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Jointsrev

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  • Joints = Articulations Allow the skeleton to be flexible and be moved (act as levers) when skeletal muscles contract Structural classification of Joints and then indicate their functional classes 3 structural classes (previous slide) of Joints Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial Fibrous joints  3 types Sutures  dense (fibrous) connective tissue connecting bones present ONLY in the skull in the adult skull, the sutures ossify and become immovable, hence sutures are synarthrotic joints (functional class) Gomphoses  “peg-in-a-socket” looking at articulation of the teeth with the alveolar sockets in the mandible and maxillae Gomphoses are synarthrotic joints Syndesmoses  bones are connected by a cord of ligament or a band called the interosseous membrane (between ulna and radius is a good example) Generally, syndesmoses are classified as amphiarthrotic joints
  • 2 types of cartilaginous joints Synchondroses Symphyses Synchondroses  bones are connected by hyaline cartilage (which makes costal cartilages and epiphyseal plates good examples) generally synarthrotic joints Symphyses  bones are joined by fibrocartilage examples – intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis (for child birth) generally amphiarthrotic joints
  • All of them are diarthrotic joints
  • Transcript

    • 1. Joints = Articulations
    • 2. Joints = Articulations
      • Classification of joints: 2 ways
      • Functional Classification - based on amount of movement allowed at the joint:
      • 3 Types:
      • Synarthroses – immovable joints
      • Amphiarthroses – slightly movable joints
      • Diathroses – freely movable joints
      • Structural Classification - based on the material binding the body and the absence or the presence of a joint cavity:
      • 3 Types:
      • Fibrous Joints – Fibrous CT binds the bones; joint cavity absent
      • Cartilaginous joints – Cartilage binds the bones; joint cavity absent
      • Synovial joints- ligaments bind the bones; joint cavity PRESENT
    • 3. 3 Structural classes of joints
      • Fibrous Joints – bones joined together by dense CT; joint cavity absent
      • 3 types: Sutures – located only in the skull
      • Gomphoses – located only between teeth and
      • bony alveolar sockets
      • Syndesmoses – ligaments or bands connect
      • the bones
      • Cartilaginous Joints – cartilage connects the bones; joint cavity absent
      • 2 types:
      • Synchondroses – Hyaline cartilage connects bones
      • Symphyses – Fibrocartilage connects bones
      • Synovial Joints – ligaments bind the bones;
      • Joint cavity present
      • 6 types:
      • Plane joints Pivot joints Saddle joints
      • Hinge joints Condyloid joints Ball-and-socket
    • 4. Figure 8.1 : Fibrous joints , p. 253. (a) (b) Dense fibrous connective tissue Suture line Fibula Tibia Suture Syndesmos is Ligament
    • 5. Figure 8.2 : Cartilaginous joints, p. 254. (a) (c) (b) Epiphyseal plate (hyaline cartilage) S ynchondrose s Sternum (manubrium) Joint between first rib and sternum (immovable) Symphyses Fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc Body of vertebra
    • 6. Figure 8.3: General structure of a synovial joint, p. 255. (a) (b) Periosteum Ligament Joint cavity (contains synovial fluid) Fibrous capsule Synovial membrane Articular (hyaline) cartilage Articular capsule
    • 7. Figure 8.4: Friction-reducing structures: Bursae and tendon sheaths, p. 257. (a) (b) Acromion of scapula Glenoid cavity containing synovial fluid Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Cavity in bursa containing synovial fluid Synovial membrane Fibrous capsule Humerus Hyaline cartilage Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Fibrous articular capsule Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle
    • 8. Figure 8.8a-b: Knee joint, p. 266. (a) (b) Femur Tendon of quadriceps femoris Suprapatellar bursa Patella Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa Synovial cavity Lateral meniscus Posterior cruciate ligament Infrapatellar fat pad Deep infrapatellar bursa Patellar ligament Articular capsule Lateral meniscus Anterior cruciate ligament Tibia Fibular collateral ligament Posterior cruciate ligament Medial condyle Tibial collateral ligament Anterior cruciate ligament Medial meniscus Patellar ligament Patella Quadriceps tendon Lateral condyle of femur Lateral meniscus Fibula Tibia
    • 9. Figure 8.8a: Knee joint, p. 266. (a) Femur Tendon of quadriceps femoris Suprapatellar bursa Patella Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa Synovial cavity Lateral meniscus Posterior cruciate ligament Infrapatellar fat pad Deep infrapatellar bursa Patellar ligament Articular capsule Lateral meniscus Anterior cruciate ligament Tibia
