Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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  • 1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) By Abby Siek EDU 160 Human Growth and Development Fall 2011
  • 2. Presentation Outline
    • Definitions
    • Overview of STDs or STIs
    • STIs Caused by Virus
    • STIs Caused by Bacteria
    • Conclusion
  • 3. Definitions
    • Sexually Transmitted infection is a disease that is contracted primarily through sex
    • "Having sex" means any consensual behavior between two or more individuals involving genital contact and bodily penetration. That means oral sex, anal sex, and vaginal sex are all "sex.”
      • All these types of sexual contact can cause an STI
      • Other infrequent transmissions of virus or bacteria
  • 4. Overview of STDs or STIs
    • Among the most common infectious diseases reported in U.S. (19 million infected per year)
    • Affect men, women and kids of all ages or SES
    • Increasingly common due to people becoming sexual active at a younger age, having more partners, and taking fewer preventative methods
    • People can have and transmit without symptoms
    • Long term consequences can be very severe
  • 5. STIs Caused By Virus
    • Genital Herpes
    • Genital Warts or Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
    • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  • 6. Properties Of Virus
    • Obligate parasite; infects other cells to replicate; hijacks host enzyme systems
    • Very small, 20 to 450 nm long
    • Proteins form a protective ‘shell’ called a capsid surrounding genetic core (either RNA or DNA)
    • Cannot synthesize proteins and lack enzymes for most metabolic processes, rely on host cell
    • Minor infections (Rhinovirus = common cold)
    • Major infections (Enterovirus = Polio)
  • 7. Virus Structure
    • Influenza Virus
    HPV
  • 8. Genital Herpes
    • 44 million infections with 22% of Population (+)
    • 500,000 new cases reported each year
    • Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2
    • Recurrent sores on the skin, mouth, lips, eyes, and genitals. Can transmit to fetus: Neonatal Herpes
    • Latency in dorsal root ganglia (nerve cells)
    • Contagious even when asymptomatic
    • Symptom treatment is with antivirals, but no cure
    • Condoms will not always protect you
  • 9. Genital Herpes
  • 10. Genital Warts or HPV
    • More than 60 serotypes, some linked with cancer (i.e. cervical cancer), 50% population
      • Most people have NO symptoms, immune system clears
    • Wart is a hyperplasia (finger-like projections)
    • Approx. 1 million new cases each year
    • Treatment is with antivirals
    • Recommendation for new HPV vaccines to protect against cancer-causing strains
      • Girls: Age 11-12 or 13-26, Boys: Age 9-26
  • 11. AIDS and HIV
    • Immune system’s ability to control infectious or malignant disorders is destroyed
    • Relentless production of HIV proteins, elimination of host cells, destruction of i.s., and death
    • Onset: mild flu like symptoms, Latent: 8-10 or more years w/o symptoms, Final: AIDs appears
    • ARC: AIDs related complex
    • AIDs cocktail: Combo of 3 enzyme inhibitors
    • Prevention: Condoms, Education and Vaccine
  • 12. STIs Caused By Bacteria
    • Gonorrheal Urethritis or ‘Gonorrhea’
    • Chlamydia Trachomatis or ‘Chlamydia’
    • Treponema Pallidum or ‘Syphilis’
  • 13. Properties of Bacteria
    • Prokaryotes = No nucleus, mostly unicellular
    • Complex, with cell membrane and/or cell wall, organelles and extra cellular projections
    • Variety of shapes, sizes and arrangements
      • Cocci (round), bacilli (rod-like), and helical forms
    • Bacteria are everywhere!!
    • Ten times as many bacterial cells in the human flora as there are human cells in the body
  • 14. Bacteria Structure
    • Why the color difference?
    Staphylococcus Aureus Clostridium Botulinum
  • 15. Gonorrhea
    • Gonococcal Urethritis from N. Gonorrhoeae
    • Urethritis = inflammation of urethra
    • Males: Painful urination
    • Females: Discharge, abnormal bleeding or pain
    • Can lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
    • Treat with antibiotics (Penicillin or Ciprofloxacin)
    • Shows increasing antibiotic resistance
    • Prevention with responsible sex practices and condom use
  • 16. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae
    • DIAGNOSTIC
  • 17. Chlamydia
    • Non-Gonorrhea Urethritis from C. Trachomatis
    • Obligate intracellular bacteria, co-infection
    • Asymptomatic carriers (50-67% of affected)
    • Can lead to PID and/or infertility in women
    • Clear discharge
    • Less pain and irritation than Gonorrhea
    • If positive, screen for Gonorrhea and vice versa
    • Treatment with antibiotics
  • 18. Chlamydia Diagnosis
    • Positive
    • Direct FA
  • 19. Syphilis
    • Caused by GN spirochete, Treponema Pallidum
    • Cannot be cultured, elicits little immune response
    • Stages
      • Primary, Secondary and Tertiary
        • Symptoms are sores (chancre), skin rash, malaise, fever, lesions
      • Latency period can last years
      • Quaternary syphilis can cause dementia or death
    • Treatment with antibiotics (injection)
    • Easy to treat in early stages
    • Prevention with responsible sex practices and avoidance of direct contact with infected individual
  • 20. Syphilis
    • Chancre
    Secondary Syphilis
  • 21. A Not So Funny Cartoon
  • 22. Conclusions
    • Practice Safer Sex Every Time You Have Sex
    • Have Sex Only in Mutually Monogamous Relationships Note: You are having sex with everyone they are
    • Know Your Limits and Be Comfortable Saying ‘No’
    • Don’t Drink or Use Drugs Before Having Sex
    • Be Responsible for Your Own Protection and Education
    • Get real about abstinence. 95% of Americans will engage in Premarital Sex with at least one partner
    • If you are at higher risk, Get Tested Regularly, and Encourage Your Partners to Do the Same
  • 23. Final Thought
    • If you are Sexually Active, be
    • Sexually Proactive !
    • Questions?