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neurosurgery.Hydrocephalus.(dr.ali omer)

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  • 1. Hydrocephalus Dr. Ali Omar Saadoon Consultant Neurosurgeon 2011-2012
  • 2.  
  • 3. Physiology and circulation of CSF
    • The normal volume of circulating CSF is around 140ml
    • daily production is about 500ml/day
    • the CSF volume is replaced approximately …?……..times daily
    • Function:
    • The CSF is both protects and support the brain and spinal cord.
    • transport medium for transmitters and as a method of removing the end-products of metabolism.
    • CSF is mainly produced by the choroid plexus
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7. Definition HYDROCEPHALUS
    • It is defined as a disproportionate increase in the amount of CSF within the cranium, usually in association with a rise in ICP.
    • (Ventricular enlargement with excessive CSF)
    • And it should be differentiated from hydrocephalus ex vacuo (due to brain atrophy)
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • Incidence of congenital hydrocephalus is 1-2/1000 live births
  • 10. Types of hydrocephalus
    • Communicating (non-obstructive): CSF circulation blocked at the level of the basal cisterns, the subarachnoid space or the level of the arachnoid granulation.
    • Non-communicating (obstructive): the normal pathways of CSF flow are for some reason occluded such as aqueduct stenosis or as a result of a local compression from a tumor.( enlargement of ventricles proximal to the block)
  • 11.
    • Acute and chronic
    • Congenital and acquired
    • Can be classified by etiology
    • - posttraumatic ,
    • - post hemorrhagic
    • - postmeningitis
  • 12. Etiology
    • imbalance has occurred between the normal physiological production of CSF and its absorption
  • 13. Etiology
    • Congenital …..?
      • aqueduct stenosis
      • Chiari malformations
      • Dandy-Walker malformation
    • Acquired
      • infection (post-meningitis)
      • post – hemorrhagic(SAH,IVH)
      • secondary to masses( non- neoplastic like vascular malformation, tumors like posterior foss tumors, pituitary and colloid cyst )
  • 14. Clinical features
    • In neonatal period
    • Cranium enlarges at a rate more than the facial growth (craniofacial disproportion).
    • irritability , poor head control, nausea and vomiting
    • Fontanel full , bulging and wide.
    • Thin and glistening scalp with enlargement and engorgement of scalp veins ;due to reversal of flow from intracerebral sinuses due to increase intra cranial pressure.
    • Macewen's sign ( cracked pot sound on head percussion)
  • 15.
    • Sixth nerve (abducens) palsy, long intracranial course make this nerve very pressure sensitive.
    • Setting sun sign, (upward gaze palsy, from pressure on region of suprapineal recess.
    • Hyperactive reflexes.
    • Irregular respiration with apneic spells.
    • Separation of cranial sutures (sutures diastasis).
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18. In older children and adult (with rigid cranial vault)
    • headache,
    • vomiting.
    • gait changes,
    • aducent palsy ,
    • upgaze palsy.( Parinaud's syndrome )
    • Papilledema.
    • Lose of consciousness
  • 19. Investigation
    • U ltrasonography to visualize the ventricular system(when the anterior fontanelle is patent). Also for antenatal diagnosis
    • CT and /or MRI of the head; it is important to exclude any abnormal masses and to study the size and the shape of the ventricles, and some time needs contrast study.
    • LP in cases of communicating hydrocephalus for both diagnostic and therapeutic…..( NPH)
  • 20.  
  • 21. Lateral skull radiograph showing copper-beating, which is indicative of chronic raised intracranial pressure.
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25. Management
    • Medical ……… ineffective
    • - Acetazolamide
    • - frucemide
  • 26. surgical treatment
  • 27. Surgical
    • reducing the CSF production …..
    • bypassing the blockage to normal CSF flow ……
    • drainage of CSF externally ……
    • drainage of CSF to another absorptive viscus
    • Treat the cause (remove the obstruction)
  • 28.
    • removal of obstruction like posterior foss tumor
    • shunting: many types of shunts
    • -ventriculo-peritoneal(VP),( the most common method)
    • -ventriculo-atrial(VA)
    • -Torkildsen shunt (overcame the aqueduct stenosis by passing a catheter from the lateral ventricles into the cisternal space)
    • -Lumbo-peritonial shunt.
    • -External drainage , temporary for management for acute hydrocephalus but the risk of infection preclude this as a means of long term management.
    • -miscellaneous : the lower end may inserted into the plural space,gall blader , ureter or bladder. (in past)
    • cannulation of the aqueduct of Sylvius or third ventriculostomy (by endoscopy or open operation)…..the most advanced one.
    • choroids plexectomy ) in past)
  • 29.  
  • 30. Complications of shunts
    • In general shunts may have this complications
    • infection, usually apparent within the first few weeks or months following implantation ,treatment is by removal of the device and antibiotics (intravenous or intrathecal) and usually it due to low grade organisms .
    • Obstruction.
    • Acute hemorrhages
    • shunt malfunction and over drainage resulting in low pressure symptoms
    • hematoma
    • disconnections
    • seizure
    • erosion of skin (in infants) and perforation of viscus
    • metastases of tumors
  • 31.  
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37.  
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40.  
  • 41. What is
    • Normal pressure hydrocephalus(NPH)
  • 42.
    • Normotensive hydrocephalus
    • Hakim's syndrome
    • Hakim's-Adams syndrome
    • Occult hydrocephalus
  • 43. NPH
    • A broad based shuffling gait (gait apraxia)
    • Dementia (memory loss and a generalized slowing of thought)
    • Urinary incontinence
  • 44.
    • In addition to CT and MRI
    • lumbar puncture (LP) is important in the diagnosis of NPH
  • 45.  
  • 46. Thanks. Questions ?