    • 10. Figure 8.8b: Knee joint, p. 266. (b) Fibular collateral ligament Posterior cruciate ligament Medial condyle Tibial collateral ligament Anterior cruciate ligament Medial meniscus Patellar ligament Patella Quadriceps tendon Lateral condyle of femur Lateral meniscus Fibula Tibia
    • 11. Figure 8.8c-d: Knee joint, p. 266. (c) (d) Quadriceps femoris muscle Tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle Patella Lateral patellar retinaculum Medial patellar retinaculum Tibial collateral ligament Tibia Fibular collateral ligament Fibula Patellar ligament Medial femoral condyle Anterior cruciate ligament Medial meniscus on medial tibial condyle
    • 12. Figure 8.8c: Knee joint, p. 266. (c) Quadriceps femoris muscle Tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle Patella Lateral patellar retinaculum Medial patellar retinaculum Tibial collateral ligament Tibia Fibular collateral ligament Fibula Patellar ligament
    • 13. Figure 8.8d: Knee joint, p. 266. (d) Medial femoral condyle Anterior cruciate ligament Medial meniscus on medial tibial condyle
    • 14. Figure 8.8e: Knee joint, p. 266. (e) Articular capsule Oblique popliteal ligament Lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle Fibular collateral ligament Arcuate popliteal ligament Tibia Femur Medial head of gastrocnemius muscle Tendon of semimembranosus muscle Popliteus muscle Tendon of adductor magnus Bursa
    • 15. Figure 8.9: A common knee injury, p. 267. Lateral Medial Patella (outline) Tibial collateral ligament (torn) Medial meniscus (torn) Anterior cruciate ligament (torn) Hockey puck
    • 16. Figure 8.10a: The elbow joint, p. 268. (a) Articular capsule Synovial membrane Synovial cavity Articular cartilage Coronoid process Tendon of biceps muscle Ulna Humerus Fat pad Tendon of triceps muscle Bursa Trochlea Articular cartilage of the trochlear notch
    • 17. Figure 8.10b: The elbow joint, p. 268. (b) Humerus Lateral epicondyle Articular capsule Radial collateral ligament Olecranon process Anular ligament Radius Ulna
    • 18. Figure 8.10c: The elbow joint, p. 268. (c) Anular ligament Humerus Medial epicondyle Ulnar (medial) collateral ligament Ulna Articular capsule Radius Coronoid process
    • 19. Figure 8.10d: The elbow joint, p. 268. (d) Articular capsule Anular ligament Coronoid process Radius Humerus Medial epicondyle Ulnar collateral ligament Ulna
    • 20. Figure 8.11a: The shoulder joint, p. 269. (a) Acromion Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Coracohumeral ligament Greater tubercle of humerus Transverse humeral ligament Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle Articular capsule reinforced by glenohumeral ligaments Subscapular bursa Tendon of the subscapularis muscle Scapula Coracoid process
    • 21. Figure 8.11b: The shoulder joint, p. 269. (b) Acromion Coracoid process Articular capsule Glenoid cavity Glenoid labrum Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle Glenohumeral ligaments Tendon of the subscapularis muscle Scapula Posterior Anterior
    • 22. Figure 8.11c: The shoulder joint, p. 269. (c) Head of humerus Muscle of rotator cuff (cut) Acromion (cut) Glenoid cavity of scapula Capsule of shoulder joint (opened)
    • 23. Figure 8.12a-b: The hip joint, p. 270. (a) (b) Articular cartilage Coxal (hip) bone Ligament of the head of the femur (ligamentum teres) Synovial cavity Articular capsule Acetabular labrum Femur Acetabular labrum Synovial membrane Ligament of the head of the femur (ligamentum teres) Head of femur Articular capsule (cut)
    • 24. Figure 8.12c-d: The hip joint, p. 270. (c) (d) Anterior inferior iliac spine Iliofemoral ligament Pubofemoral ligament Greater trochanter Ischium Iliofemoral ligament Ischiofemoral ligament Greater trochanter of femur
    • 25. Figure 8.13: The temporomandibular (jaw) joint, p. 271. (a) (b) (c) Zygomatic process Mandibular fossa Articular tubercle Infratemporal fossa External acoustic meatus Lateral ligament Articular capsule Neck of mandible Articular capsule Articular cartilage covering the mandibular fossa Articular disc Articular tubercle Superior joint cavity Inferior joint cavity Mandibular condyle Neck of mandible Synovial membranes Laterial excursion
    • 26. Figure 8.13a: The temporomandibular (jaw) joint, p. 271. (a) Zygomatic process Mandibular fossa Articular tubercle Infratemporal fossa External acoustic meatus Lateral ligament Articular capsule Neck of mandible
    • 27. Figure 8.13b: The temporomandibular (jaw) joint, p. 271. (b) Articular capsule Articular cartilage covering the mandibular fossa Articular disc Articular tubercle Superior joint cavity Inferior joint cavity Mandibular condyle Neck of mandible Synovial membranes