Hybrid electric vehicles seminar


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Why the need? Why electric vehicles are at present not a solution and the types of hybrid architecture.

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Hybrid electric vehicles seminar

  1. 1. Abhilash R CB.EN.U4MEE10001
  2. 2. Contents Part I: Current transportation scenario Part II: EV & why that is not the solution now Part III: Concept of hybridization Part IV: Architectures of Hybrids Part V: Commercial models
  3. 3. Part I: Current transportation scenario Over dependence on petrol/diesel-it’s depletion Rising petrol/diesel prices Pollution and the resultant global warming Noise in conventional vehicles Need for alternate power sources EV, HEV - The solution?
  4. 4. HEV,EV?  A traditional vehicle has sole propulsion by ICE or diesel engine  EV - Electric Vehicle, battery (or ultra capacitor, fly wheels) operated only. Sole propulsion by electric motor  An HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) is a vehicle which involves multiple sources of propulsions
  5. 5. Part II: EV & why that is not the solution now  High Initial Cost- Many times that of conventional vehicles  Short Driving Range- Range anxiety  Recharging takes much longer time than refueling gasoline-lack of charging infrastructure  Battery pack takes space and weight of the vehicle which otherwise is available to the people  Grid load  ICE + Electric motor = Propulsion
  6. 6. Part III: Concept of hybridization?  Multiple sources of power  Making ICE work in most efficient range  Sizing of motor and ICE lower compared to conventional vehicles and EV  Modes of operation
  7. 7. Part IV: Architectures of Hybrids According to the method the energy sources are arranged  Parallel HEV: Multiple propulsion sources can be combined, or drive the vehicle alone with one of the energy sources  Series HEV: Sole propulsion by electric motor, but the electric energy comes from another on board energy source, such as ICE  Power-split hybrid: Can work both as a series & parallel type hybrid
  8. 8. Series architecture Operation Mode of Series Architecture  Battery alone mode: engine is off, vehicle is powered by the battery only  Engine alone mode: power from ICE/G  Combined mode: both ICE/G set and battery provides power to the traction motor  Power split mode: ICE/G power split to drive the vehicle and charge the battery  Stationary charging mode  Regenerative braking mode
  9. 9. Advantages of Series Architecture  ICE operation can be optimized, and ICE itself can be redesigned to satisfy the needs  Smaller engine possible  High speed engine possible  Single gear box. No transmission needed. Multiple motors or wheel motors are possible  Simple control strategy Disadvantages of Series Architecture  Energy converter twice (ICE/G then Motor), plus battery  Additional weight/cost due to increased components  Traction motor, generator, ICE are full sized to meet the vehicle performance needs
  10. 10. Parallel Architecture Operation Mode of Parallel Architecture  Motor alone mode: engine is off, vehicle is powered by the battery/motor only  Engine alone mode: ICE drive the vehicle alone  Combined mode: both ICE and motor provide power to drive the vehicle  Power split mode: ICE power split to drive the vehicle and charge the battery  Stationary charging mode  Regenerative braking mode (include hybrid braking mode)
  11. 11. Advantages of Parallel Architecture  ICE operation can be optimized, with motor assist or share the power from the ICE  Flexible in configurations and gives room for optimization of fuel economy and emissions  Reduced engine size  Possible plug-in hybrid for further improved fuel economy and emission reduction Disadvantage of Parallel Architecture  Complicated control strategy  Complex transmission
  12. 12. TOYOTA Prius (Power-split) architecture
  13. 13. Modes of operation-TOYOTA Prius
  14. 14. Modes of operation-TOYOTA Prius  At start-off/low-speeds, HSD runs the car on the electric motor(s) only  CRUISING: ICE power  FULL ACCELERATION: ICE power + battery power  CRUISING: ICE power + battery charging  DECELERATION, BRAKING: kinetic energy recuperation for battery charging
  15. 15. Key advantages of HEVs  Optimize the fuel economy – Optimize the operating point of ICE – Stop the ICE if not needed (ultra low speed and stops) – Recover the kinetic energy at braking – Reduce the size (hp and volume) of ICE  Reduce emissions – Minimize the emissions when ICE is optimized in operation – Stop the ICE when it’s not needed – Reduced size of ICE means less emissions
  16. 16.  Quiet Operation – Ultra low noise at low speed because ICE is stopped – Quiet motor, motor is stopped when vehicle comes to a stop, with engine already stopped – Reduced maintenance because ICE operation is optimized, less hazardous material, fewer tune ups, longer life cycle of ICE – Fewer spark-plug changes – Fewer oil changes – Fewer fuel filters, antifreeze, radiator flushes or water pumps – Fewer exhaust repairs or muffler changes
  17. 17. Key Concerns of HEVs  High initial cost – Increased components such as battery, electric machines, motor controller, etc.  Reliability concern – Increased components, especially power system, electronics, sensors  Warranty issues – Issues on major electric components – Dealership and repair shop not familiar with new components  Safety: high voltage system employed in HEV
  18. 18. Part V: Commercial models  Toyota Prius  Toyota Highlander  Ford Escape  Mercury Mariner  Honda Insight  Honda Civic HEV  Honda Accord HEV