
  87. 87. 11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES(b) I taught English in Ø Asia. Ø Australia is a large island. 87
  88. 88. 11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES(b) I taught English in Ø Asia. Ø Australia is a large island. Over 20% of the earth’s land is in Ø Africa. 88
  89. 89. 11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES(b) I taught Ø English in Asia. Ø Australia is a large island. Over 20% of the earth’s land is in Ø Africa. The names of continents. 89
  90. 90. 11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES(c) Madrid is the capital of Ø Spain. Ø Chile has some beautiful mountains. Ø Madagascar is a small country. The names of most countries.(d) The Dominican Republic is a small country. There are windmills in the Netherlands. The United States has 50 states. The a few countries. 90
  91. 91. 11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES(e) I love Ø Paris in the spring time. Ø New York has wonderful museums. We visited Ø Johannesburg last winter. The names of cities. 91
  92. 92. 11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES(f) The Mississippi River is very wide. The most important river that feeds the Black Sea is the Danube. The rivers, oceans & seas.(g) Ø Lake Vostok is the largest lake in the world. A large lake in Canada is Ø Lake Huron. The names of lakes. 92
  93. 93. 11-9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES(h) We saw the Virunga Mountains in Africa. The Andes Mountains are in South America. The names of mountain ranges.(i) Ø Elbrus Mountain is in Russia. A beautiful mountain in Alaska is Mount Denali. The individual mountains. 93
  94. 94. 11-9 LET’S PRACTICEThe Mediterranean Sea is located___to the north of ___ Africa. Ø Ø the 94
  95. 95. 11-9 LET’S PRACTICE Ø the___ Professor Keely teaches in ___ Czech ØRepublic. She loves working in ___Prague. Ø the 95
  96. 96. 11-9 LET’S PRACTICEIt is illegal to climb ___ Himalayas the Øin ___ Bhutan. Ø the 96
  97. 97. 11-10 CAPITALIZATIONBarbara Barns studied business at Brac University in Bangladesh. 97
  98. 98. 11-10 CAPITALIZATIONCAPITALIZE1. The first word of a sentence. (a) There are no clouds in the sky. It is a beautiful day. 98
  99. 99. 11-10 CAPITALIZATIONCAPITALIZE1. The first word of a sentence. (a) There are no clouds in the sky. It is a beautiful day. Capitalize = a BIG letter, not a small one 99
  100. 100. 11-10 CAPITALIZATIONCAPITALIZE2. The names of people. (b) Jimi Hendrix was a rock musician in the 60’s. 100
  101. 101. 11-10 CAPITALIZATIONCAPITALIZE3. Titles used with the names of people. (c) Dr. Gilroy lives near me. Were you in Professor Gilroy’s class? COMPARE I saw a professor. I saw Professor Gilroy. 101
  102. 102. 11-10 CAPITALIZATIONCAPITALIZE4. Months, days, holidays (d) Zoe’s birthday is in December. She was born on a Saturday. It was on New Year’s Eve. spring summer not fall/autumn capitalized winter 102
  103. 103. 11-10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE5. The names of places: city, state/province, country, continent(e) Ottawa is the capital city of Canada, whichis in North America. It is in the provinceof Ontario. 103
  104. 104. 11-10 CAPITALIZATIONCAPITALIZE6. The names of school courses (f) Professor Mackey teaches my Women’s History course. 104
  105. 105. 11-10 CAPITALIZATIONCAPITALIZE7. The titles of books, articles, movies(g) My favorite movie is Shirley Valentine. My favorite book is The Sweetest Dream. 105
  106. 106. 11-10 CAPITALIZATIONCAPITALIZE8. The names of languages and nationalities (h) I speak Spanish. I love Mexican food. 106
  107. 107. 11-10 CAPITALIZATIONCAPITALIZE9. The names of religions (i) Buddism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism are some of the major religions of the world. One of my friends is a Muslim, and the other is a Buddhist. 107
  108. 108. 11-10 CAPITALIZATIONCAPITALIZE10. The pronoun “I” (j) I wish I had learned to type. 108
  109. 109. 11-10 LET’S PRACTICE Should the underlined word be capitalized?Boxing day is a holiday in canada. yes no 109
  110. 110. 11-10 LET’S PRACTICEWhy should the underlined word be capitalized?Boxing Day is a holiday in canada. first in sentence person holiday place course book language 110
  111. 111. 11-10 LET’S PRACTICE Should the underlined word be capitalized?Boxing Day is a holiday in canada. yes no 111
  112. 112. 11-10 LET’S PRACTICEWhy should the underlined word be capitalized?Boxing Day is a holiday in Canada. first in sentence person holiday place course book language 112
  113. 113. 11-10 LET’S PRACTICE Should the underlined word be capitalized?I taught information Systems 202. yes no 113
  114. 114. 11-10 LET’S PRACTICEWhy should the underlined word be capitalized?I taught Information Systems 202. first in sentence person holiday place course book language 114
  115. 115. PHOTO CREDITSCopyright © 2008 Pearson Education andits licensors. All rights reserved. Images used under license from:• Shutterstock, Inc.• Clipart, Inc.• iStockphoto.com 115 115

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